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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Manufacturing Technique by Scientific Analysis and Reproduction Experiment of Ancient Silver Objects Excavated from Neungnae-ri, Ganghwa Island
Ryu, Dong-Wan ; Kim, Soo-Ki ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 1~11
For the silver artifacts in the Koryo Dynasty excavated from Neungnae-ri Ganghwa island, the metallographic section analysis and hardness and chemical analysis were conducted. After making samples in the similar ratio of the composition concentration, the changes of the microstructure were checked according to the working method and temperature. The results show that those silver artifacts are Au-Cu alloys with 2 to 6 % of Cu. From the results it is judged that Cu was artificially alloyed with them to keep the proper hardness and identified that they were gilded by the amalgamation process seeing that mercury was included at the guilt layer. Also the porous texture on the surface of them could be formed at over
, therefore, it is assumed the hot working or heat treatment at over
were performed. In silver artifacts made by the relief and repousse, they have the similar composition analysis to other 7 artifacts but the hardness is lower than pure silver. Consequently from differences in the hardness, it can be inferred that the low hardness of silver artifacts is concerned with manufacturing techniques.
Microstructural Study and Firing Temperature Presume from Mt. Gyeryong Hakbong-ri Kiln
Hwang, Hyun-Sung ; Kwak, Eung-Yung ; Lee, Da-Hae ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 13~30
This study compared Pottery, Hwaecheongware, Buncheongware and Whiteware pieces excavated in Hakbong-ri of Chungnam analytically by observing their refined structures and estimating their firing temperature. As a result, base soil components of the specimens were mostly similar to those of typical Buncheongware, but the content of the fluxing agent was rather high, and it seemed that the Whiteware had been made with fairly different components from those of other sherds. Although the glaze showed less difference than base soil in general, the content of the glaze changed according to the decorating methods of Buncheongware. Based on the SEM-EDS analysis, it was found that the base soil components of the ceramics seemingly rather different were actually different and the analysis on the fine crystals of the base soil, the anorthite in the glaze and crystals in the ironing part, and the components and contents of white earth showed there were some noticeable points in the process of making each of the sherds. In the refiring experiment to estimate the firing temperature, mostly similar results were gained as
for Hwaecheongware, and
for iron-brown Buncheongware however, the results imply good quality Whiteware was burnt at above
while bad quality Whiteware was burnt at a temperature far lower than that. Thus, there was clear difference between Whiteware sherds and other kinds of sherds.
Material Analysis and Coloring Characteristics of Korean Traditional Copper-red Pigment (Jinsa)
Kim, Ji-Young ; Cho, Hyun-Kyung ; Jun, Byung-Kyu ; Cho, Nam-Chul ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 31~40
Copper-red (Dongwha, Jinsa) is Korean traditional inorganic pigment used for red-coloring on the porcelain surface during Goryeo and Joseon Periods. Trace amounts of copper-red porcelains are handed down because of the technical difficulty of making and coloring of the pigment. It is known that copper ore sources were extensively distributed in Korea according to old literatures and some of them are still producing copper ore at this present. Main types of copper-bearing mineral in Korea are chalcopyrite (
) and malachite (
), and they are easily collected from the ground surface. This means Korea had geographical and economic geological advantages for supplying raw material of the pigment. These two minerals showed good red-coloring in color test for porcelain pigment. As a coloring element, copper showed micro size less than
in diameter in glaze matrix. The dispersion of copper particle is the most decisive factor for red chromaticity of copper-red porcelain, as well as copper content of the pigment.
A Study on Comparison Experiments for Judgement to the Nondestructive Analysis of Gold Plated Silverware Remains
Sim, Myung-Bo ; Yu, Hei-Sun ; Kim, Soo-Ki ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 41~47
If the nondestructive analysis is carried out by using an X-ray Fluorescence Analyzer(XRF) for ingredient analysis with the target of gold plated silverware that plates gold on a silver basis, a singular point showing big difference at the value of weight percent(wt.%) according to the electron orbit of the principal ingredient can be confirmed. The present research made reproduced samples and carried out comparative analysis in order to suggest a basis that can judge whether the technique of gold plated silverware was used in case of remains uneasy to understand with eyes by using this singular point. As a result, the same result as analysis results of actual remains could be seen in specimens manufactured by a mercury amalgam plating method. However, in case of gold and silver alloy specimens, it could be confirmed that the difference according to the electron orbit of the principal ingredients is slight unlike plated specimens. The reason appearing at plated specimens seems to be generated while absorbing XRF beam at plated layers by double structure due to plating instead of single material. Accordingly, if this result appearing at nondestructive analysis is used, it was confirmed that the application of the technique of gold plated silverware can be judged without observing its section.
