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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Chemical Cleaning of Iron Stains on Ceramics
Park, Dae-Woo ; Jang, Sung-Yoon ; Nam, Byeong-Jik ; Ham, Chul-Hee ; Lim, Seong-Tae ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 4, 2011, Pages 345~356
To remove metal stains of the ceramics, chemical cleaning is essential case by case. This study investigated the removal characteristics of iron stains by oxalic acid and citric acid including their application methods of soaking and poultice. The soaking method in cleaning agents showed removal process by color difference and released iron contents from iron stains on ceramics. Iron stains were removed successfully from ceramics, which soaked in oxalic acid for 60 hours. However, it is recommendable to soak in 0.25M oxalic acid for one to three hours because most iron stains were disappeared in 3 hours soaking. Citric acid is less effective than oxalic acid in removing iron stains because of heavy molecular weight and low acidity. Poultices (bentonite, sepiolite, activated carbon fiber and celite) with oxalic acid were applied on contaminated ceramics. After ten hours, iron stains on ceramics were removed successfully by poultice. Among them, bentonite and sepiolite have better application. Therefore, sepiolite with 0.25M oxalic acid was applied on the iron stains of whiteware and celadon from Ma Island, and then stains were removed. However, it is judged that the application methods can be varied according to the form and depth of contaminant. In addition, the residues of poultice on the ceramics will be considered for preventing contamination.
Material Characteristics and Deterioration Diagnosis of the Pagoda of Buddhist Priest Jeongjin in Bongamsa Temple, Mungyeong, Korea
Yi, Jeong-Eun ; Lee, Chan-Hee ; Han, Byeong-Il ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 4, 2011, Pages 357~369
The Bongamsa Jeongjindaesa Wonotap Pagoda (Treasure No. 171) constructed in the 10th century composed mainly of leucocratic granite with feldspar phenocryst. The major rock-forming minerals are quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase and some biotite. This pogoda is highly damaged physical weathering which are break-out, flakes, exfoliation and cracks. As a result of the infrared thermography on the surface of the pagoda, internal exfoliations occurred to cracks. Also, P-XRF analysis showed that Fe, S, Ca and Mn of concentration were so high in the discoloration parts. The coated part of red pigment has a high five times in Fe content than the fresh rock surface. This result suggests that material of red pigment is hematite. Ultrasonic velocity of the stone properties were from 831 to 2,457 m/s, but it measured velocity of less than 1,000m/s in part of damaged area. Therefore, we suggest for safety conservation for weathered parts of the pagoda, that is in want of rejoin and consolidation treatment about serious damage parts.
Studies on Analysis of Joseon Lacquer Layer
Choi, Seok-Chan ; Kim, Sun-Duk ; Yi, Yong-Hee ; Ko, Soo-Rin ; Ham, Seung-Wook ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 4, 2011, Pages 371~380
For studying of the characteristics and structures of material in lacquer layer in Joseon Dynasty, 6 types and 7 pieces of sample were observed with the optical microscope and the polarizing microscope. For analyzing, SEM-EDS and FT-IR were used and TOF-SIMS was also used on trial. The former is directly varnished on the iron layer so the sample includes more iron component than the others. In the results of the trial analyzing in TOF-SIMS, it is possible to verify the minerals on the foundation layer with the infinitesimalsample. The analysis results of lacquer layer with FT-IR are compared with previous studies and all the samples have the spectrum of the lacquer. Through the result of the Joseon lacquer layer, there are not many samples, however, when it compared with unified Silla, the period of the Three States, and the previous era, the lacquer layers are simpler than the relics from previous era. It looks to have the relation with the simplification of manufacturing method because of expanding of the using of lacquer wares.
Detailed Deterioration Diagnosis and Analysis of Site Environment for the Taean Dongmunri Maaesamjonbulipsang (Rock-carved Standing Triad Buddha Statue), Korea
Lee, Sun-Myung ; Jun, Byung-Kyu ; Shin, Eun-Jeong ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 4, 2011, Pages 381~393
This study focus on the surface deterioration diagnosis based on the material characteristics of Taean Dongmunri Maaesamjonbulipsang(rock-carved standing triad Buddha Statue) and the weathering environment analysis. Rock materials of the triad Buddha is coarse-grained biotite granite which is composed mainly of quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, biotite and muscovite. The triad Buddha was serious surface irregularity(13.5%), exfoliation(12.3%) and discoloration(46.6%), and the physical characteristics using ultrasonic velocity appeared fourth grade (0.59, highly weathered). Korean style wooden shelter of the triad Buddha(closed type) maintained high humidity environment (daily mean; 86.6%) than exterior environment, and appeared the possibility of deterioration by freezing-thawing because the temperature showed below zero temperatures in winter. The shelter was changed from closed-type to open-type to relieve the moisture problem recently. But the moisture problem is yet to be solved because surface water flowing along northern wayside is flowed into triad Buddha. Therefore, environmental control will need to stop inflow of water into triad Buddha.
