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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Identification of Fibers of Samsebul (Triple Buddha Statues) at Bonghwangsa in Andong
Cho, Kyoung-Sil ; Baek, Young-Mee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 28, issue 4, 2012, Pages 297~303
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2012.28.4.297
Samsebul, the altar portrait behind the statue of Buddha in the main building of Bonghwang temple in Andong, has been designated as Tangible Cultural Property No. 406. These alter portraits have significance as the standard of the research of Samsebul in Joseon period. In this study, fibre of the ground textile is identified using microscopic examination, solubility test, ATR-FT-IR, SEM, XRD. Two samples from Yaksabul(A, B), one sample from Seokgabul(C), and one sample from Amitabul(D), which were collected during the conservation process, were prepared for this study. In previous record, above samples were documented as hemp. Due to severe deterioration and accumulated dust layers on these samples, it was hard to recognize them with naked eyes, but through this study, we could identify that all samples except one from Yaksabul(A) are silk.
Material Analysis and Deterioration Evaluation of Foundation Stones and Holy Stone Relics in Myeongdongseongdang Cathedral, Korea
Kim, Jiyoung ; Ha, Eun Young ; Lee, Myeong Seong ; Lee, Chan Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 28, issue 4, 2012, Pages 305~319
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2012.28.4.305
The Myeongdongseongdang Cathedral, which was designated as Historic Site No. 258 in Korea, is a representative cathedral of Korean Catholic church designed by a French priest Eugene-Jean Georges Coste and completed in 1898. It is a Gothic-styled architecture constructed with bricks and stones. Lithological and mineralogical analyses determined that holy stone relics were made of marble and granite, and foundation stones are of pink feldspar granite. Deterioration mapping and ultrasonic measurement revealed main weathering and damage were exfoliation (40%) and black discoloration (37%) in the holy water basin, and exfoliation (6%) and discoloration (46%) in the exterior foundation stones. Ultrasonic velocity of the stones were calculated as 3,525m/s in the holy water basin and 2,795m/s in the exterior stones that indicated these stones were sorted into moderately to highly weathered rock. This was resulted from moisture and atmospheric pollutants around the cathedral.
Damage Characteristics of Korean Traditional Textiles by Sulfur Dioxide
Kim, Myoung Nam ; Lim, Bo A ; Shin, Eun Jeong ; Lee, Sun Myung ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 28, issue 4, 2012, Pages 321~328
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2012.28.4.321
gas acceleration test was carried out on four textile groups (silk, cotton, ramie cloth, hemp cloth) which were categoried in five categories by the dyeing materials (undyed, red, yellow, blue, black) and the relation between the concentration of
and deterioration rate was evaluated. The textiles were exposed to 0.01, 0.12, 1, 10, 100, 1000, and 5000 ppm of
for 24 hours and the optical, physical, and chemical deterioration rates were studied. An optical change was identified as the color difference and grey scale rating (colorfastness) enhanced with the increase of gas concentration while there was little physical change. Chemical damage was caused by the acidification of the textile material due to the trapped sulfate ion concentration. The result of optical, physical, and chemical deterioration rates shows that 1 ppm/day
is a critical level of deterioration of traditional textiles.
Weathering Characteristics according to Seawater Immersion of the Magai Wareiishi Jizo (Buddhist Statue Carved on Rock Surface) in Hiroshima, Japan
Lee, Sun Myung ; Lee, Myeong Seong ; Chun, Yu Gun ; Lee, Jae Man ; Morii, Masayuki ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 28, issue 4, 2012, Pages 329~341
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2012.28.4.329
Magai Wareiishi Jizo (Buddhist statue carved on rock surface) is close to shoreline and a part of rock block is periodically immersed by seawater. Rock material of the Wareiishi-jizo statue is composed mainly of medium or coarse-grained biotite granite and very durable. However, physical properties of the rock have been changed according to the complex interactions of the salt solution and surrounding environment. Exfoliation of the rock surface is a serious condition by salt crystallization. Exfoliation (14.6%) is concentrated on the upper part of the rock block with mainly boundary of seawater as the center. On the other hand, lower part of the rock block show black layers by contaminants deposition. In addition, brown discoloration and biological contaminants is overlapped. Rock surface show high discoloration rate of 50.5% (black discoloration, 29.2% > yellow discoloration, 14.1% > brown discoloration, 4.4% > green discoloration, 2.9%). Upper part of the rock block had a lot of change in the physical properties than lower part that is immersed by seawater. In particular, surface properties of the rock block was very weak state at the boundary surface of seawater permeation.
