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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Material Characteristics of White Wares from Yeongdong Province, Gangwon-do: Gangneung and Donghae Kiln Sites
Lee, Byeong Hoon ; So, Myoung-Gi ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 181~192
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.3.01
This study aims to examine production technique of twelve white wares from the Gangneung Namyang-ri and Donghae Balhan-dong2(Samun-dong) kiln sites, Kangwon Province and characteristics of the used materials, and to find a correlation among materials of the excavated white wares. X-ray fluorescence sequential spectroscopy(XRF), X-ray diffraction(XRD), Dilatometer and Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS), Inductively coupled plasma automic emission spectrometer(ICP-AES) were applied to determine the chemical composition, crystalline phase of samples, firing temperatures, trace elements and rare earth elements. When analyzing body crystalline phases of the white wares using the XRD method, quartz and mullite were extracted from all the samples. Though firing temperature of each sample was different, they were mostly fired at a temperature below
. Analyzing the excavated white wares using the Seger formula, compositional properties of white wares in Gangneung Namyang-ri kiln showed diffrently from the Donghae Balhan-dong2(Samun-dong) kiln. The body of white wares from Gangneung Namyang-ri kiln have higher raito of
than of white wares from Donghae Balhan-dong2(Samun-dong) kiln site. The white wares from Gangneung Namyang-ri kiln and Donghae Balhan-dong2(Samun-dong) kiln were made of host rocks of the different geological origin, according to the result of rare earth elements analysis.
Study on the Copper-Arsenic Green Pigments used on Shamanic Paintings in the 19~20th century
Oh, Joon Suk ; Choi, Jung Eun ; Choi, Yoon Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 193~214
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.3.02
The green pigments of shamanic paintings (83 items) in the 19~20th century were analyzed with X-ray fluorescent spectrometer(XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). In 60 items, copper and arsenic were detected in green pigments of the paintings by XRF spectra. Cu
(peak intensity ratio of copper and arsenic) of shamanic paintings of Bokgaedang (shrine), solemn paintings (romance of three kingdoms) of Donggwanwangmyo and unknown enshrined place were 5.93~12.04 and higher compared to 5.67-6.26 of standard emerald greens and 4.01~7.89 of remaining shamanic paintings. The SEM images of crystal forms of copper-arsenic green pigments were various. Crystal forms were divided into oval and round spherulite with intersecting plate crystals and spherulite with agglomerate plate crystals. The crystals of the latter were found in shamanic paintings of Bokgaedang (shrine), solemn paintings (romance of three kingdoms) of Donggwanwangmyo and unknown enshrined place and the former were found in the rest of shamanic paintings. Copper-arsenic green pigments of shamanic paintings were identified as Scheele's green from shamanic paintings of Bokgaedang (shrine) and romance of three kingdoms. Emerald green from the rest of shamanic paintings by ATR-FTIR. From analytical results, it is confirmed that Scheele's green of shamanic paintings of Bokgaedang and romance of three kingdoms was used in the 1850s~1870s and emerald green had been widely used from late 19th century to 1970 in the rest of shamanic paintings.
Scientific Investigation and Conservation of Jocheonillgi (The Dairy of Jocheon) (Treasure No.1007)
Ahn, Ji Yoon ; Shin, Hyo Young ; Son, Mi Kyung ; Song, Jung Won ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 215~225
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.3.03
"Jocheonillgi", one of the articles left by Jo Heon(1544~1592) whose pen name was Jung-bong, is a travelogue which was written in around 1574~1575 when he was dispatched to Ming as a formal envoy(Giljungkwan). The diary-style manuscript was designated as one of the pieces of the National Treasure 1007. Due to the damage of its binding strings, abrasion, fold, stain, insect and damage on the surface, conservation and restoration was needed. In the process of separation, three more binding strings were found, confirming that the travelogue was rebound at least twice in the past. In addition, the page of 'Yeondoillgi', the original title, was bound inside, confirming that the current cover was revised in the past. As the result of the investigation of base fabric, paper mulberry was found to be the cover, inside paper, lining paper, paper strings. The three kinds of binding string including the current ones was defined to be silk.
