Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Study on Characteristics of Corrosion Products Generated in Iron Artifacts after Conservation Treatments
Jeong, Ji-Hae ; Yang, Hee-Jae ; Ha, Jin-Uk ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 297~309
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.01
Iron objects become corroded at fast speed from the moment when they are excavated, so it is needed to control corrosion through processes of conservation treatment. However, re-corrosion mostly takes place in excavate iron objects, although they have already gone through the process of conservation treatment, and it is more difficult to carry out the second conservation treatment of re-corroded excavated iron objects than the first conservation treatment, and it requires a longer period of time to treat them as well. In this study, aims to discover factors of re-corrosion by scientifically analyzing corrosion products generated during the process of storage after the process of conservation treatment. The finished on conservation treatment of the iron artifacts, which were unearthed from three ancient site in Gyeongju by using the same conservation method between 2002 and 2009, re-corrosion condition observed on the packaging-iron artifacts. Focused on 9 target forged iron artifacts among them, this study analyzed the physical changes by mass measurement, naked-eye and microscopic observations and the chemical changes by SEM-EDS, XRD, IC and ICP analysis. The results show that the yellowish brown corrosion products formed on the facing surface of part dropped from the artifacts had different associated forms but acicular shape. In addition, the acicular shape became clearer as the color changed from red to yellowish brown. According to the process when the conservation treatment was completed, the mass of the artifacts increased in proportion to the corrosion products and the chloride ion (
) concentration had a tendency to increase relatively.
-FeOOH (akaganeite) was confirmed in the XRD analysis for the corrosion products of all the collected samples. As a result of ICP analysis,
components were confirmed.
Analysis for Temperature and Relative Humidity of Showcase in Exhibition Hall Operated Intermittent Air Conditioning
Lee, Sun Myung ; Lim, Bo A ; Kim, Seojin ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 311~320
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.02
The showcase has insufficient temperature control, but it has excellent humidity control. The annual average temperature and relative humidity inside the showcase was
and 60.3%, respectively, and the showcase showed lower temperature and higher humidity than the exhibition room. The temperature inside the showcase appeared with high variation according to the seasons, while relative humidity was ranging from 59% to 61% regardless of the seasons. The showcase showed high temperature and humidity likewise the exhibition room in summer. In addition, lowering of temperature was elevated relative humidity according to the operation of air conditioner in summer. A moisture problem occurred because the temperature and humidity differences between the exhibition room and showcase were large according to the operation of air conditioner in winter. PI for temperature and relative humidity inside the showcase is 18.0%, and it means conservation environment for exhibition is unsuitable. In particular, continuous management of temperature and humidity inside the showcase is required because PI in the summer and winter is less than 1.0%.
Conservation Treatment and Deterioration Evaluation of the Namwon Singyeri Maaeyeoraejwasang (Rock-Carved Seated Buddha Statue), Korea
Chun, Yu Gun ; Lee, Myeong Seong ; Lee, Jae Man ; Lee, Jae Jin ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 321~332
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.03
Namwon Singyeri Maaeyeoraejwasang (Rock-Carved Seated Buddha Statue) is composed mainly foliated granite and is different metamorphic grade and weathering degree on rock location. As the results of deterioration evaluation, upper part of the buddha statue was estimated that granularity decomposition was serious and rock strength was lower than lower part. Furthermore organism assessed most effect of among weathering factors. Chl. a amount of organism species were calculated
of crustaceous lichen,
of foliose lichen,
of bryophyte. Organism was taken treatment in order of amount of Chl. a and pre-cleaning, dry cleaning, wet cleaning in sequence. It should be establish conservation plan that strengthening in consideration of lithology characteristics and setting in good condition environment to conserve long-term of Maaeyeoraejwasang.