Conservation Treatment of Sand Stone by Pressurized Impregnation with Acrylic Materials
Kim, Youn-Cheol ; Kim, Sa-Duk ; Kim, Hyung-Joong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 4, 2011, Pages 395~401
After pressurized impregnation treatment, which has been proposed as an effective conservation method for stone cultural property, was executed with methyl metacrylate (MMA), MMA-butyl acrylate (PMB73) mixture and MMA-vinyl trimethoxy silane (PMV5) co-monomer mixture, the physical-chemical properties on the sand stone and the granite impregnated were evaluated. Compared to the case of granite, the impregnation ratios of sand stone showed larger values in the range of 3.2 to 3.7 wt% and these were increased up to 32% when the decompression process was applied to autoclave. The physical properties of sand stone such as anti-moisture property, flexural strength, impact property and ultrasonic velocity were also higher values than those of granite, which can be interpreted by high impregnation ratio resulted in many void within sand stone. The impact failure energy was 1.22 J for PMMA, 1.84 J for PMB73, and 2.8 J for PMV5, respectively. Since the inorganic affinity of treatment agent is more effective than the molecular structure of acrylic agent, PMV5 improved inorganic property indicates the optimum impact property.
Research on Re-creational Experiment and Technique of Gold Powder Painting for Goryeo Gold-painted Porcelain
Hwang, Hyun-Sung ; Lee, Da-Hae ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 4, 2011, Pages 403~414
This study is re-creational experiment of Goryeo gold-painted decoration based on the research of the gold remaining and gold painting technique on the two pieces of Goryeo gold-painted celadon and the three pieces of Chinese gold-painted porcelain on North Song period which ones have been owned by National Museum of Korea since 2007. For the observation of glue state and color developing ability, four kinds of agglutinative agent and gold powder were mixed over the porcelain sherds, then gradually fired from
. Visual effect and ideal temperature were measured. Among of them, oil and glue showed the best results in glue state and color developing ability. Through those results, the entire Goryeo engraved celadon were reproduced in modern facilities. Oil and glue were gold-painted over the glaze then it was fired at the ideal temperature 700 to
. For observation the binding condition, the gold-painting cross section was looked by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). As the result, oil and glue did not make much difference in Agglutinative agent, but gold was good, the color developing ability, however, in the case of oil, the edge of gold is curled because of its interfacial tension, and it is not dried well at room temperature so the working property is not as good as the glue. Glue more effective in terms of work efficiency, but color developing ability to fall slightly in this experiment were able to see through.
Study on Application of Urethane Materials for Hardening of Metal Artifacts
Lee, Ho-Yeon ; Wi, Koang-Chul ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 4, 2011, Pages 415~420
Urethane coating agent was made up in order to prevent corrosion on metal relics. This urethane coating agent was designed to solve problems linked to gloss and discoloration caused by existing acrylic coating agent which is mainly applied to metal relics. For the purpose, the urethane coating agent was made up which has lower gloss and slight color change. This coating agent formed thinner coating layer with excellent adhesion compared to the existing agent and has outstanding resistance to the surface oxidization of metal relics and water repellent on the surface. In addition, the agent is considered a stable coating agent replacing current acrylic coating agent with showing easy dissolution in organic solvents such as acetone, toluene and xylene with excellent result in reversible reaction.
