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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Material Characteristics and Quantitative Deterioration Assessment of the Sinwoldong Three-storied Stone Pagoda in Yeongcheon, Korea
Yi, Jeong-Eun ; Lee, Chan-Hee ; Chae, Seong-Tae ; Jung, Young-Dong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 4, 2010, Pages 349~360
The Yeongsheon Sinwoldong three-storied stone pagoda (Treasure No. 465) composed mainly of drusy alkali-granite. The major rock-forming minerals are biotite, quartz, amphiboles, orthoclase and plagioclase. Yellowish brown and black discoloration are formed at the eight sculpture Buddha of the stylobate. A broken rock fragments in the roof material were repaired using epoxy resin and cement mortar in the past. As a result of the infrared thermography analysis from the pagoda, cracks and exfoliation were not serious. Also, P-XRF analysis showed that concentration of Fe (mean 5,599ppm) and S (mean 3,270ppm) were so high in yellowish discoloration parts. Black discoloration area was detected highly Mn (mean 2,155ppm) concentration around the eight sculpture Buddha of the stylobate. The main reason for these are inorganic contaminants from disengaged rock ingredient and organic contaminants from withered plant body. Degree of physical weathering is relatively high in the southern and northern side. The eastern and western side had similar with weathering condition. The northern and eastern side were serious discoloration and biological weathering relatively. Therefore, we suggest that the pagoda need to do cleaning of biological contaminant and conservation treatment to weakened materials of rock and long term monitoring.
Selection and Conservation for the Filler of Three-storied Stone Pagoda at the West of Gameunsaji Site in Gyeongju
Lee, Tae-Jong ; Kim, Sa-Dug ; Gal, Seo-Yeon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 4, 2010, Pages 361~370
The open pore of stone cultural heritage is not expected to have an effect only by consolidation, and it has a drawback that only the internal wall adheres and gets consolidated due to the incrase of liquidity caused by the low viscosity and difference of materials in the case of filling with high molecules synthetic resins. Therefore, this research selected the effective filler for Three-storied Stone Pagoda at the West of Gameunsaji Site through the verification of filling effects of materials using the information about various fillers based on minerals. As the result of filler experiment, got filled with the combination of KSE 500 STE + KSE Filler A
KSE Filler B that is the same as the Member or has very similar properties. The total surface area of the west stone is
and the area where the internal opening has been developed is
(7.03%) requiring a task that fills the internal(
A Study on the Bonding Materials used for the Great Jar of the Proto-Three Kingdoms Period from Daechuri Site, Pyeongtaek
Cho, Nam-Chul ; Kim, Soo-Chul ; Kim, Woo-Hyun ; Shin, Yeun-Sik ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 4, 2010, Pages 371~376
The great jar estimated in Proto-Three Kingdoms period was found at the site from Pyeongtaek Daechuri and the bonding traces from pieces destroyed when they were excavated are observed. Therefore this study would figure out the components of bonding material used in great jars by optical microscope, FT-IR, py-GC/MS and the kind of textile attaching to great jar by transmitted light microscope. As a result of optical microscope for the cross-section, black material is uniformly applied between a piece of jar and the part of bonding and the textile line are observed. Black bonding material is resulted in korean rhus lacquer by FT-IR and py-GC/MS and the kind of textile is identified as hemp by transmitted light microscope. Materials for repairing archaeological objects are hardly known causing little information, but this study proves that the bonding material had used lacquer for great jars before Proto-Three Kingdoms period. Therefore if ancient bonding materials are systematically analysed in the further studies, it would be significant help for studying bonding and restoration materials of ancient objects.
Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Microbial Growth and Mechanical Properties of Korean Traditional Paper
Choi, Jong-Il ; Yoon, Min-Chul ; Chung, Yong-Jae ; Kang, Dai-Ill ; Kim, Gwang-Hoon ; Lee, Ju-Woon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 4, 2010, Pages 377~383
The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial growth inoculated in the Korean traditional paper, Hanji, was investigated. Also, the mechanical properties of Korean traditional paper were measured to verify the possible change by gamma radiation. Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus niger were cultivated and the spores were innoculated in papers at the 250,000 and 500,000 colonies, respectively. In these results, 5log spores of B. cereus could be all inactivated at the dose of 6 kGy, and 5log A. niger be inactivated at 8 kGy, respectively. There was also showed no significant change in tensile strength, bursting strength and color index of Korean traditional paper by the gamma irradiation upto the dose of 50 kGy. These results confirmed that radiation treatment of Korean traditional paper is extremely efficient and could be used to preserve ancient books and archives documents from being damaged by moulds and fungi.