The Characteristic Study of the Microbial Habitat in the Muwisa Museum, Gangjin
Seo, Min Seok ; Lee, Sun Myung ; Hong, Jin Young ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 333~343
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.04
The exhibition hall of museum has been damaged by abundant dust and mold of the air in the room. Occurrence of microorganisms on the surface of the cultural heritage will cause damages such as coloration, materials degradation, deterioration, etc. In this study, we investigated the temperature/humidity and microbes distribution in exhibition hall, display showcase, and on surface of wall paintings in the Muwisa museum. From some samples collected in exhibition hall and display showcase, we identified so many varieties of micro-organisms such as Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp.. In particular, we could see a large number of microorganisms in the number 1, 2 exhibition hall compared with the number 3 exhibition hall. The results examining the distribution of the temperature and humidity were showed as
and 70~80%, respectively. The number 1 exhibition showcase was higher humidity environment than the number 2, 3 exhibition hall compared to the distribution ratio, which considered as correlation with the distribution of microorganism concentration. As these results, we understood that high temperature and humidity in the exhibition hall and display showcase of the Muwisa museum were characteristics caused by environmental management and hermetically-sealed rooms.
Comparison Study for Domestic Coal and Material Characteristics of Coal from the Shipwreck of Koryo Dynasty
Lee, JangJon ; Park, SukWhan ; Lim, SungTae ; Han, MinSu ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 345~354
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.05
This study analyses geochemistrical, microscopic, mineralogical characteristics of coals which have been collected from in and out of the shipwreck No 1 of Mado island during underwater excavation in Taean. The result from mineralogical and geochemical analysis reveals that the specific gravity of the coals is
. Considering that coals contains 10% mineral of it and the specific gravity of the pure is
, it is believed that the collected coals would be lignite or biturminous coal. The X-ray diffraction analysis which displays the peak of
is 20~25C degree, proves that the collected coals would be categorised as low rank coal. The collected coals is composed of: 93%-94%(93.5%) of vitrinite maceral group, 5%-6%(5.5%) of exinite maceral group, and 1% of inertinite maceral group. In addition, the average of reflection rate is
: 0.627 showing that it would be either high volatile bituminous C coal or sub-bituminous C coal. Such result confirms that the coal is sub-bituminous C or high volatile bituminous C coal in accordance with the U.S Bureau of Mine(USBM) classification system. The element analysis reveals that the coal is the coking coal which is grouped as the bituminous coal. Comparative analysis between the coals of Mado Shipwreck No 1 and domestic coals shows that the coals of Mado Shipwreck is similar to the bituminous coal used in the area of Janggi in Pohang city.
Applicability for Authenticity of Bronze Artefacts using Scientific Analyses
Do, Misol ; Chung, Kwang Yong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 355~366
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.06
Diverse scientific analyses, including microstructure, ICP-AES, SEM-EDS, and P-XRF(Bench Top type and Gun type), were carried out on 6 bronze artefacts which handed from generation to generation. Also, we attempted to study applicability for authenticity of the bronze artefacts using scientific analyses based on the specific element. The results of ICP-AES analysis showed that the bronze were formed from an alloy of Cu, Sn, Pb with trace elements such as Ag, As, Co, Fe, but there were not Zn found. The result of P-XRF are 10~25% lower in Cu and 10~20% higher in Sn than that of ICP-AES. This is because of destannification that the compound of
are present on the surface. The results of SEM-EDS represented that there is lead segregation. It was difficult to study applicability for authenticity of bronze artefact according to the microstructures and chemical components of the bronze artefacts. Therefore, as bronze artefacts have shown different corrosion materials depending on the buried environment and conserving environment, identifying the authenticity would be possible on the basis of the additional researches on the corrosion and comparative research of ancient art.
