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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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A Study of the Chemical Composition of Korean Traditional Ceramics (I): Celadon and Kory
Koh, Kyong-Shin Carolyn ; Choo, Woong-Kil ; Ahn, Sang-Doo ; Lee, Young-Eun ; Kim, Gyu-Ho ; Lee, Yeon-Sook ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 213~228
The composition of Chinese ceramic shards has been the subject of analysis in Europe, beginning in the 18th century, and in China from the 1950s. Scientific studies of traditional Korean shards commenced in the United States and Germany in the 1980s, and studies within Korea began in the 1990s. From analysis of a large systematically collected dataset, the composition of porcelain produced during the Kory. dynasty, including 21 celadon and 10 whiteware groups, was characterized and compared with that of Chinese ceramics. The average composition of the body and glaze of several shards (usually three to five) from each group was determined, enabling comparisons between groups. The results show that the majority of groups were derived from mica-quartz porcelain stone, which was commonly used in Yuezhou, Jingdezhen, and other southern Chinese kilns. The composition of glazes includes clay and flux components; the latter were typically wood ash and limestone, initially as burnt but later as crushed forms. The earliest of the Kangjin glazes contained substantially less titanium oxide than did the Yuezhou glazes, which were typically formulated from body material and wood ash. The present study provides a comparative framework for the growing number of analytical investigations associated with excavations occurring in Korea.
Interpretation of Material Homogenity and Making Techniques of the Jar Coffins from the Oryangdong Kiln Site and the Ungokdong Tomb Site in Naju, Korea
Kim, Ran-Hee ; Cho, Mi-Soon ; Yeon, Ung ; Seo, Jeong-Seog ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 229~245
The pupose of this study was to identify the material characteristics, firing environments and making techniques for the jar coffins from the Oryangdong kiln site and the Ungokdong tomb site in Naju. All jar coffins had very similar physical, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics, although it was excavated from the different sites. The wall thickness of the jar coffins was about 2.3 to 5.3 cm. Under the microscopy, the jar coffins include a large quantity of various quartz with some microcrystalline and showed partly orthoclase and biotite. It is presumed that the mineral sherds added to maintain the thick wall and to control the percentage of contraction during drying and firing of jar coffins and it has contained about 11.4 to 19.8 %. Firing temperature of the jar coffins is estimated as 1,000 to
. Also, all jar coffins and soils show similar geochemical behavior of elements and clay-mineralization degree within the site. This indicates making that the soil is probable to be a raw material of the jar coffins. But it shows different characteristics in major elements of soils which is collected at the kiln floor and the trench region of the Oryangdong kiln site because of the lack of quartz and feldspar in the soils. Therefore, it can use of the jar coffins making clay, if it goes through a simple special process such as mixing temper.
Lacquer Manufacturing Method for the Wooden Coffins of King Muryeong's Tomb based on the Scientific Analysis
Kim, Soo-Chul ; Lee, Gwang-Hee ; Kang, Hyung-Tae ; Shin, Seong-Phil ; Han, Min-Soo ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 247~258
We conducted optical microscopy, infra-red spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis of the lacquer layers on the wooden coffins excavated from King Muryeong's Tomb. We found four varnishing methods according to the sub-materials of lacquer layers: The lacquer of wooden coffins with black paint layer on the surface were classified with two groups; single layer and three layers. The lacquer of wooden coffins without black paint layer on the surface were classified with two groups; single layer and two layers. IR spectra of the laquer were same as those of the oriental laquer. The SEM-EDS analysis showed that the lacquer layers were mixed with iron, copper and calcium.
The Distribution of Aerial Algae and the Assessment of Biological Pollution Class at 8 Stone Cultural Heritages in Korea
Kim, Yong-Jin ; Kim, Ok-Jin ; Lee, Ok-Min ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 259~268
To evaluate the biological pollution class, Chl-a concentration and color were examined in 8 stone cultural heritages of Korea from April to June 2007. In the case of Chl-a, it had the range of 16.2 to
, and for the range of the colors, it came out from green to black. As the result of the evaluation, the Three storied stone pagoda in Mulgeol-ri and the Three storied stone pagoda in Suta Temple both showed class 3 and the other 6 stone cultural heritages showed the classes above 4, proving severe biological pollution. The total of 32 aerial algae taxa were found in 8 stone cultural heritages. Out of the 32 taxa, 16 taxa were found in Cyanophyceae, 13 taxa in Chlorophyceae, and 3 taxa in Bacillariophyceae. The correlation coefficient showed 0.43, as a result of the correlation analysis between Chl-a and the biological pollution class. Two among all the aerial algae taxa, Trebouxia sp, and Chroococcus bituminosus, showed high correlation coefficients of 0.89 and 0.65 with Chl-a, in the correlation analysis. High correlation coefficients from 0.54 to 0.65 were shown in a correlation analysis between the biological pollution class and the aerial algae taxa, which are Chroococcus bituminosus, Aphanocapsa grevillei, Xenococcus acervatus, Chlorella vulgaris, and Synechocystis pevalekii.
