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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
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A Scientific Analysis of Archaeological Textiles and Wooden comb Excavated from Hapgang-ri, Dong-myun, Yungi-gun, Chungcheongnam-do
Cho, Namchul ; Kim, Woohyun ; Kim, Soochul ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 329~334
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.01
A scientific analysis of ancient textiles provides significant data to understand weaving techniques and culture of textiles in each region and charateristics of materials used at that time. In addition, species identification of waterlogged wooden objects is a scientific analysis method that allow us to verify information of relation of foreign species trade and exchange, of preferable species through kinds of wooden products, and of forest environment as well as method setting of conservation. As a result of a species analysis about historical textiles and a wooden comb in a bronze bowl that were excavated from Hapgang-ri, Dong-Myun, Yungi-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Textile1 and Textile3 are identified as Urticacese Boehmeri nivea ; ramie, Textie2 is identified as Malvaceae Gossypium herbaceum, and a wooden comb is identified as Betulaceae Betula spp. It is expected that this result will help to make further comparative studies, identifying species of textiles and trees of ancient times.
A Study on Iron Manufacturing and Technology through Analysis Reports of Iron artifacts in the Baekje Area
Kim, Soo-Ki ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 335~343
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.02
This study classified the result of non-metallic inclusion analysis and result of microstructure investigation on the ironware excavated in the Baekje region into Han River, Geum River, and Yeongsan River to estimate the iron making temperature and study the characteristics of regional and temporal characteristics of the heat treatment technology and steel making technology. Regardless of era, bloom iron and sponge iron are judged to be the major method for making as a directreduction process in all three regions. The result of the reinterpretation of the non-metallic inclusion by the oxide ternary constitutional diagram suggest that the temperature inside of the furnace is estimated to be between
while making the steel. The magnetic iron ores are the major raw material of steel ore and irons with high
are estimated to use iron sands. Ironware with
rate higher than 0.4% are considered to have artificially added the flux of calcareous materials. It was found that the iron making method is the solid caburizing-steel which caburizes low-carbon steels by the CO gas and
gas created when heating the forging furnace with charcoal. Also, the ironware manufacturers in the Baekje during 3rd century recognized the heat treatment technology as they performed carburizing process and quenching to intentionally increase the strength of necessary parts.
Lead Isotope Analysis of Bronze Artefacts Excavated from Inyongsaji Site
Lee, Eun Woo ; Kim, So Jin ; Han, Woo Rim ; Han, Min Su ; Hwang, Jin Ju ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 345~351
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.03
Chemical and Pb isotope analysis were performed in order to determine the origin of bronze artefacts excavated from the Inyongsaji site in South Korea. The result of ICP-MS shows that they are tin bronzes in which lead was not intentionally added during production. Pb isotope data analyzed by TIMS are plotted in the southern region of Korea and China of the distribution map drawn by Mabuchi(1985). On the other hand, the identical isotope data are plotted in the Taebaek basin and the Olcheon metamorphic belt correspondent to zone2 and zone3 respectively. It is believed that the isotope data on the tin bronzes which have very low lead content can be used to trace the origin of copper ore rather than those of either lead or tin ore. Pb istope analysis allows diverse interpretation as it can be applied to any object containing trace amounts of lead. In addition, accumulation of isotope data as well as further studies will improve reliability of the provenance studies.
Damage Characteristics of Korean Traditional Textiles by Formaldehyde
Kim, Myoung Nam ; Lim, Bo A ; Lee, Sun Myung ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 353~364
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.04
Formaldehyde(HCHO) may have a damage effect on Korean traditional textiles, because concentration is high and occurrence frequency is frequent at the exhibition room and storage area. Total 20 specimens were prepared using 4 different materials (silk, cotton, ramie, hemp) after dyeing with 5 colors (undyed, red, yellow, blue, black). The specimens were exposed to HCHO gas in the test chamber. The gas acceleration test was conducted to identify the deterioration of Korean traditional textiles according to HCHO concentration(0.5, 1, 10, 100, 500ppm), to temperature-humidity condition at HCHO 500ppm, and deterioration conditions at HCHO 500ppm. Optical, chemical, and physical evaluation was carried out after the exposure. The results, color difference, grey scale rating, formate(
) of some textiles increased at 500ppm, while pH decreased at 500ppm. Also, color difference, grey scale rating, formate(
) of some textiles increased double damage at high temperatures & humidity, high humidity condition. But, damages of accelerated degradation textiles were slight, because of degradation degree and degradation products. The results suggest that determined the damage to the korean traditional textile, damage level, damage-weighted condition, damage to accelerated degradation textiles. In addition, formaldehyde damaged to yellowing of red textiles, bleaching of accelerated degradation textiles, formic acid damaged to bleaching of total 20 specimens.