A Study on the Change in Microstructures of Traditional Forged High Tin Bronzes by Quenching
Lee, Jae-Sung ; Jeon, Ik-Hwan ; Park, Jang-Sik ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 4, 2011, Pages 421~430
Thermal conditions in practice at the traditional bronze workshop of the Korean Folk Village in Yongin were examined along with the microstructures of some high tin bronze objects made there. Laboratory experiments approximating the conditions of the workshop were also carried out and the results were compared. The operating temperature of the workshop furnace was measured to range from
while the surface temperature of an object, upon its removal from the furnace for additional thermo-mechanical treatments, was generally in the range of
. This variation in working temperatures was reflected in varying microstructures developed upon quenching. The products of the Folk Village were found to consist of microstructures where the
grains of the Cu-Sn system were distributed in the background of different phases including the
-martensite phase, retained
eutectoid or their mixtures. This variability, which is also identified in objects made in ancient times as well as in our laboratory experiments, suggests that the actual thermal conditions given during the quenching treatments are much more complicated than is inferred from the temperature measurements. This paper will present detailed accounts of the thermo-mechanical treatments as observed in the high tin bronze workshop of the Korean Folk Village and discuss the evolution of varying microstructures in terms of the substantial variability involved in the implementation of the traditional forged high tin bronze technology of Korea.
Tuning Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Composites Containing Epoxy Resin/Inorganic Additives for Stone Conservation
Choi, Yong-Seok ; Chae, Il-Seok ; Kang, Yong-Soo ; Won, Jong-Ok ; Kim, Jeong-Jin ; Kim, Sa-Dug ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 4, 2011, Pages 431~440
The thermal expansion coefficient of epoxy/inorganic additives composites was controlled by changing the amount of the inorganic additives such as talc and fused silica. The epoxy resin comprises hydrogenated bisphenol A (HBA)-based epoxide, difunctional polyglycidyl epoxide (DPE) as a diluent and isophorone-diamine (IPDA) as a crosslinking agent, which was subsequently mixed with inorganic additives (talc and fused silica). The thermal expansion coefficient was decreased by increasing amount of inorganic additives, nearly to fresh granite. Fused silica was more effective than talc in lowering the thermal expansion coefficient. Additionally, lexural and tensile strengths of the composites were getting lower and higher with the amount of the inorganic fillers, respectively. It was thus concluded that an epoxy composite containing inorganic fillers was developed to show much lower thermal expansion coefficient, similar to fresh granite, than the neat epoxy resin, and also proper mechanical strengths for applications.
Influence of Burial Environments on Excavated Ceramics
Jang, Sung-Yoon ; Nam, Byeong-Jik ; Park, Dae-Woo ; Yu, Jae-Eun ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 4, 2011, Pages 441~450
This study investigated potential damages and conservation methods for the ceramics (without glaze) by examination of physical and chemical effects from the burial environments. For this study, pottery samples excavated from Daejeon Hakha, Asan Eumbong, Hwasung Sogeunsan and Kongju Haengbokdosi were examined with released ions and extraction through desalination. The result showed that the ion inflow into the ceramics was dependent upon the porosity and the absorption of ceramics. The high temperature fired ceramics (over
) have low porosity and absorption, therefore almost no salt infiltration during the burial period. However, low temperature fired ceramics (under
) have high porosity and absorption, and most of salts were removed during the desalination. The 40 to 60% of salts were removed in two days and 60 to 80% of slats were released in a week. Furthermore, fertilizer residues such as
, in soils were detected in the ceramcis. Also the characteristics of buried soil affected ion infiltration into ceramics. Ceramics buried in sandy soil had relatively less ion contents from buried environments than those in clayey soil. Therefore, low temperature fired ceramics could do not only cleaning but also desalination if it is necessary, and the period could be decided to the condition of ceramics.
Making Technique Studies of Mural Paintings in the No. 6 Tomb of Songsanri, Gongju
Han, Kyeong-Soon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 27, issue 4, 2011, Pages 451~458
This study aims at identifying wall painting production technique of Songsanri No. 6 tomb based on optical examination and scientific analysis along with the investigation of written records of ancient wall paintings. The result displays that bricks with mortar were used for the construction of the wall, and masonry joint were made of lime, sand and gypsum. The surface of brick were plastered with black and thereafter with white lime. Finely sifted clay on the top of the white surface, were applied not with plasterer's trowel but with a brush for making ground surface. The clay are mineral particles smaller than
of silt. The wall paintings of Sonsanri No. 6 is the only example of making ground layer with clay for painting of Sasindo (literally four heavenly animals painting) among remaining wall paintings of ancient tombs. The historical value of the painting should be attributed not only in terms that it displays a rare production techniques which were never discovered in any other paintings in Korea and Asia, but also it might had been uncompleted when the tomb were closed, even though it considers the fact that the wall painting were discovered in damaged condition in 1933.