A Study of Manufacturing Techniques Extracting from the Analysis of Corrosion Status and Microstructure for the Cast-Iron Pot in Bubjusa
Han, Min-Su ; Kim, So-Jin ; Hong, Jong-Ouk ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 269~276
This study aims to extract manufacturing techniques by analysing metallurgical characteristics of the cast-iron pot from Bubjusa, examining corrosion status and microstructure with a optical microscope, SEM-EDS, micro vickers hardness tester and XRD. The microstructure analysis has presented that ferrite and partial portion of pearlite exist within the corroded outer layer. The analysis of the inner layer revealed that there is pearlite and graphite of feather shape. The one of the middle layer, which is placed between outer and inner layer, showed that corrosion has been heavily developed. Micro vickers hardness values range from 217Hv to 698Hv in constituent layers and such values lie within the ranges of the ancient iron relics. The result of EDS analysis for each microstructure presented that the outer layer has been more decarbonized than the inner layer. XRD analysis of iron corrosion compound revealed that Goethite and Hematite had been produced from the corrosive process of iron. The study concludes that the large iron pot was made by casting technique, and microstructure of inner layer had a gray cast iron. Outer layer has been decarbonized through repetitive process of heating and cooling. This results can be used as fundamental data for comparative study to reveal manufacturing techniques of large cast-iron pot.
Detailed Deterioration Evaluation and Analysis of Conservation Environment for the Seosanmaaesamjonbulsang (Rock-carved Triad Buddha in Seosan), Korea
Lee, Sun-Myung ; Lee, Chan-Hee ; Kim, Ji-Young ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 277~294
The Seosanmaaesamjonbulsang (National Treasure No. 84) consists of light gray and coarse to mediumgrained biotite granite with partly developed pegmatite and quartz vein. The host rock is divided into dozens of rock blocks with various shape along irregular discontinuity plane. The evaluation results of discontinuity systems reveal that the host rock were exposed to instable sloping environments. Results of deterioration diagnosis show that the degree of damage has been made worse by physical weathering and surface discoloration laying stress on part that vertical and horizontal joints are massed. Generally, deterioration rate of the triad Buddha surface cover with 42.7%, however, the rate of physical weathering and surface discoloration are subdivided to 9.6% and 33.1%, respectively. Ultrasonic measurements indicate that the triad Buddha was reached highly weathered grade in general. And the rock material was weaken to show low velocity zone of 1,000m/s along irregular joint systems. Indoor and outdoor mean relative humidity of the shelter was recorded more than 70% during every season, and high frequency appears in high relative humidity range over 95%. Such environments seem to have produced dew condensation on the rock surface with rainfall and supply water, promoted physical, chemical and biological weathering along crack and joint, resulting in high permeation of water and percentage of water content. Therefore, it is judged that for scientific conservation of the triad Buddha it needs environment control through persistent preservation environment monitoring including water problem.
Estimation of Damage Degree for Mural Paintings in Maitreya Hall of Geumsan-sa Buddhist Temple, Korea
Han, Kyeong-Soon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 295~310
Since wall paintings in Maitreya Hall of Geumsan-sa temple had displayed a serious state of damage and deterioration, a detailed examination such as structural analysis of the wall, cause of damage, and the state of deterioration have been thoroughly conducted before the conservation treatment has commenced. The most seriously deteriorated part of the wall paintings was the south wall of the building in particular in its painted and surface layer. The painted layer had formed its own layer of thick, which has been separation from the surface layer. As such problem developed the whole surface layer has been separated from the wall. The problem has been caused by two reasons: 1. the heavy weight of the roof section and it caused cracks and damage on the wall; 2. the loss of function of consolidating material and it caused discolouring and the separation of surface layer from the wall. The cause of damage on the painted and surface layers can be assumed in two ways: 1. its surrounding environment such as the change of temperature and humidity level and ultraviolet rays ; 2. the loss of mechanical function of consolidating material, synthetic resin which had been applied in the past conservation treatment. The separation of layers from the wall and cracks was caused by the mistake in choosing an applicable consolidating material and dismantling technique which had ignored a different characteristic of the wall painting of Korean buddhist temples.
