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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Study of Optimal Gamma Irradiation using Monte Carlo Simulations for the Control of Fungi on Wooden Cultural Property
Yoon, Min-Chul ; Chung, Yong-Jae ; Kang, Dai-Ill ; Kim, Ik-Joo ; Kim, Gwang-Hoon ; Lee, Yun-Jong ; Lee, Ju-Woon ; Choi, Jong-Il ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 127~134
In this study, there has been investigated the simulation of irradiation dose using Monte Carlo methodology and experimental substantiation for the biological control of wooden cultural property. In the evaluation of fungal contamination on wooden cultural property, Dongyae, from exhibition storage, Aureobasidium pullulans was mainly identified. But these microorganisms were completely inactivated by 20 kGy gamma irradiation. For dosimetry simulation of Dongyae, Monte Carlo methodology with MCNP was used. The real dosimetry was measured using alanin dosimeters (at 7 different points on the front plan and 7 points on the back plan). Simulated and experimental results are compared and good agreement is observed. These result shows that irradiation can offer biologic control of wooden cultural property by optimal irradiation dose through high penetration power and Monte Carlo simulation.
A Study on the Reaction Rate and Cause Analysis of Cyanoacrylate Adhesives According to the Coating Mixtures for Metal Artifacts
Kwon, Hee-Hong ; Huh, Il-Kwon ; Kim, Soo-Ki ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 135~144
When metal artifacts have to undergo conservation treatment, the person in charge of the treatment selects and uses various coating mixtures based on his judgment regarding their condition, material, or environment. Since the kinds of coating mixtures or solvents make a difference in the set time of cyanoacrylate adhesives, they have something to do with the efficiency of the conservation treatment. This study examines the effects and causes that affect the set time of cyanoacrylate adhesives according to the kinds of coating mixtures and solvents and suggests ways to increase the set time. As a result, it is thought that as the surface roughness gets flatter, the wettability of adhesive is improved further, which increases the set time. Moreover, the C-F binding of V-Flon, C-O-C absorption peak, molecular weight of the coating mixtures, and glass transition temperature (Tg) were the factors that significantly affected the set time. According to the result of measuring the set time based on the result of superficial and chemical analysis, relative difference was shown according to the kind and viscosity of adhesive, but all the adhesives indicated the following order of the set time: V-Flon > Paraloid B-72 (in xylene) > Paraloid NAD-10 > Paraloid B-72 (in acetone).
The Community of Aerial Algae and the Biological Pollution Coverage at 9 Stone Cultural Heritages in Korea
Kim, Yong-Jin ; Kim, Ok-Jin ; Lee, Ok-Min ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 145~154
This research was to examine the biological pollution class by color of the polluted section and calculate the biological pollution coverages of 9 stone heritages in Korea, from June to November 2008. Three storied stone pagoda in Mulgeol-ri, Hongcheon, Three storied stone pagoda in Suta Temple and Stupa to Hongudang in Sutasa Temple showed 90% biological pollution coverage and each stone cultural heritages showed 15~23% range of Bryophyte coverage, proving severe biological pollution. The Four-lion three storied stone pagoda of Gwaeseok-ri, Three storied stone pagoda in Suta Temple and Stupa to Hongudang in Sutasa Temple showed the worst biological pollution class by color of class 5. Three storied stone pagoda in Chang-ri showed satisfactory level of class 2. The result of the correlation analysis between biological pollution class and the biological pollution coverage of lichen showed high correlation coefficient of 0.91, however, the correlation analysis between biological pollution class and bryophyte or aerial algae coverage showed the low correlation coefficient. Eight taxa among all the aerial algae, Cosmarium decedens, Chlorella ellipsoidea, Anabaena fertilissima, Botryococcus braunii, Chroococcus turgidus, Navicula cryptocephala and Xenococcus acervatus showed high correlation coefficient of 0.56~0.85 with biological pollution coverage of bryophyte, in the correlation analysis. The correlation coefficient between biological pollution coverage of lichen, Trebouxia sp. and Chroococcus varius, had a range between 0.43 to 0.50. The correlation coefficient between biological pollution coverage of aerial algae, Achnanthes laterostrata and Ulothrix zonata showed a range of 0.57 to 0.76. Since the aerial algae with high correlation between biological pollution coverage showed clear appearance tendency, they can be used as indicator.
