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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
The Characteristics of Particle Size in Natural Mineral Pigment for Azurite Raw Material
Go, In Hee ; Jeong, Hye Young ; Park, Ju Hyeon ; Jeong, Sir Lin ; Jo, A Hyeon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 331~339
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.01
This study were conducted the particle-size analysis on 57 blue pigments to understand the step distribution characteristics of blue pigments made out of Azurite by using Malvern`s Mastersizer 2000. As the result, most of the conventional blue pigments in Korea, Japan, and Chinese showed good granularity step separation except for few, and the smaller the particle, the more the Span value increased and the wider the granularity distribution range. On the basis of Friedman and Sanders`s Grain size, most of the pigments were sand size to silt size. 72.2% of B-100 was clay size and 2.5% of A-14 was gravel size. Even the same components can differ by the grain size directly affecting the important property such as color formation, oil absorption, specific gravity, usability, etc. so the information about the granularity distribution would be used for basic data to deal with natural pigments.
Preservation and Identification for Wooden Ship Timber of Bonghwang-Dong, Gimhae, Korea
Lee, Kwang Hee ; Kim, Dong Yun ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 341~350
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.02
The preservation has been conducted for wooden ship timber excavated from Bonghwang-Dong, Gimhae, Korea. The species were analyzed for conservation as pre-treatment. Outer panel was analyzed as Cinnamomum spp. and trapezoid wooden material, wooden wedge was Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.. Wooden ship timber have been treated by vacuum-freeze drying after impregnation with aqueous PEG#3,350 solution(almost 45%). The timber of Bonghwang-Dong ship is considered as Japanese ship that many data such as conformation of ship, location of site, japanese artifact of around site were confirmed. In addition, The ship timber give us the important information about the international trade with Japan.
A Study on the Reinforcement of the Damaged Stone Surface by Dismantling of Stone Cultural Heritages - Focusing on the Experiment of a Sublimation(Reversibility) type Consolidant -
Lee, Tae Jong ; Oh, Hyeon Jung ; Cho, Ha Jin ; Kim, Sa Dug ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 351~360
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.03
This is the result of the study on the temporary fortifier using sublimation type Consolidate is Cyclododecane to prepare plan for reinforcement of the surface part that can be damaged during the dismantling of stone cultural heritages. To supplement the disadvantages of the existing reinforcement methods using intumescent urethane foam, Cyclododecane was diluted in solvent to reinforce the surface and inside desquamation, and after dismantling the framework, it sublimated by imposing heat of about
. Such method can guarantee the strength needed for reinforcement of the damaged surface with outstanding reversibility of Cyclododecane being entirely sublimated. But, it shows big difference of effect according to the solvent, so it shall be diluted in petroleum ether or heated in a double boiler. Therefore, considering the working conditions at the site, it seems the most appropriate to use petroleum ether double boiler heating method for injection and filling of the desquamation part and temporary reinforcement processing with Cyclododecane diluted in petroleum ether for surface spraying.
The influential Investigation and Surface Change by Concentration to the Antimicrobial Agent and Insecticide on Metallic Material
Lee, Jae Hui ; Cho, Nam Chul ; Lee, Sang Bae ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 361~372
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.04
The experiment attempts to find out the effect of the mixture of the antimicrobial agent and insecticide on metallic material including Silver(99.9%), Copper(99.9%), Lead(99.9%) and Iron(99.5%) by Oddy test. The mixtures of the antimicrobial agent and insecticide were prepared in 60ml; with the standard concentration of 17.5% in B77 Essential oil mixture, one for mixture of concentration of
and insect repellent material; the other for mixture of low concentration and antimicrobial agent(BS-2 and BS-3) material. After Oddy test, we investigated the variation in the surface of the samples by visual inspection, weighing, color measurement and SEM-EDS analysis. The result showed that Lead had the biggest change in the surface, and Copper had the biggest change in the color. In addition, changes in the samples before and after the experiment were found to be greatest at concentration of 19% of Essential oil mixture of the antimicrobial agent and insecticide. Also, B78 Essential oil mixture produce change in samples. It means when the concentration of oil mixture rises, the variation of the samples gets bigger. And, the low concentration of mixture including B77 Essential oil mixture and B78 Essential oil mixture also produce big change in the samples. However, the low concentration of B77 Essential oil mixture that do not contain B78 Essential oil mixture was able to confirm that the change of the surface is not large.