Damage Factor Interpretation and Conservational Environment Assessment by Microclimatic Analysis of Hyeonpung Seokbinggo (Ice-storing Stone Warehouse), Korea
Kim, Ji-Young ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 4, 2010, Pages 385~395
This study aimed to identify weathering factors and to assess the conservation environment through microclimatic analysis of Hyeonpung Seokbinggo (ice-storing stone warehouse). The stone blocks inside Seokbinggo suffered crack, displacement, break-out, exfoliation, efflorescence, brown and black discoloration, and biological colonization. Biological colonization represented the maximum deterioration rate(24%) among those weathering forms. The indoor microclimate showed parallel patterns with outdoor one, but the indoor temperature and relative humidity ranged far narrower than outdoor and remained steady. The environmental characteristics resulted from blocking-out of outdoor heat by the closed entrance and surrounding microtopography. This prevented water condensation and freezing effects, so that it reduced physical deterioration of rock, and maximized ice-storing effect for long time. However, contrary to positive effect, extremely high relative humidity over 99% accelerated biological colonization inside the Seokbinggo.
Stability Evaluation on Measuring Water-soluble Chloride Anions from Iron Artifacts
Lee, Jae-Sung ; Park, Hyung-Ho ; Yu, Jae-Eun ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 4, 2010, Pages 397~406
The most ideal method to measure the water-soluble
ion eluted from iron artifacts is conducting the analysis on desalting solution by Ion Chromatography. But most institutes related to cultural heritages use Cl meter by reason of lack of budget and experts. This study evaluated reliability and stability between Cl meter and Ion Chromatography by doing cross-validation with results from two methods to detect
ion of desalting solution. From D.I water, extremely small quantities of
ion was detected by the influence of remaining water-soluble
ion at the electrode of Cl meter and water-soluble
which remains in Sodium sesquicarbonate, components of reagent was detected as well. The first desalting solution had the most
ion slightly decreased from the second to the fourth desalting solution and tend to decrease again at the stage of dealkalified in D.I water. Each Cl meter has the standard deviation according to the measured numbers and the higher concentration of
ion the desalting solution has, the wider the deviation is. But when the concentration of
ion is low, it was stable to use Cl meter to detect the concentration of
ion from iron artifacts because there is the small deviation, It is thought that conductivity meter method is not suitable for measuring
ion, because the electrical conductivity of alkaline solution is too high to measure
A Study on the Change of the Corrosion Products by the Activity of Iron Reducing Bacteria for Corrosion Carbon Steel
Lee, So-Yeon ; Matsui, Toshiya ; Yoshikawa, Hideki ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 4, 2010, Pages 407~416
Bacteria with ability for iron reduction in the soil can use corrosion products of iron remains as energy source. The activities of this bacteria cause the change of corrosion products. As a result, it can be difficult to identify corrosion products promoting corrosion of iron remains. The purpose of this study, is to investigate the change in corrosion products that bacteria causes and to improve understanding about the corrosion of iron remains. To simulate corroded condition of excavated iron remains, carbon steel corroded by solution of NaCl and
was prepared. Then the prepared carbon steel was immersed in a liquid medium with bacteria. The incubation period was 42days. After experiment, the carbon steel was analyzed by SEM-EDS, X-ray diffraction method. The result is that the carbon was changed to green because of activity of bacteria and that the plate crystal and lozenge crystal were generated on the corrosion specimen. Also, we confirmed that the activities of bacteria differenciated colors and forms of corrosion products.
Study on the Manufacturing Technique of Steel-Plated Jewel Beetle's Adornment and Gilt-bronze Openwork Remains
Yong, Byoung-Ju ; Kang, Jung-Moo ; Kim, Soo-Ki ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 4, 2010, Pages 417~427
This study is to examine the manufacturing technique based on scientific investigation and analysis on Steel-Plated Jewel Beetle's Adornment gilt-bronze openwork remains excavated from No. 100 site at Hwango-dong Gyeongju. As a result of the investigation on the manufacturing revealed that riveting was adopted to connect gilt-bronze openwork plates and steel plates, followed by mercury amalgam plating method and carving of the patterns by means of the dotted line engraving technique. There were some traces on the surface of Jewel Beetle wings that show the use of pins for fixing, which seems to be the result of recycling or processing. The sectional analysis shows the high possibilities that varnishing with lacquer was adopted for wing adhesion, and it was confirmed that varnishing with lacquer was used on the strap pendant plate to prevent corrosion.