Study on Characteristics and Features of Re-corrosion on Archaeological Iron Nails after Conservation Treatments
Lee, Hyeyoun ; Park, Hyungho ; Kim, Sujung ; Yu, Jaeeun ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 28, issue 4, 2012, Pages 343~351
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2012.28.4.343
Excavated archaeological iron objects are prevented from being corroded going through desalination which slow down being corroded. However archaeological iron objects are liable to be corroded due to the high ionization tendency even though they are stored in environment restricted from corrosion factors. Iron objects could be deteriorated more than just excavated. Therefore this study investigated about the characteristic of re-corrosion and the effect on objects. In study, archaeological iron nails in storage for 4 years after conservation treatments were tested. Optical microscopy and X-ray photography for appearance, XRD, SEM-EDS, Raman spectroscopy for chemical composition, IC for chloride ions concentration inside iron nails were used. As results, iron nails carried out conservation treatments measured a high concentration of chloride ions after the long storage period. The form of objects were not in good condition such as broken or destroyed when the high chloride ions concentration was detected. In addition, the yellow and red powdery corrosion product were detected on the boundary between corrosion products and substrates and they were identified as akaganeite which is symptom of active corrosion.
Interpretation of Making Techniques and Material Characteristics for Molding Clay of Four Guardian Statues in Wanju Songkwangsa Temple, Korea
Han, Doo Roo ; Lee, Chan Hee ; Jo, Young Hoon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 28, issue 4, 2012, Pages 353~366
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2012.28.4.353
This study was interpreted the making techniques of the Four Guardian Statues in Wanju Songkwangsa Temple, and retained basic data necessary for conservation treatment and restoration of the same material by estimating the soil source. The molding clay used in the Statues showed a variety of material characteristics according to different layers. The first and mid layers estimated as the original molding clay are composed of the same kind of soil. The soil of the finish layer was also confirmed to be genetically similar to that of the first and mid layers, despite little discrepancy. The former restoration layer was inconsistent in material characteristics with the original molding clay in every result of analysis. As a result of gamma radiography, making techniques of the Statues were able to identify the figure of the frame connecting the woods of main pillar frame to sub-frame and steel wire with ㄷ-clamp, nails and straw ropes, and the molding clay constructed upon the frame. Meanwhile, provenance interpretation confirmed that the soil of the estimated provenance area is of the same origin as the soil of the finish layer, and therefore is an appropriate material for conservation treatment. This result will contribute to the research on making techniques of the molding clay Statues.
A Study on Iron-manufacture Method through Analysis of Ironware excavated from Byeokje, Goyang
Lim, Ju-Yeon ; Kim, Soo-Ki ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 28, issue 4, 2012, Pages 367~376
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2012.28.4.367
The ironware production technology is a measure to fathom the society`s level of development in time. To understand iron-manufacure methods in the past, various investigations on the fine structures and additions of ironware remains and Iron ingot have been conducted in a way of natural science. This study metallurgically reclassifies remains excavated in iron-manufacture remains located in Beokje, Goyang, which are thought to be in time of Goryeo Dynasty, and draws an inference from the element analysis on the iron-manufacture and smelting technology. Iron ingot samples with a cast iron structure are divided into those with a white cast iron structure and those with a grey cast iron rich in P. The P content of grey cast iron appeared to be the result of adding a flux agent like lime, iron ingot and carbon steel iron ingot with a cast iron structure excavated in the area is regarded as pig iron which was made without a refining process. In this study it seems that two methods of making ironware were used in the area; one is the method of making ironware by pouring cast iron to the casting, and the other is the method of making carbon steel through the refinement of pig iron. It appears that highly even steel structure of carbon steel and a small amount of MnS inclusion are very similar with that of the modern steel to which Mn is artificially added. Nevertheless, these data alone cannot be used to determine the source of Mn in the carbon steel of the excavated from the iron-manufacture remains, which raises the need for further studies on the source and the possibility of carbon steel via the iron-manufacture process of cast iron.