Study on Degradation of Leather Objects by Conservation Environment: Focus on the Effect by Ultraviolet Light (UV) and Moisture
Kang, Dai-Ill ; Park, Hae-Jin ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 155~162
In case of leather objects, degradation usually occurs by a combination of factors such as temperature and relative humidity, light and insect and fungi. Because chemical composition differs on the types of leather materials, leather objects affect differently even in the same environment. According to UV degradation, the overall color and gloss difference appeared severe in turn of the cowskin, sheepskin and pigskin specimens. In addition, despite short-term period of RH degradation, leather materials showed stable result on high RH circumstances. Nevertheless, if the leather sustained for a long time on the high RH, the environment can be the cause of mold or microorganisms. This study is to understand the leather objects and the future conservation and then to establish the conservational management of leather object for the future.
Material Characteristics and Clay Source Interpretation of the Ancient Ceramic Artifacts from the Wonsinheungdong Site in Daejeon, Korea
Kim, Ran-Hee ; Jung, Hae-Sun ; Jung, Sang-Hoon ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 163~179
This study was to identify the material characteristics and provenance of the crucibles, potteries and roof tiles from the Wonsinheungdong site in Daejeon, Korea. Similar mineral composition of each samples showed by microscopic observation and X-ray diffraction analysis. However, wall thickness and mineral characterization of each ceramic artifacts are quite different. The pottery is characterized by thin wall with 0.5 to 0.7 cm and fine grained clay matrix. While the crucible and roof tile has thick wall with 1.3 to 2.5 cm, poorly sorted texture of many quarz, orthoclase and plagioclase whithin ceramic fabric. And large elonagated voids formed by hydrocarbone of straw during the firing and loose matrix obseved in crucible. All ceramic samples and ground soil of the site show similar mineralogical characteristics geochemical behavior and clay-mineralization degree. This indicates making that the soil is probable to be a raw material of all ceramic from the Wonsinheungdong site. Also, firing temperature of most ceramic artifacts are estimated as 850 of all ceramic from the Wonsinheungdong site. Also, firing temperature of most ceramic artifacts are estimated as 850 to
but hardest pottery fired high temperature between 1,050 to
. The vitreous molten materials interpreted in slag included segregation of copper and tin. But it can not exclude the possibility that the glass molten material because observed reddish and greenish vitreous fine structure under microscopic.
Study on Digital Restoration by 3-dimensional Image for Gilt Bronze Cap Excavated from the Ancient Tomb of Andong, Goheung
Lee, Joo-Wan ; Oh, Jung-Hyun ; Kim, Sa-Dug ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 181~190
A precision measurement and digital image restoration of the 5th century's gilt bronze cap of Baekje dynasty, excavated from the ancient tomb of Andong, Goheung in 2006, was undertaken. The objective of the scanning is to preserve precise feature of the artefact in the form of digital data by embodying it in 3 dimensional space. Acquirement of the data has been undertaken in the following process : 3D scanning to obtain 3D shape and color information(original data photographing)-3D modelling(joining original data and restoring non-photographed or damaged area)-CG image production. Production of restoration CG image was based on joined shape of original data and each part's measurement on CAD. Non-photographed part and area of loss was restored referring actual measurement and research result of excavated cap from the 5th to 8th century. 3D image restoration is one of artefact restoration methods which restores artefact without risk. It is also undertaken with historical research. As result, this method can enhance aesthetic and academic value of the artefact by successful restoration.
Estimation of Application of Artificially Deteriorated Silk by Ultraviolets for Conservation of Paintings on the Silk
Oh, Joon-Suk ; Chun, Ji-Youn ; Lim, In-Kyung ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 191~199
A study was done to compare the properties of artificially deteriorated silk with ultraviolets for reinforcing of loss area of paintings on silk. Deteriorated surface of raw silk irradiated by long-wavelength ultraviolet(UV-A) than short-wavelength ultraviolet(UV-C) was similar to naturally aged raw silk. UV-A irradiation raw silk was slowly decreased in tensile tenacity and elongation and lowered in yellowness index than that of UV-C. Water content of UV-A irradiation raw silk than that of UV-C was higher. UV-A irradiation raw silk had no problem in dyeing and inpainting for conservation because of low yellowness index. UV-C irradiation raw silk was brittle, but UV-A irradiation raw silk was seemed to tough and similar to naturally aged raw silk. Korean painting conservator estimated that UV-A irradiation raw silk was more proper for reinforcing of loss area of paintings on silk than that of UV-C.