Mineralogical Composition and Physical Variation of Reproduced Potteries based on Chemical Composition and Firing Temperature
Kim, Su-Kyoung ; Han, Min-Su ; Moon, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Young-Hee ; Hwang, Jin-Ju ; Lee, Han-Hyoung ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 311~324
The purpose of this study aims to reveal characteristics of reproduced potteries which made with clays of various chemical compositions in different firing temperatures and thereafter to provide comparative samples for identifying the manufacturing techniques of earthenwares from archaeological excavation by reproducing and characterizing sample under controlled conditions. For this study, various samples of earthenware are reproduced using different types of raw clays at several different firing temperature, followed by physical and structural characterization. Chemical specification were varied from different types of clay, which were calculated by Seger formula, and four different types of clay were selected based on different mole ratio of acidic oxide. The temperatures of firing of 7 samples were varied between
at the interval of
for each sample. The result of analysis revealed that each reproduced earthenware has different chemical compositions divided into two groups: 1. Sample Y(6.10) and Sample G(5.85) clay; 2. Sample H(3.41) and Sample S(2.85) clay. The former which has higher mole ratio of acidic oxide than the latter, shows higher level of rockwell hardness at the same firing temperature. In addition, all four samples presented that as the firing temperature was increased, absorption rates of Y and G were abruptly dropped at
. Furthermore the more mole ratio of acidic oxide increase, the more microtexture of samples were vitrificated. Such result reveals that mole ratio of acidic oxide influence physical and microtextural characteristics of earthenwares, and it can be used as the comparison data in the understanding of manufacture techniques for the earthenwares of similar chemical composition.
Effect of Consolidation using Artificial Porous Material for Stone Cultural Property
Lee, Jae-Man ; Lee, Myeong-Seong ; Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Lee, Mi-Hye ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 325~334
In order to clarify the effect of consolidant, the artificial porous material with low intensity was manufactured using granite powder and Portland cement. We have prepared four kinds of alkoxysilane system consolidants, a acrylic resin and a epoxy resin and investigated about characteristics before and after consolidation. As a result of the research, Silres BS OH 100 was effective for density and surface hardness. SS-101 with hydrophobicity and Site SX-RO with hydrophilicity had the good durability over salts weathering. On the other hand, Syton HT-50 and Paraloid B72 were easily destructed by salt weathering because they were concentrated on surface area by the low penetration depth. Araldite 2020 was the most effective consolidant for improvement of physical properties.
The Study on the Synthesis of Urethane Polymer and Their Application for the Exclusive Use of Soil Layer Transcription and the 1st Transcript of Historical Site
Han, Won-Sik ; Wi, Koang-Chul ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 335~340
Urethane resin applicable for the first transcription of historical site and transcription of soil layer were synthesized in order to replace the imported urethane resin, NS-10. Comparing to the NS-10, the urethane polymers showed similar penetration to wet soil and formed a stable layer of polyurethane during progress working the peeling off the polyurethane pre-product from epoxy surface of final product. The urethane resins used for the first transcription of historical site improved tensile strength, which is consistent with that of NS-10. In addition the urethane resin for transcription of soil layer was supplied with hardness that have a also same strong point as like NS-10. This property is advantage due to simplifying the transcription work of soil layer in backward. When we tested to the real ground soil as well as experimentation compressed soil with use these synthesis urethane resin, we ca get the satisfying result in penetration property and stability and these properties evaluated the resins as an advanced product serving better convenience for worker.
A Investigation on the Soil-Peel Methods in Conservation Method of Historical Site
Wi, Koang-Chul ; Seo, Jeong-Ho ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 341~348
After excavation work of relics, historical site which has historically meaningful, are preserved using the various methods. There are three method in the relocation methods that are original relocation method, the remaining structure-peel method, and soil peel method. The original relocation method is restored after relocating in historical site such as residential site, iron foundry site, kiln site, old mound. The remaining structure-peel method are restored only the feature of exposed remaining structure using polymeric resin, when it is difficult to relocate the entire remaining structure. And soil-peel method is exhibited after peeling in case when soil layers such as grave of old mound, foundation of building site, sedimentary deposit layer, shell heap, and etc. Soil-peel method becomes important historical data of changes according to environment at that time, that is, flooding by storm, traces of fire and living features of that time such as heaps of shells discarded after eating shellfish and living wastes. In particular, in case of soil layer for preparing foundation sites of building by compacting in turn soils with different components such as clay soil, rough sand soil and etc, it becomes important data which can judge foundation technology of that time. It can be said to be an important data preservation method for utilizing these historical data as historical data as well as for the purpose of education, exhibitions and public relations which can be shared not only by experts but also by general public. In this paper, we present the reliable definition of soil-peel method in various preservation methods and explain the using polymer in this method. So, we will come up with the accurate index about this method that is used the eminent analysis method for soil layer.