Research on Functional Paper by using Traditional Dyestuffs
Yi, Sun-Jo ; Lee, Hye-Yoon ; Cho, Kyoung-Sil ; Chung, Yong-Jae ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 4, 2010, Pages 429~436
Dyestuffs extracted from fifteen kinds of natural dyeing materials were researched on their antimicrobial performance against 3 kinds of bacteria and 2 kinds of fungi in order to develop conservation/storage materials of traditional and natural dyed papers. The three types of mordants were evaluated by using the same method and then mixed with the dyestuffs to research their antimicrobial performance. With those results, dyed paper was made by mixing mordants with 9 kinds of dyestuffs with excellent antimicrobial performance. Among the dyed papers, Cotinus coggygria, Coptis chinensis, Phellodendri amurense, Rhus javanica and Acer ginnala multiple mordant papers were found to have an antibacterial quality against fungi, while, in the insect repellent experiment using termites, Coptis chinensis and Phellodendri amurense dyed papers were found to have insect repellent qualities. Also, with regard to the research result about the affect of dyeing paper on other materials like metal, Coptis chinensis have relatively stable qualities. Also, the three types of dyeed paper by Cotinus coggygria, Coptis chinensis and Phellodendri amurense, were found to have a tendency to remove harmful gases. Not only can these dyed papers be used for making storage box for cultural properties to prevent various organic artifacts from bio-damaging, but they can also be utilized as functional finishing materials in various spaces.
Study on the Effect of Corrosion Gas and Acidic Falling Materials for Conservational Wax on the Copper based Sculpture
Oh, Seung-Jun ; Wi, Koang-Chul ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 4, 2010, Pages 437~443
The influence of noxious corrosive gas, which is the product of fossil fuel, and the acidic descent material, which becomes the reason for such reaction, on wax which protects the cultural assets, and the habitat factor were researched. It could be viewed that corrosion occurred rapidly due to the acidic descent material, which have the long staying on the material, rather than harmful corrosive gas. Also, it could be figured out that such corrosion began from whitening phenomenon of coated wax. As the acidity increased, more whitening phenomenon occurred, and eventually, it could be found out that whitening effect began due to the acidic descent material, corrosive gas and various 0.1 M acid solution, which lead to the exposure of internal metal, and corrosion occurred. The wax with the greatest resistance to the acidity due to its least changing aspect seemed to be Renaissance wax, except sulfuric acid.
A Study on the Analysis of Outside Mural Paintings treated in Maitreya Hall of Geumsan-sa Buddhist Temple, Korea
Han, Kyeong-Soon ; Lee, Sang-Jin ; Lee, Haw-Soo ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 4, 2010, Pages 445~458
The deterioration and structural damage such as exfoliation, cracks, and separation of painted layer on the wall paintings of Maitreya Hall in Geumsan-sa temple have been accelerated since it was re-positioned to the original place after the dismantling from the building in 1993. The examination of which result and analysis described in this study, is a preliminary survey for establishing conservation plan of the wall paintings. It aimed at the understanding of the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials applied in the 1993 conservation. The research focused on the south walls which displayed the worst condition compared to other walls. Samples for the examination for the understanding of micro-structure, chemical composition, cristalisation, and particle distribution, were collected for finishing, middle, and consolidated layers of the walls between pillars and the ones between brackets. Those samples were collected from separated fragments of the walls. The sample analysis displayed that: 1. the 1993 conservation used the similar type of weathered soil as the original for the finishing layer, and such soil and sand for the middle layer; 2. those walls are composed of a group of mineral particles which are relatively equal in size and shape and in their distribution; 3. the mineral particles were cohered forming solid aggregate due to the application of acrylic resin for the reinforcement on the wall. The main composition of crystalisation on the first and the second reinforcement layers of the back walls were lime plaster (
). The overall examination confirmed that the priority of the future conservation treatment should be given to the removal of the first and the second layers of reinforcement and the treatment on the back walls which were partially consolidated.
A Study on Provenance of the 5th Century Jar Coffin using Neutron Activation Analysis
Chung, Kwang-Yong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 26, issue 4, 2010, Pages 459~465
The 5th century kiln that produced pottery coffins was found for the first time in Korea, located in the Oryang-dong remains in the city of Naju. This kiln, located in the central area of the Yeongsan River, provides important data for research on mortuary practices in prehistoric society, including the structure of production and patterns of distribution and consumption. For this study, the remains of five ancient tombs and pottery coffins excavated from the 4th century Mandong archaeological site were chosen to determine the area of consumption of pottery coffins produced at the Oryang-dong kiln. The samples from each area of remains were analyzed for minor elements using neutron activation analysis method, and from these results, the identities of the corresponding production areas were investigated using the multi-variant statistical analysis of discriminant analysis. The evidence strongly suggests that pottery coffins produced at the Oryang-dong kiln in Naju were used in ancient tombs of the Bannam mound in Naju, the Okyari mound in Yeongam, and the Banam mound in Hampyeong, reaching those sites through trade and distribution. The findings also suggest that pottery coffins from the Mandong archeological site in Gochang and the Inpyeong mound in Muan were not produced at the Oryang-dong kiln in Naju, but rather were brought from pottery kilns in different production areas, through trade and distribution.