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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
A Study on Elemental Diffusion in Gilded Artifacts
Jeon, Ik-Hwan ; Lee, Jae-Sung ; Park, Jang-Sik ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 109~120
Four gilded bronze objects and a gilded silver object were examined for elemental diffusion between the gilding layer and the mating matrix. The gilded bronzes consist of three objects from three different historical periods, the Korean Three Kingdoms period, the Koryo and the Choseon periods and one from an unknown period. The gilded silver was from the Koryo period. The amalgam process seems to have been the major technique employed for all of them in gilding. The occurrence of substantial diffusion was observed in all but the anonymous object, particularly in the Choseon artifact where evidence was found that the diffusion phenomenon was intentionally utilized in gilding. The gold content in the gilded bronzes decreases gradually from surface to interior while the copper content increases to the interior, making it difficult to locate the boundary between the gilding layer and the matrix. This gradual change in composition must have resulted from elemental diffusion at elevated temperatures. The oxygen content negligible in the gilding layer precludes the possibility of corrosion being responsible for the varying composition. It is observed that non-uniform diffusion caused variation of colors in the surface of gilded bronzes. The change of colors induced by diffusion, which is always accompanied by the unique surface morphology and chemical compositions, is distinguished from the color change by corrosion. In the gilded silver object, diffusion of mercury was observed along with that of gold and silver.
Precisely Nondestructive Diagnosis and Slope Stability of the Bonghwa Bukjiri Maaeyeoraejwasang (Rock-Carved Seated Buddha Statue), Korea
Cho, Ji-Hyun ; Jo, Young-Hoon ; Chun, Yu-Gun ; Choi, Joon-Hyun ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 121~132
The Bukjiri Maaeyeoraejwasang (National Treasure No. 201) consists of two-mica granite in medium size, which was the simbol of power in the region of the Silla period. Magnetic susceptibility of the host rock was measured as 0.41(
SI unit), which has the similar range with surrounding outcrop. The Buddha developed parallel discontinuous plane of NE to SW strike and damaged seriously by exfoliation, granular disintegration and brown discoloration as 41.5%, 16.7% and 40.0%, respectively. As a result of the ultrasonic velocity, which was relatively weak values as 1,629m/s (Buddha area) and 1,549m/s (surrounding outcrop), improved about 900m/s compared to last treatment. From the results of the evaluation for slope stability, identified the possibility of toppling failure in the Buddha, and planar and wedge failure in host rock. Therefore, we suggest for the safely conservation of the Buddha, continuance monitoring for understand behavior of discontinuity system of the surface, and necessitate foundation reinforcement method for the rock which has the danger of collapse.
A Study of Extracting Appropriate Conditions for Efficient Desalination for the Underwater Archaeological Ceramics from Ma Island in Taean
Nam, Byeong-Jik ; Park, Dae-Woo ; Kang, Hyun-Mi ; Jang, Sung-Yoon ; Jung, Yong-Hwa ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 133~142
This paper focused on desalination method for the underwater archaeological ceramics. The desalination method applied in this study takes additional conditions such as the amount of desalting water, temperature, and agitation conditions and compares the effects of desalt process. The result of efficiency rate appears that the twenty-times of the object weight of desalting water is more effective than that of ten-times one, but shows less economic compared to the cost. In addition, the research shows that the efficiency rate has been improved around 20 to 30 %, yet such improvement is not taken into account as an effective result considering the risk of damage from the physical and chemical impact and the consumption of energy in applying additional method.
Bronze Technology Observed in a Bronze Dagger Excavated from Bongili in Yangboongmyon, Gyeongju
Ju, Jin-Ok ; Park, Jang-Sik ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 143~148
A bronze dagger excavated from the historical site at Bongili in Gyeongju was examined for its microstructure and chemical compositions. The results show that it was forged out of the Cu-10 weight % Sn alloy having no lead. The application of forging in fabrication and the use of an unleaded alloy distinguish this artifact from other bronze daggers that have been reported in Korea, the majority of which were cast from leaded Cu-Sn alloys. This dagger is a rare and valuable archaeological material suggesting a unique bronze technology practiced in ancient Gyeongju area.
An Assessment Study on Stability of Various Coating Treatment of Metallic Artifacts Using V-Flon
Lee, Jung-Min ; Wi, Koang-Chul ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 149~156
One of resins, V-Flon is useful as a coating material because YK-D80, which is a solvent for V-Flon, is not highly volatile. However, it can not completely harden and can flow out when metal artifacts are joined and restored in the process of the treatment. Therefore, after the impregnation process in order to accelerate the hardening speed of a coating material, usually a dry oven was adopted. This study focused on finding the problems on the dry oven which is employed to increase the speed and investigating the most effective solvent and its composition by checking any change occurred depending on the concentration of solvents. Six different types of solvents were selected and samples were prepared in a manner that they were impregnated with solvents in three concentrations respectively (10%, 20%, 30%). To determine the condition of the samples, the stability evaluation was performed by measuring the change of color and the gloss, the thickness of coated layers, the corrosion after coating, the water resistance by contact angles. Through the comparative experiments between the natural drying and the artificial drying using a dry oven, it was found that when the dry oven is used, some problems are identified on the point of forming a uniform and stable layer because of the unstable data collected from the forced artificial dry. The experiments performed using 3 different concentration rates (10%, 20%, 30%) presented that in the case of 10% V-Flon in Xylene (using as a solvent), its layer was thin as well as it showed the high water-barrier property, which allows it to form the stably coated layer with the lower gloss and color change.