Biochemical Characteristics and Growth Control for fungi isolated from mural painting of Tomb No.6 at Songsan-ri, Gongju
Lee, Min Young ; Park, Hee Moon ; Chung, Yong Jae ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 227~241
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.3.04
Fungi were isolated from mural painting in tomb no.6 at songsan-ri, Gong-ju. Antifungal susceptibility of essential oils extracted from natural medicine was tested and it confirmed applicability for mural painting in tombs. 26 species of fungi collected from air-borne and wall surfaces were identified to 15 species of Ascomycetes, 2 species of Zygomycetes, 1 of Basidiomycetes. Wheat starch and gelatin degradability were evaluated as isolated fungi. SY-18, SY-23, SY-25 showed high degradability of wheat starch. SY-18, SY-21, SY-23 were decomposed into gelatin. Biochemical characteristics of decomposing fungi to wheat starch glue and cowhide glue were analyzed by using
and gelatinase activity. An Antifungal test was conducted in Anethole and Eugenol. Anethole and Eugenol mixture(1:2) showed high antifungal susceptibility. Natural adhesives help microbial growth and can cause structural damage in mural painting. The expectation of this study is the possibility to control microbial growth in wall painting using natural essential oils. It can be used as a data for conservation method to control microbial damages.
The Studies of Stability for Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs) Generated from the Adhesives
Lee, Hyeon Kyeong ; Wi, Koang Chul ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 243~254
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.3.05
In this study, the stability of the adhesive was determined through the Oddy Test that is Verification Test for potential damage by various materials. And to find the factor causing the corrosion of the metal samples, the adhesives and coatings those are usually used in the metal preservation process were selected and treated on the samples. Six kinds of adhesives and four kinds of metal specimens Fe, Pb, Cu, Ag were used. As results, the weight change showed high increasement in the rate of weight change 29.87% of Fe sample. The chromaticity measurement showed the high change value of the Cellulose-based adhesive. In case of the VOCs test from adhesive by using GC-MS, Acetic acid was detected from all six kinds of the adhesives. Compared to cellulose-based adhesives and the other adhesives, the amount of VOCs per 1mg concentration is higher than 900 times and was detected small amount of Formic acid. This is assumed to be facilitated by acid impurities and the light. This reaction was considered as the result of reducing a large amount of molecular and of generating a large amount of Nox. And thus the reacted sulfur changes was considered as the factor for causing corrosion.
Characteristic Comparison of the Composition Classification on Potash Glass Beads Excavated in Korea
KIM, Na-Young ; KIM, Gyu-Ho ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 255~265
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.3.06
In this study, the potash glass beads of 281 samples in 30 sites analyzed until now were classified according to the chemical composition. And the color, size, manufacturing technique and distribution period were compared. Korea potash glass beads are divided into 3 types depending on the stabilizer content. I, II type is the CaO and
content of less than 5%. Relatively, I type has a high CaO and II type has a high
. In contrast, III type comprises more than CaO 5%. I, II type is the saltpetre, III type is estimated using plant ash as row material of flux. A review of the properties by type, I type is cobalt blue, copper blue and purple beads. The outer diameter is sized to the range 1.4~7.4mm. Also it was produced by the drawing technique. It was used continuously from BC 1C until around AD 6C. On the other hand, II type is outer diameter of 1.9~3.6mm and a copper blue beads. manufacturing technique is the same as the I type. This seems to have been in use since around AD 1C to 4C. Finally, III type is brown, colorless, amber beads and an outer diameter of about 10mm. It was formed by winding technique and appeared in the tombs of Goryeo and Joseon Dynasty. As a result, 3 types of potash glass beads distributed in Korea is likely to flowing through the various trade routes from different provenances.
A Study on Selection of Ultrasonic Transducer and Contact Material for Surface Irregularities of Stone Cultural Heritage
Jo, Young Hoon ; Lee, Chan Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 267~278
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.3.07
In this study, the elastomer cover, a new contact material, was developed to establish the customized ultrasonic measurement considering surface irregularities of stone cultural heritages. The cover exhibits high elastic force and wear resistance because it has tensile strength of 17MPa and elongation of 625%. In addition, as a result of comparative experiments for the seven types according to transducers and contact materials including the elastomer cover, rock surface irregularities significantly affect attenuation of ultrasonic velocity. The phenomenon was more noticeable in the chiseling finish and indirect transmission measurement rather than the dabbed finish and direct transmission measurement. However, the Type F using the exponential transducer and elastomer cover showed stable P-wave velocity and high amplitude regardless of the surface irregularities. This because the elastomer cover sufficiently sticks to surface irregularities and removes pores between a transducer and a rock specimen. Therefore, the Type F should be used for the ultrasonic measurement of stone cultural heritages with surface irregularities.
Radiocarbon Dating of a Wooden Board from Yeongheung-do Shipwreck Using Wiggle Matching of Decennial Tree-Ring Samples
Nam, Tae Gwang ; Kim, Taek Joon ; Moon, Hwan Suk ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 279~285
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.3.08
The purpose of this study was to analyze radiocarbon dating, using wiggle match, of a wooden board from Yeongheung-do shipwreck excavated from Yeongheung-do in Incheon Ongjingun. The result of wiggle matching for 5 decennial tree-ring block samples of the hull bottom board produced
radiocarbon date (95.4% confidence interval) as A.D. 710~730 or A.D. 750~774. It indicated that the Yeongheung-do shipwreck belonged to the early or middle of the 8th century. Radiocarbon dating results confirmed the date speculated by archaeologists according to ship structure and pottery style.