A Study on the Changes Process Repair and Restoration Method of Ceramic
Yang, Pil-Seung ; Seo, Jung-Ho ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 49~59
The damaged ceramics were repaired and restored thru various methods with various materials. The history of Ceramic repair and restoration has developed widening its areas from traditional stage utilizing applicable living material to the specified field that introduces new materials, new process methods and material analysis. Through investigations over the documents, artifacts and analysis, the period could be divided into natural material period in which uses the bonds extracted from the animals, plants and lime (prehistoric to Japanese domination period), Semi-artificial period in which mix natural material and synthetic resins such as "Jusabi"(Japanese domination period to 1970s.) and complete synthetic resin period in which introduces new materials and process methods in accordance with preservation standard (after 1980s).
Study of the Chemical Composition of Korean Traditional Ceramics (II): Chos
KohChoo, Carolyn Kyong-Shin ; Choo, Woong-Kil ; Ahn, Sang-Doo ; Lee, Young-Eun ; Kim, Gyu-Ho ; Lee, Yeon-Sook ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 61~74
The material characteristics of Chos
n whiteware were investigated by analyzing and comparing the body and glaze compositions of whiteware shards excavated at the Kwangju royal kilns, Ch'unghyodong, and four other local-level kilns. In Korea, the rise of whiteware technology began in the early years of the Chos
n dynasty, when the indigenous tradition of Kory
celadon was strongly influenced by the whiteware aesthetics of the Chinese Ming dynasty. The Kwangju royal kilns eventually made hard-textured whiteware of a quality equivalent to that of the Chinese by using type of porcelain stone that contained slightly less
and slightly more
than that used for celadon. In contrast, the potters of Ch'unghyodong achieved the same level of quality by finding and using a totally different material: kaolinitic clay. The porcelain stone used at the Kwangju kiln was commonly found in Korea and south China, whereas kaolinitic clay (which has a high aluminum content) was typically found in north China, and was only rarely used in Korea. The flux component of the glaze compositions was mostly limestone, first in burnt form and later in crushed form, and the clay component was often glaze stone, which was a finer-grained porcelain stone with a higher proportion of feldspar. In the future, this comparative analytical study of Korean whiteware components should be extended to the
-century kilns that are currently being excavated at a rapid pace.
A Study of the Chemical Composition of Korean Traditional Ceramics (III): Comparison of Punch'
ng with Kory
Ware and Chos
KohChoo, Carolyn Kyong-Shin ; Choo, Woong-Kil ; Ahn, Sang-Doo ; Lee, Young-Eun ; Kim, Gyu-Ho ; Lee, Yeon-Sook ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 75~90
At the beginning of the Chos
n dynasty, punch'
ng began as a simplified form of inlaid celadon, and in the two following centuries it developed into a popular folk craft in various styles and expressive decorations; overtime, it was increasingly made to resemble whiteware, and its production stopped after the Japanese invasion of Korea. In the present study, the body and glaze compositions of punch'
ng were examined and compared with those of celadon and whiteware, whose compositions have previously been compared with those of Chinese ceramics. Here, the analyzed shards were organized into 28 groups based on their production sites and archaeological characteristics. For each group, the body and glaze compositions of several shards(usually three to five) were obtained, averaged, and compared with those of the other groups. These comparisons showed that the majority of the punch'
ng bodies were formed, like those of celadon and whiteware, with mica-quartz porcelain stone, which was commonly used in Yuezhou, Jingdezhen, and other southern Chinese kilns. The glazes consisted of clay materials and flux components made from various proportions of wood ash, burnt limestone (glaze ash) and crushed limestone. Overall, the punch'
ng glazes resembled the Kory
celadon and Kory
whiteware glazes more closely than the Chos
n white wareglazes. However, the
levels found in the tested punch'
ng were low, similar to those of Chos
n whiteware; this indicated that glaze stone was used as the clay component of the punch'
ng glazes, as was the case for Chos
n whiteware. This study of the material characteristics of punch'
ng may be used as a comparative framework for analyzing ceramic shards discovered at current and future excavations within Korea.