Study on the Manufacturing Technology Applied on Iron Axes of Proto-Three Kingdoms excavated from Yangchon, Gimpo
Yu, Jae Eun ; Lee, Jae Sung ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 367~378
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.07
Microstructures and nonmetallic inclusions of five forged iron axes and one cast iron axe were analyzed. The axes were excavated from the Proto-Three Kingdom Period site located in Yangchon, Gimpo. The forging objects were made of almost pure iron and low carbon steel, and only one among five were quenched after its figuration. Malleable cast iron structures showing on the casting suggest that the decarbonized casting method were applied. According to the results of nonmetallic inclusion analysis, the axes were produced by hammering the iron bloom which was attained with low-temperature -solid-reduction-method. Showing higher Fe content over
, it is assumed that the re-collecting rate of Fe was low because of the insufficient forging temperature and the impurities were included during the smelting process. It is assumed that the lime was used as a preparation because of detecting high Ca contents.
Composition Analysis of Painted Pigments for the Jeoguibon (Patterns of the Queen's Ceremonial Robe) in Changdeok Palace
Kim, Su Kyoung ; Heo, Jun Su ; Lee, Han Hyoung ; Seo, Min Seok ; Han, Min Su ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 379~388
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.08
Damaged the Jeoguibon (patterns of the Queen's ceremonial robe) was found during repair work of Daejojeon, Changdeok Palace in 2011. Analytical study on seven colors painted in the patterns has been conducted by P-XRF and Micro-XRD analysis. The result displays that red lead, ultramarine blue, conichalcite or mixed pigment of emerald green and barium white, orpiment and white lead had been used on the patterns. Comparison of the pigments used for the Pyeseulbon (patterns of the Queen's belt ornament covering knees in the front) housed in National Museum of Korea has revealed that not only red lead but also cinnabar and organic pigment had been used in the Jeoguibon and the Pyeseulbon housed in National Museum of Korea. In addition the same pigments has been examined in green and yellow parts of both the Jeoguibon in Daejojeon and the Pyeseulbon housed in National Museum of Korea. The result has shown that western's synthetic green pigment such as emerald green was introduced and used in 1920's. The scientific result from this study expects to be used as useful referencing data for the comparative understanding on pigments used in palace during the 20th century.
Study on Poisonous Gas Emission Characteristic of Taxidermied Specimen for Conservation Environment
Lee, Hee Jung ; Kang, Dai Ill ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 389~394
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.09
Taxidermied specimen is the art of preparing, stuffing, and mounting the skins of animals (all vertebrate species of animals including mammals, birds, reptiles, and fishes) for display or for other sources of study. But, as these studies are weighted toward ecologic study, related studies on management and conservation environment are short. Also, the analysis of poisonous gas has not yet been studied. Therefore, this study will be suggested proper preservation methods through the analysis of deterioration on taxidermied specimen by poisonous gas. As a result, 4 types of major chemicals were detected in UV deterioration test, 7 types in RH and formaldehyde deterioration test. As a result of SPME, Naphthalene to be used as antiseptic were detected in all of the test conditions. Acetic acid that is VOCs were detected for factor. Moreover as the higher humidity it was, the concentration of chemicals were decreased.
Study on Application of Filling Material for Reinforcement of Soil Murals in Buddhist Temple
Lee, Kyeong Min ; Lee, Hwa Soo ; Han, Kyeong Soon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 395~406
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.10
The conservation of damaged object should be restored by the similar material with the original and they have to reversibility as possible as. The characteristics of Buddhist mural paintings composed of clay are with soft material. So far, there have been a number of researches done on filling material that reinforces cracks and exfoliation of mural painting. Based on the application of traditional materials, it was found that they are appropriate to various applications. However, only based on those research results, there are some constraints to the application in the field. In addition, there has been only a few researches done on physical characteristics of filling materials. A major issue is that there is not any standard established on various mixing ratio, which is required for treatment of mural painting. This study was carried out to understand the physical characteristics of filling materials on clay mural painting. The 1st test was conducted to analyze test specimen in twelve different conditions by varying soil mixing ratio and organic medium. The 2nd test was conducted to manufacture filling materials appropriate to the mural painting, based on the result of stable condition from the 1st test, and which was applied to treatment in field.