Quantitative Analysis and Archaeometric Interpretation for Molten Glass and Bronze Materials within Baekje Crucibles from the Ssangbukri Site in Buyeo, Korea
Lee, Chan-Hee ; Park, Jin-Young ; Kim, Ji-Young ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 157~169
This study focused on the material characteristics and archaeometric relationship between the molten glass and bronze materials within the crucibles and gilt-bronze Bodhisattva statue excavated from the Ssangbukri site in Buyeo, Korea. Yellowish green to red brown vitreous material in the crucibles was identified as lead glass which contained scarce amount of BaO, and low
and CaO. Metallic molten material was identified as bronze of copper-tin-lead alloy with low amount of impurities that indicated well-refined materials. Also, cassiterite was used for raw metal ore of tin. The Bodhisattva statue consisted of major copper with trace impurities in the core metal, and gold amalgam in the gilded layer. Though lead isotopic analysis showed contradictory results in each lead glass, bronze and Bodhisattva statue that required further examination, it could be stated that the statue was made in the Ssangbukri site based on the high-level technical skills of bronze production.
The Study on Material Characteristics of Slags Excavated from Iron Making Site
Kang, Yoon-Hee ; Cho, Nam-Chul ; Song, Hyeon-Jeong ; Go, Hyeong-Sun ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 171~182
The slag excavated from Gyesil-ri in Gongju, Yeonje-ri in Cheongwon and Beopcheonsaji (temple) site in Wonju are analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence Analyzer, metallurgical microscope, SEM-EDS etc., for chemical composition and microstructure to figure out the raw material and the iron manufacturing technique. First of all, as a result of principal component analysis, the total Fe-content of slag from Gyesil-ri is 39 to 44% and the modified rate is 15 to 21%, which is common in ancient iron slag. Yeonje-ri site is found the ancient iron-smelting furnace. The total Fe-content of slag from Yeonje-ri is 41 to 43% and modified rate is 18~30%, which is also the general value in the ancient slag. However only slag is excavated in the residential area at Beopcheonsaji site and there is no iron making relic. In addition, the result of principal component analysis contains that the total Fe-content of Beopcheonsaji site is 52 to 57%, and modified rate is 8 to 14%. It shows that the total Fe-content of Beopcheonsaji site is higher than relic from Gyesil-ri and Yeonje-ri and the modified rate is lower than other sites. This results mean that recollecting rate of Fe in Beopcheonsaji site is lower than other sites. Also, as a result of minor elements analysis, the slag from Gyesil-ri has the higher level of Ti, V and Zr than other sites and the microstructure are observed as magnetite and ulvospinel, so that the raw material of slag is iron sand. But the slag from Yeonje-ri and Beopcheonsaji site are identified to use iron ore. As a result of microstructure observation, fayalite, gray-columnar crystal, is found in the slag from Yeonje-ri and big wustite as main phase is observed in the slag from Beopcheonsaji site. This study show that the slag from Yeonje-ri is made of smelt ash produced during smelting works and the slag from Beopcheonsaji site is made of forging ash produced during forging work concerning the excavated location and the microstructure.
The Development of the Unfading Urethane Polymer Based on Reversible Properties for Ceramics and Restoration with This Urethane Product
Han, Won-Sik ; Park, Gi-Jung ; Lim, Sung-Jin ; Lee, Young-Hoon ; Hong, Tae-Kee ; Wi, Koang-Chul ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 183~190
We fabricated urethane material based on properties of reversible and unfading for antic-ceramics restoration. This material with low viscosity was made hardness control possible that user want. And it have very strong adhesion and shear strength properties and is shown the best properties for pigment filling, anti-contractibility, coloring as like epoxy system materials. Particularly, the yellowing and ir-reversibility problem in epoxy restoration material were finally solved. So, there is guarantee in the eternity and stabilization of restoration for antic-celamics. And in order to show the reversible state of the restoration, we successfully dissolve this urethane materials in solvent after perfect restoring subsequently.
Scientific Conservation Treatment and Restoration of the Monument for Jo Heon and the Soldiers in Chilbaeguichong (Chilbaeguichong Jungbongjoheonseonsaengilgunsunuibi)
Lee, Joo-Wan ; Lee, Myeong-Seong ; Choi, Yong-Seok ; Oh, Jeong-Hyeon ; Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Kim, Sa-Dug ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 191~201
This study was focused on conservation treatment and restoration of the monument for Jo Heon and the Soldiers in Chilbaeguichong. The monument has been ruined by bombing in the era of Japanese colonial(1940) and restored in 1971. Nevertheless, it still showed serious problems such as loss of original form, structural instability, and unnatural appearance. In order to improve its conservation state, the stele basement which was lost by bombing was restored and combined with body and top stones. The broken part of the top stone was also restored with new material through provenance interpretation.
Analysis of Surface Contaminants and Removal Techniques on Three-story Stone Pagoda at the West of Gameunsaji Site
Kim, Sa-Dug ; Lee, Tae-Jong ; Kim, Da-Ram ; Han, Min-Su ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 203~211
Analytic research on the surface pollutant of the three storied-pagoda at the west of Gameunsaji site as well as studies of previous wet cleaning cases was undertaken in order to decide cleaning method for removing inorganic pollutants. The status of pollutant was examined by naked eye observation, SEM-EDS, XRD. Then it was compared and categorized through qualitive and quantitative analysis. The result showed that the surface pollutants consisted of iron compounds or sulfur compounds and it was crystallized in the form of circle, oval, needle, etc. Result, Low-pressure rotating vortex process cleaning, with which particular matters are sprayed in swirl, is considered to be the best method to remove the pollutants.