Humidity-Controlled Drying of PEG-Treated Waterlogged Woods
Lee, Kwang-Hee ; Kim, Soo-Chul ; Park, Won-Kyu ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 91~100
This study is to examine the PEG concentration, and drying humidity and drying periods of humidity-controlled drying(HCD) for conservation of waterlogged woods(Pinus densiflora S. et Z.), and dimension stability of HCD were compared with those of air-drying and vacuum freeze-drying(VFD). Dimension stability of vacuum freeze-drying was the most excellent, i.e., PEG crystal was uniformly distributed in woods. Increasing concentrations of PEG, dimension stability of HCD was increased and drying periods decreased. Dimension stability of HCD after the treatment with the high concentration(70%) of PEG soaking was similar to those of VFD after the treatment with the low concentration(40%) of PEG soaking. In conclusion, high concentration(about 70% in water) PEG solution was the most suitable as a pre-treatment for HCD of waterlogged woods. However, drying should be maintained with enough high humidity and longer period.
Lithological Characteristics and Deterioration Diagnosis of Dosolammaaebulsang (Rock-carved Buddha Statue of Dosolam) in the Seonunsa Temple, Gochang, Korea
Park, Sung-Mi ; Ryu, Keong-Seok ; Choi, Hee-Soo ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 101~114
The rock-carved Buddha statue at Dosolam (Korea Treasure No. 1200) of the Seonunsa temple in Gochang is unique style sculptured on natural rock cliff of 13.0m height. The Buddha statue is composed of volcanic complex with tuff, dacitic tuff breccia, tuff bereccia and lithic tuff. Especially, the Buddha statue is characterized by hydrothermal alteration and fragmentation on the upper and lower part. As a result of damage diagnosis, exfoliation and detachment of physical weathering are high of 11.3% and 9.3%, respectively. Infrared thermography analysis, exfoliation and micro-cracks occurred in the measuring parts that have not been confirmed by naked eyes. Chemical index of alteration and weathering potential index of host rock for the Buddha statue are 55.16 to 64.01 and 6.14 to 9.92 which are represented within highly weathering degree. In surface, dark black, reddish brown and white discoloration are observed prominently in the lower. Brown discoloration 6.9% is highest. According to the P-XRF measurements, high concentration of Fe in common, in part of dark black discoloration was Mn, white and brown discoloration in part of S and Ca content were higher. Biological weathering that yellowish brown and dark gray crustoes lichenes appeared by 20.8% and 13.3%, respectively. Therefore, comprehensive deterioration rate of Buddha statue show physical damage by 21.2%, discoloration for inorganic contaminants by 10.8% and biological damage by 39.4%. Ultrasonic velocity measurement carried out of Buddha statue on the surface by 555 points. Measured value of ultrasonic velocity was about 2,273m/s(1,067 to 3,215m/s, and weathering coefficient is 0.5(0.4 to 0.8) that progress on MW(moderately weathered) to HW(highly weathered) grade of rocks.
Study on the Urethane Restoration Filling Material and Adhesive for Stone Cultural Heritage
Han, Won-Sik ; Lee, Ho-Youn ; Park, Gi-Jung ; Hong, Tae-Kee ; Wi, Koang-Chul ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 115~121
A Urethane resin restoration material was made to be used in the restoration of stone cultural assets. The Urethane resin restoration material showed strong adhesive strength and tensile strength similar to epoxy recovery material, which had been mainly used for the recovery of stone cultural assets. The sealing property, anti-shrinking property and paint-ability of Urethane resin restoration material are also similar to existing epoxy system restoration materials. Especially, this Urethane resin restration material is expected to give permanence and continuous stability in the restoration of cultural assets made in stone by resolving the two big issues of existing epoxy recovery material, which are 'yellowing' and 'ir-reversibility'. This Urethane resin restration material had been directly applied as a filling material and adhesive and it was dissolved again. The Urethane resin, which had been used for the recovery, was able to be perfectly removed, which means that this Urethane resin recovery material has perfect reversibility. This Urethane resin restoration material also has enhanced convenience since user can adjust the working-life dependent on work environment. It is believed that this Urethane resin restoration material can also be used as a filling material or adhesive for other cultural assets made of ceramic or metal heritage, in addition to stone, since it has strong adhesive strength and tensile strength.
Inspection Results of the Swedish Stone Vase in the St. Petersburg Summer Garden, Russia
Bulakh, Andrej ; Nesterov, Evgeny ; Choi, Seok-Won ; Vlasov, Dimitry ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 123~126
The results of the inspection of the vase condition for April 29th, 2008 have stated the mineral-petrographic characteristic of the material, the character of the stone mechanical defects; its impurity and biological faults have been described; the results of ultrasonic sounding of the stone have been shown. Possible reasons and process of destruction of the stone vase have been analysed on January, 6 to 12th, 2008. Recommendations on restoration and preservation of the vase have been given.