Study on the Physical Properties of Alkoxysilane-based Stone Consolidants with Different Hydrolysis
Park, Soung-Jin ; Won, Jong-Ok ; Kim, Jeong-Jin ; Do, Jin-Young ; Kim, Sa-Dug ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 201~209
While consolidants based on tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) have been widely used for the consolidation of decaying stone heritages, TEOS-based consolidants suffer from practical drawbacks, such as crack formation of the gel during the drying phase due to the developed capillary force. We have prepared new TEOS-based consolidants containing flexible (3-glycidoxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) in order to reduce capillary force development during gel drying. In this study, we have prepared TEOS/GPTMS-based consolidants containing ETEOS in order to improve the surface hydrophobisity. The physical properties of the TEOS/GPTMS/ETEOS solution with different hydrolysis were compared with those of the commercial products Wacker OH
. The contact angle of the surface increased with the addition of the ETEOS, which is higher than that of Wacker OH
. The sol-gel mechanism was manipulated by the degree of hydrolysis as well as the amount of ETEOS. The properties and the applicability of the developed consolidants for the decayed Korean granites are also investigated.
Homogeneity Investigation of Replace Stone for Restoration of the Mireuksaji Stone Pagoda in Iksan, Korea
Kim, Sa-Dug ; Yi, Jeong-Eun ; Lee, Dong-Sik ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 211~222
The Mireuksaji stone pagoda was built foundation in the reign of King Moo (AD 639) in the Baekje Kingdom of ancient Korea. The stone properties of the pagoda were quarried from Mountain Mireuk, which are medium to coarse-grained light gray biotite granite formed during the Jurassic, and are composed of quartz, feldspar, biotite, muscovite, apatite and allanite. It was strong relatively but became weak from prolonged weathering, and as a result its durability fell to
(moderate weathering degree). In the process, cut-off (31%), deletion (57%) and crack (44%) occurred in foundation materials by the influence of bending, shear and compressive force. Hereat, the original materials were treated through a preservation process. As a result, approximately 74% of original materials have been able to be reused, inclusive of 55 materials that were to be partially replaced by new stones. On the other hand, it is inevitable that the other 26% including exterior stones and support-based stones have to be partially replaced by new stones. It implies that there is a need to find stones that are identical or similar to those of the pagoda. Consequently, a lithological study was conducted on stones in quarries located in Iksan and an investigation was made into their properties. The results showed that stones in the Hwangdeung area were most similar to those of the pagoda mineralogically and their properties were most stable.
Pigment Analysis and Conservation Method of Avalokitesvara in Potalaka of Hyeondeungsa, Gapyeong
Seo, Jeong-Ho ; Cha, Byung-Gap ; Jung, Hee-Soo ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 223~229
Buddha painting cultural properties couldn't avoid the change of colors and the exfoliation phenomenon by the characteristic of material and environmental factors. Especially, because in the beginning of the fine crack and the decoloration phenomenon on the surface of pigment would be significantly decrease stability of the whole object, it is necessary to take particular measure. Therefore, this is a study on conservation of Avalokitesvara in Potalaka in Hyeondeungsa in Gapyeong. It treated damaged parts of the object, carried out backing papers and matching colors. And then, it examined scientific analysis of pigments. Also, it performed nondestructive testing like XRF, FT-IR, and image microscope to investigate the quality of the material of hanji using the object and the component and characteristic of pigments. As a result, FT-IR spectrum matching Korean traditional paper(hanji) was detected in hanji of Avalokitesvara in Potalaka in Hyeondeungsa. The black pigment making a thin layer over the white pigment would estimate carbon compounds of unconfirmed ink stick or soot as XRF and FT-IR. Also, the white pigment was lead white(
) involving Pb(Lead) and a carbonate. It was observed that the crystal of blue pigment had the different sizes of the particles from the microscope. In the case of this blue pigment, it showed cobalt blue and lead white was mixed when it used because both Cu and Pb were highly detected in XRF data.
Anoxia Techniques to Eradicate Insects for Conservation of Cultural Properties in Museums
Oh, Joon-Suk ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 231~241
Anoxia Treatment using inert gas like nitrogen and argon has been used to eradicate insects successfully in museums as alternative of methyl bromide and toxic insecticide. Killing efficacy of insect for anoxia treatment is depend on species of insects, oxygen concentration, temperature, relative humidity and gas. It is possible to kill museum insects which are most tolerant in anoxia environment, within 1 month below 0.03% of oxygen concentration in temperature
and relative humidity 40~60% of museum environment. And various systems like bag, tent, bubble and chamber depending on size and quantity of objects, are used.