Species and Characteristics of Particles for Traditional Red and Green Pigments used in Temples
Yoo, Young Mi ; Han, Min Su ; Lee, Jang Jon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 365~372
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.05
The purpose of the present study is to determine the species of red and green pigments used on paintings of Korean temples and also to compare the two pigments according to the particle characteristics. The component analysis shows that the red pigment consists of cinnabar, hematite, and minium and the green pigment are composed of atacamite, celadonite, and malachite. The result suggests that mixture of various pigments were applied to the painting. When it comes to the particle characteristics, there are various hedral or anhedral shapes such as sharp, long, angular, and platy shapes even in the same cinnabar. In addition, the green pigment also shows a similar pattern with those of the red pigment. Up to now, an identification of minerals has been relied on examination of component and crystal shape. However, it is notable that using form related characteristics can be a better and useful method not only for categorization of pigments which are similar in terms of color and species but also specific index.
A Study on Influence of Firing Temperature and Temper Content on the Physical Properties of Earthenware Coffin
Kim, Kyu Been ; Chung, Kwang Yong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 373~381
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.06
Adding temper into clay prevents to shrink and crack, or twist the clay during the dry process. The purpose of this study is to identify the role of temper and the physical property of earthenware coffin according to the clay state modification in the reduction firing based on earthenware coffins found in Naju which had been made in Three Kingdom Period. Clay from the Oryang-dong site in Naju was used as circle shaped samples. The samples were tempered with various proportions (0%, 20%, 40%) and fired in various temperature (
). Physical properties were identified by macroscopy, an optical microscope (x50), specific gravity and porosity. Chemical components and existence of specific minerals were identified by analysing XRF and XRD. As a result, the more firing temperature increase, clay volume expansion. To prevent the volume expansion, temper was added.
A Study of Stone Cultural Heritage on Filler Status and Clinical Trials of Conservation Treatment in Cracks - Focusing on the Change in Surface of the Filler by Mixing the Talc -
Lee, Tae Jong ; Oh, Hyeon Jung ; Kim, Sa Dug ; Lee, Jang Jon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 383~393
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.07
It is used for the epoxy resin, a mixture of various fillers conservation of cracks of the stone cultural heritage. Such as conservation treatment is need to for long-term conservation. However, field research and experiments on the conservation treatment results when included 54 cases of talc filler was confirmed that the damage, such as discoloration and cracks. The field research is talc was used to determine whether the reports and conservator interviews conducted, microscopy, ICP analysis of the samples collected from the field site. Experiments is color difference measurement and Ultrasonic measurement were arried out, and artificial weathering tests to investigate the effect of talc. As a result, lower the property of matter of the samples containing the talc. Therefore, we propose that the selection process is not allowed to use talc as the filler of stone powder filler cracks is conservation treatment.
Mineralogical Study on Interpretation of Firing Temperature of Ancient Bricks: Focused on the Bricks from the Songsanri Tomb Complex
Jang, Sungyoon ; Lee, Chan Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 395~407
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.08
In this study, firing temperature of bricks from the Songsanri tomb complex is interpreted based on the mineralogical and physical changes of soil samples fired at different temperature. When soil samples were burned at 500 to
, phase transition of clay minerals affected the mineralogical composition and microstructure, which leaded to alteration of physical features as color, water absorption and porosity. Mineralogical composition can be assumed to vary with the temperature by mineral phase stability, however, color, water absorption, porosity and microstructure had slow change under
, and had rapid change from 1,000 to
. Upon the mineral and physical alteration of soil, firing temperature of bricks from the Songsanri tomb complex were estimated. Some bricks were over fired at temperature more than
, some high-burned bricks were fired from 1,100 to
, some bricks were fired by 900 to
and some bricks ere assumed not to be fired. Henceforward mineralogical and physical study can be applied to interpretate more precise firing temperature.
The Genetic Analysis Study of Ancient Human Bones Excavated at Janggi-dong site, Gimpo
Seo, Min Seok ; Cho, Eun Min ; Kim, Yun Ji ; Kim, Sue Hoon ; Kang, So Yeong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 409~416
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.09
Most human bones of Joseon Dynasty period are so good condition that we can do research in physical anthropology, genetics and chemistry with them. In this study, we analyzed DNA typing using 6 human bones of Joseon dynasty period excavated at Janggi-dong, Gimpo. The DNA typing was mitochondrial DNA haplotype, Y-chromosome haplotype and sex determination. Prior to DNA analysis, we distinguished histological index of 6 human bones. As the result of mitochondrial DNA analysis, most of bones were confirmed as haplogroup G, R11, M7, A5, etc. As the result of sex determination, 4 human bones were female and 2 human bones were male. The male haplogroup was confirmed as haplogroup O by the single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of Y chromosome. For extensive ancient human bone analysis, researchers need to apply a histological index to select ancient human bones and explain a relationship among ancient human bones with various analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.
Effect of Changes on Color Characteristics by Microstructural Transformations of Cu-Sn Bronzes
Lee, Jae-Sung ; Park, Jang-Sik ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 417~425
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.10
Color characteristics of the Cu-Sn alloys (bronze) in as-cast conditions were determined by reference to the
color space. Results show that the values of
decrease with the increase in Sn levels, indicating that the colors of bronze alloys are increasingly away from red and yellow with the increase in the fraction of the
phase while the opposite is true with the
phase. It has also been found in similar experiments with the Cu-22% Sn alloys that heat treatments in varying conditions produce subtle differences in their color characteristics as observed in the
color space, due likely to the formation of various phases in different fractions.