Material and Deterioration Characteristic Analysis for Stone Sculptures in Gyeongbokgung Royal Palace, Seoul
Kim, Jiyoung ; Jo, Young Hoon ; Lee, Chan Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 407~420
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.11
The stone sculptures in Gyeongbokgung Royal Palace are mainly composed of granite (884 sculptures, 96.7%) and marble (25 sculptures, 2.7%) that originated in several different quarries. Main deterioration forms are crack (24%), break-out (21%), exfoliation (36%), granular disintegration (9%) and blackening (20%). Crack and break-out are dominant contributors to high physical deterioration degree, and blackening is major weathering form of intensive discoloration. The Gyeonghoeru, Geunjeongjeon and Pumgyeseok areas require urgent and high conservation maintenance with short-term periodic monitoring since proportions of 3-grade deterioration were calculated higher than others as 55% for Gyeonghoeru, 29% for Geunjeongjeon, 11% for Pumgyeseok area. The Pumgyeseok (officials' rank stone), especially, needs intervention for protective facility due to its material vulnerability to weathering in outdoor environment.
A Study on Ion Extraction Characteristics of Ceramics from Marine Archaeological Sources by the Saturated Solution Humidity System
Nam, Byeongjik ; Jang, Sungyoon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 421~435
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.12
The purpose of this study is to suggest environmental guidelines for the conservation of ceramics excavated from underwater. Accordingly, the conditional change of the soluble salt on surface of the excavated ceramics was examined by changing the relative humidity. Examining the relative ratio [high humidity(RH70%+RH80%)/low humidity(RH20%+ RH40%)] for 24 weeks using accumulated conductivity(
), the result showed that the amount of ion elution increased more in high humidity than in low humidity. In particular, the ion elution increased significantly within the celadon sample. In addition, comparing the accumulated conductivity and physical characteristics of the samples in high humidity, the results indicated that the amount of the ion elution is proportioned to the increased rate of the sample's absorption capacity and porosity. Ceramics excavated from underwater has risks of the secondary physical and chemical attacks from remaining salts. Therefore, it is suggested these ceramics be stored in a storage which maintains proper temperature and low humidity conditions. Also, the collections need to be pre-classified according to the properties of the materials.
Organic Analysis of Charred Residues on the Pottery in the Proto-Three Kingdom from Joong-do Site, Chuncheon
Kang, Soyeong ; Jee, Sanghyun ; Kim, Yun Ji ; Chang, Hong Sun ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 437~444
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.13
We studied for the chemical characterizations of the charred residues obtained from the ancient potteries in the Proto-Three Kingdom period from archaeological sites in Joong-do, Chuncheon. Organic components of the charred residues were extracted and analysed using mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. Lipid profiles from these samples were not identified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bulk stable isotope analyses of charred residues was used to infer an average values of the foods prepared. The average carbon isotope values (
) of the residues are
‰ (ranging from -8.7‰ to -18.4‰, n=9), and nitrogen isotope values (
‰ (ranging from -4.4‰ to -7.6‰, n=9). This is the first approach to analyse charred residues using stable isotopic method in Korea. Charred food residues on the interior surface of archaeological pottery can provide valuable information about pottery use and dietary habits of its population.
Comparative Study on the Pigments Applied on the Wall Paintings of Temple in 18~19C
Son, Young ; Kang, Dai Ill ; Lee, Hwa Soo ; Lee, Han Hyoung ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 445~450
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2013.29.4.14
This study investigated the properties of the painting materials used in the temple wall paintings of the
centuries by synthetically comparing the component analysis data on the pigments used in the temple wall paintings. The study subjects analyzed from ED-XRF are the data on the 61 temple wall paintings distributed nationwide. The colors of the wall painting coloring layers are classified into seven categories: white, incanadine, yellow, red, green, blue and black color. No big geographical and temporal differences in the type of the pigments were found in the temple paintings of the late Joseon Dynasty distributed in Gyeongsangdo and Jeollado. On the other hand, there were differences in the use of a color when mixing it with other colors depending on the painted parts.