Damage Characteristics of Metal Specimens by Formaldehyde
Kim, Myoung Nam ; Lim, Bo A ; Lee, Sun Myung ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 287~298
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.3.09
The formaldehyde is damage to the metal are known universally. However, the quantification of the damage level and degree of damage is not clear. This study was conducted to test the following steps using a gas corrosion tester, and then evaluated by the optical, chemical and physical measurement. First, it was confirmed the damage level of the metal specimen(silver, copper, iron, lead, brass) by the formaldehyde(0.5, 1, 10, 100, 500ppm). Second, weighted damage to the metal specimens were tested according to the temperature and humidity conditions under damage levels. Third, the damage of accelerated degradation metal specimens were examined under damage levles. As a result, at 500ppm / day, the optical, chemical and physical damage of lead have been identified, the optical damage of all metals are was observed. The optical damage of some specimens were weighted in
. Chemical damage to the lead specimen is 2.8 times, 1.3 times were weighted in
. Referring to formate ion concentration of the accelerated degradation metal, corrosion products of iron and brass were actived the reaction of the formaldehyde gas, oxide film of lead was blocked the reaction of formaldehyde gas.
Identification of Natural dyes used in 16
pink Dallryeong (Official's robe in Joseon Dynasty) Excavated from Cheonan, Chungnam
Chae, Jeongmin ; Ryu, Hyo-Seon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 299~308
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.3.10
Aim of this study is to identify dyestuff of the Dallryeong(official's robe in Joseon Dynasty, 16th century) excavated from Yuryang-dong, Cheonan, in 1996. For this purpose, extracted dyestuffs from Dallryeong fabric and from natural dyestuffs for red color(safflower, Sapanwood, Madder) which are presumed to have been used in the Dallryeong, are analyzed and compared by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). As a result, HPLC chromatogram of extracts of the Dallryeong's dyestuff and safflower are showed a peak at 17.5 minutes. The UV/Vis spectra of the samples are showed the maximum absorption wavelength at 519nm. This result is identical with the analysis of the previous studies on red dyestuff of safflower. In addition, the analysis of Mass Spectrometry(MS) showed the identical result of the peak with m/z 910. Following these results, excavated pink Dallryeong were considered to have been dyed with safflower.
Study on the Manufacturing Techniques of Metallic Ornament of Treasure 930, the Staffs of Yi Gyeong-seok
Lee, Jae-sung ; Jeon, Ik-hwan ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 309~318
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.3.11
The staff given with chair to Yi Gyeong-seok, senior official over 70 years old by King Hyeonjong of Joseon Dynasty is representative handcraft of Joseon Dynasty. Results of analysis on the metallic decoration show that the metallic ornament of the end part which is connected to the spade was made by rolling of iron plate and brass plating. The plated part is limited to the ornament of the end part connected to the spade and the plating was not applied to the spade. Brass including 20% zinc was used for the connecting part of guard while brass gilded iron was used for the spade. This suggests that the tone of the connecting part of the guard and the spade was not different for reason of visual harmonization. Potential applied plating method can be amalgam, dippping in molten brass, and brushing but the analysis result suggests that dipping in molten brass method is the most likely accepted method. The brass guard of knife was joined by tin-lead solder. Rivet used to fix the blade was made by pure iron as an optimum material which satisfies flexibility and strength.
Study on the Materials Characteristics of Sangpyeongtongbo Coins in Joseon Dynasty Using Chemical Compositions and Microstructures
Jang, Su Bi ; Cho, Nam Chul ; Kang, Hyung Tae ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 319~330
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.3.12
This study attempted to review the chemical composition of 25 samples of Sangpyeongtongbo having different manufacturing place and period, and then to find the manufacturing method. As a result of chemical composition analysis of Sangpyeongtongbo, main components include Cu, Zn and Pb, and some samples contained Sn and Fe. But, the chemical composition of each Sangpyeongtongbo varied with big differences. When the main content change was examined, Cu and Sn became decreased at the later period, and Zn and Pb had higher contents. The difference in the ingredient content had close relation for the profit of Sangpyeongtongbo. When refined microstructure was observed, 25 kinds of Sangpyeongtongbo had developed different types of microstructure such as dendrite, large grain and grain refinement. But, 25 kinds of Sangpyeongtongbo had no heat treatment processing. And, the types of microstructure were difference, which seems because different microstructure was developed due to the difference of Sn and Fe and cooling speed in Sangpyeongtongbo.