Trial Manufacture and Disinfection Evaluation of Anoxic Chamber System for Museum Insects
Oh, Joonsuk ; Choi, Jungeun ; Lee, Jangmook ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 28, issue 4, 2012, Pages 377~385
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2012.28.4.377
Anoxic treatments using argon and nitrogen gas in controlled atmospheres have been used as a alternative to methyl bromide for insect disinfection in museums. Anoxic chamber system was manufactured and installed at The National Folk Museum of Korea for the first time in Korea. The internal capacity of anoxic chamber is 0.5m3 in which is able to use argon, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas. This system is equipped with oxygen concentration, temperature and ralative humidity control devices and automatically controlled oxygen concentration from 0.01 to 20%, temperature from 10 to
and relative humidity 30 to 80%. To control the oxygen concentration, anoxic chamber system is adopted semi-dynamic method which supplies mixture of humidified gas and dry gas whenever oxygen concentration in chamber becomes higher than setting value. It has kept regularly oxygen concentration, temperature and relative humidity for 20 days using argon gas. To evaluate the disinfection of cigarette beetle larvae and adults and varied carpet beetle larvae, the anoxic chamber system maintained 0.01% of oxygen concentration,
in temperature and 50% in relative humidity for 30 days. Cigarette beetle larvae were killed in 7 days and adults in 3~5 days. And varied carpet beetle larvae were killed in 3 days. It reaches the conclusion form the evaluation this anoxic chamber system can be used to develop anoxic treatment as an alternative of methyl bromide for insect disinfection of infested cultural properties in museums.
A Study of the Aging Properties of the Common Synthetic Resin Adhesives for Paper Conservation Purposes
Sung, Yeonsim ; Youm, Inkyung ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 28, issue 4, 2012, Pages 387~394
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2012.28.4.387
Most of the libraries and archives that lacks conservation lab facilities, frequently apply common synthetic resin adhesives such as PVAc group(Pa), acrylic group(Ac) and PVP group(Pv) on simple repairs. The archival quality synthetic adhesive(Pa-1) that is used at the National Library of Korea and the common synthetic resin adhesives were selected for the experiments. Accelerated aging test was applied on the adhesive samples and change of the pH and chromaticity were measured for one month. As the result of the pH mesurments, Pa-1 and Ac-2 were at the acceptable pH range. As the result of the chromaticity mesurments, degree of yellowing(
) showed smaller change to greater change in the following order; Pa-1
Antifungal and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Asarum sieboldii against Wood Contaminant Fungi and Lasioderma serricorne L.
Kang, Soyeong ; Chung, Yong Jae ; Lim, Jin A ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 28, issue 4, 2012, Pages 395~401
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2012.28.4.395
To investigate bioactive materials for development of natural conservative agent on organic cultural heritage, essential oil from Asarum sieboldii was screened for antifungal and insecticidal activity against 4 wood rotting fungi and adult of Lasioderma serricorne. Antifungal activity of essential oil was tested by using paper disc soaking method. Antifungal activity expressed as
range and the most significant antifungal activity was observed in Lentinus lepideus. The insecticidal activity of essential oil was examined by topical application method against L. serricorne adults. 50% and 100% of essential oil gave 98.3% and 100% mortality for 24 hours, respectively. The major components of the essential oil were methyl eugenol (56.32%), eucarvone (11.53%), safrole (5.79%),
-3-carene (2.09%), which were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. From these results, essential oil from A. sieboldii could be useful for conservation of organic cultural heritage against biological deterioration by insect and wood rotting fungi.