Material Characteristics, Deterioration Evaluation and Crack Depth Estimation for Mulgyeseowon Stele in Changnyeong, Korea
Yoo, Ji Hyun ; Lee, Chan Hee ; Chun, Yu Gun ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 427~438
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.11
To measure the depth and extension on the surface cracks of the stone monument, ultrasonic pulse velocity targeted at the Mulgyeseowon Stele in Changnyeong was used in this research. Additionally, to establish a long-term countermeasure of management and conservation for this stele, we have investigated the material properties and damage on it and have conducted a precise diagnosis by a variety of non-destructive techniques. Our research has revealed that stones of the stele are composed mainly of three rock types according to the parts of it, alkali-feldspar granite, gabbro and diorite. The result of the deterioration evaluation has occurred that cracks, which are observed from every direction in the body of the stele, are the significant factors to reduce structural stability. The ultrasonic velocity for an evaluation on the properties of the stele has revealed that the speed was high in the order of body, pedestal and crown. Furthermore, to understand the present condition and occurrences of the cracks which have measured in many different forms on the stele quantitatively, we have estimated from 0.6 to 24.1cm deep of the cracks by To-Tc method using ultrasonic velocity.
Long Term Monitoring of Deterioration Condition for the Rock-carved Buddha Triad in Seosan, Korea
Chun, Yu Gun ; Lee, Jae Man ; Lee, Mi Hye ; Park, Sung Mi ; Lee, Sun Myung ; Lee, Myeong Seong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 439~446
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.12
We carried out monitoring of deterioration condition for the Rock-carved Buddha Triad in Seosan after dismantlement of protective facilities and conservation treatment. As the results of ultrasonic velocity measurement, physical properties of rock were evaluated to maintain similar the past. Result of digital image analysis, white discoloration was reoccured after four years of conservation treatments. And biodeterioration of unknown in the past was generated left side on the Rock-carved Buddha. Phenomenon of biodeterioration on the surface rocks was estimated by variation of sunshine and water contents according to topography condition.
Study on the restored Sungnyemun Gate Dancheong
Kim, Soon Kwan ; Han, Min Su ; Jeong, Seon Hye ; Kim, Mi Jeong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 447~456
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.13
This study is mainly about materials that are used in Sungnyemun gate`s dancheong to find causes of dancheong`s damage such as desquamation and peeling off. 12 kinds of pigments` components which are used in dancheoong are analyzed. Except for Hobun and Seokganju, the pigments are artificial. Samples are made with different conditions of adhesives and the rate of binder. To estimate promotion weathering test, adhesives are applied in a different order. Desquamation and peeling off presented especially when different adhesives are used on dancheong and also, generally the layer thickened.
Study on the Manufacturing Technology of Mural Tomb in Goa-dong of Daegaya Period
Lee, Hwa Soo ; Lee, Han Hyeong ; Lee, Kyeong Min ; Han, Kyeong Soon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 457~466
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.14
Rigorous analysis was performed to identify the structure and materials of the murals to study techniques used on mural tombs of ancient Daegaya era(6th century). The murals were painted by applying mortar on the walls and the ceiling after building a stone chamber and creating ground layers on mortar layers. Mud was applied on most of the mortar layers on four sides of the walls except the ceiling. Sand was not used in mortar but was made of materials with pure calcium substances. In addition, shells in irregular sizes with incomplete calcination were mixed; and the mortar`s white powder was inferred as lime obtained by calcination of oyster shells. Kaolinite(
) was used in the ground layer, Cinnabar(HgS) was used for red pigment, Malachite(
) for green and Lead white(
) for white. Mud plaster was applied on the mortar and was composed thinly and densely using clayey of particle size smaller than that of medium sand. It was assumed that the finishing was for repair after long time had passed since the mortar layer came off. Using lime made with oyster shells as mortar is unprecedented in ancient Korean mural tombs and its durability was very poor, suggesting that Gaya`s mortar production technique was relatively behind compared to that of Koguryo`s in the same era.
Establishment of Ultrasonic Measurement Method for Stone Cultural Heritage Considering Water Content and Anisotropy
Jo, Young Hoon ; Lee, Chan Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 467~480
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2014.30.4.15
This study was focused on measurement methods for stone cultural heritages by analyzing Ultrasonic (P-wave) velocity variations according to the water content and anisotropy of rocks. As a result of analyzing of rock properties, the water content and saturation degree were rapidly changed at the beginning of drying and then showed exponential curve which their rates of change gradually decreased. However, P-wave velocity and its rate of change maintained constant values after natural drying of 10 hours. Therefore, the ultrasonic measurement for stone cultural heritages should be performed after natural drying of 10 hours considering the weather and moisture conditions. In addition, the highest values of anisotropy coefficient exhibited in granite and limestone, and indirect method was insensitive to anisotropy compared to direct method. However, all rocks remained anisotropy by indirect method. Accordingly, ultrasonic measurement considering various directions is required. The research results will contribute to customized non-destructive testing and precise diagnosis for lithological characteristics of stone cultural heritage.