Effect of Brine Treatment Applied in the Manufacture of Traditional Forged High Tin Bronzes of Korea
Lee, Jae-Sung ; Jeon, Ik-Hwan ; Kwak, Seok-Chul ; Park, Jang-Sik ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 28, issue 4, 2012, Pages 403~410
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2012.28.4.403
The brine treatment applied during the fabrication of forged high tin bronze objects is considered effective at the removal of surface oxide layers developed at elevated temperatures. There is not much information, however, available for the understanding of its exact effect and purpose. This work performed laboratory experiments to characterize the effect brine treatments produce on the surface of bronze objects during fabrication. Specimens were first made in the bronze shop of the Yongin folk village under varying conditions of brine treatments, and the results obtained were then used in the following laboratory experiments where the effect of brine treatments were investigated in terms of brine concentrations, alloy compositions and thermo-mechanical treatments. The results show that oxide layers generated at high temperature are easily removed by the brine treatment. It was found that the element, chlorine, played a key role in the removal of such oxide layers as opposed to the other constituent of the brine, sodium, makes no notable contribution. In bronze alloys containing 22% tin, this brine effect is obtained regardless of the application of forging as long as the brine concentration is over 0.5% based on weight. In alloys containing lead, however, no brine effect is observed due to the molten lead that emerges from inside the hot bronze specimen and forms a thin layer on its surface.
Wiggle Matched Radiocarbon Dates of Charcoal in a Fired Dwelling Excavated at the Pungnaptoseong Earthen Wall, Baekje
Song, Ji-Ae ; Son, Byung-Hwa ; Park, Won-Kyu ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 28, issue 4, 2012, Pages 411~416
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2012.28.4.411
The purpose of this study was to analyze AMS radiocarbon dating, using wiggle match, of a charcoal column excavated from a fired dwelling site (ra-#8) at the Pungnaptoseong earthen wall made in Baekje era. The result of wiggle matching for 6 decadal single-ring samples of the charcoal produced
radiocarbon date (95.4% confidence interval) as A.D. 190~280. It indicated that the dwelling site (ra-#8) belonged to the early and middle of the 3rd century. Radiocarbon dating results confirmed the date speculated by archaeologists according to dwelling structure and pottery style.
The Restoration Technology and Scientific Analysis of Bronze Mirror with Fine Linear Designs
Yun, Yong Hyun ; Cho, Nam Chul ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 28, issue 4, 2012, Pages 417~425
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2012.28.4.417
Bronze Mirror with fine linear designs in the bronze age shows the greatest alloy and casting skills of the day and presents the highest level of handcrafting and molding techniques. Lately, Lost-wax casting and sand-mould casting were used for the restoration of the national treasures of No. 141 and No. 143 Bronze Mirror with fine linear designs. Also the Principle Component Analysis, Microstructure Analysis, X-ray and SEM-EDS analysis were carried out on the restored Bronze Mirror with fine linear designs. Bronze Mirror that is made of sand-mould casting, hardly has a eutectoid and it is observed as a
dendrite. In contrast, Bronze Mirror that is made of lost-wax casting, the eutectoid has found through the
dendrite. As we compare lost-wax casting to the sand-mould casting through an analysis of restored Bronze Mirror, mostly, sand-mould casting has better castability and it seems that it brings a clear and equal Bronze Mirror as it has a low cooling rate. In this way, we are able to confirm that there is a big difference between the method by lost-wax casting and by sand-mould casting through an analysis of microstructure and restored Bronze Mirror. If such research will be continued, it will be an opportunity that investigates diverse methods of production techniques.