A Study on the Degradation Properties of DGEBA/TETA Epoxy System for Restoration of Ceramics by Temperature
Nam, Byeong Jik ; Jang, Sung Yoon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 373~386
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.05
This study identified degradation properties by temperature stress with Araldite
AY103-1/HY956 used for ceramics. Tensile and compressive strength of durability increased for 6,480 hours at temperature of
. In stability of external stress and temperature, compressive strength is superior to tensile strength, it requires conservation plans considering strength properties and stress of restoration materials. The tensile shear strength of adhesion properties decreased for 4,320 hours at temperature of
. In ceramics with porosity, environments under isothermal-isohumidity are important because interfacial properties of adherend are concerned with performance variation. Glossiness decreased for 6,480 hours at temperature of
and color difference increased. Gloss stability was superior and color stability was weak, which requires improvement of optical properties. In artifacts on display in museums, there is concern about temperature rise on restoration materials by lighting therefore, it needs to minimize change in physical properties by exposure environments.
Characterization of Termite Inhabitation Environment on Wooden Cultural Heritages
Seo, Min Seok ; Jo, Chang Wook ; Kim, Soo Ji ; Kim, Young Hee ; Hong, Jin Young ; Lee, Jeung Min ; Jeong, So Young ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 387~393
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.06
Damages of wooden cultural heritages caused by various bio-species have been a trend that is increasing on climate change. The decay and bio-damage caused by microbial organisms or insect species are also known to factors of the shape changes and structural problems of wooden cultural heritages. There are so many phenomenons of damage and weathering in wooden cultural heritage for many years and particularly termite can threaten seriously wooden cultural heritage. We investigated with respect to internal and external environment and termite inhabitation around the wooden cultural heritage in Jeollanam-do, Jeollabuk-do, and Jeju-do. As this investigation results, we confirmed that there were the difference in between resident and non-resident about temperature, humidity, moisture contents of wooden building. Resident building is high temperature but humidity and moisture contents is low and these factors are sources of inhabitation condition change about insects as termites. Now we suggest to carry out in parallel to the target wooden cultural heritage and the surrounding habitat for wooden cultural heritage termite damage investigation. Also with the chemical control methods, we must consider necessary to present eco-friendly control management such as construction of heating facilities, residential status, periodic management.
Utilization of Hyperspectral Image Analysis for Monitoring of Stone Cultural Heritages
Chun, Yu Gun ; Lee, Myeong Seong ; Kim, Yu Ri ; Lee, Mi Hye ; Choi, Myoung Ju ; Choi, Ki Hyun ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 395~402
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.07
This study was considered utilization of hyperspectral image analysis for monitoring. Accordingly we applied to stone cultural properties to data correction methods, image classification techniques, NDVI computation techniques using hyperspectral image. As the results, hyperspectral image analysis was possible making detailed deterioration map, accurate calculation of deterioration rate, mapping of normalized difference vegetation index on the basis of reflectance of each materials. Therefore, hyperspectral image analysis will be used for effective monitoring techniques of stone cultural heritages.
Effect to the Copper System Pigments by the Nitrogen Dioxide(NO
Kim, Ji Won ; Lee, Hwa Soo ; Lee, Han Hyeong ; Kim, Myoung Nam ; Kang, Dai Ill ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 403~409
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.08
Malachite and Azurite are the typical copper system pigments which used the mural paintings since ancient times. The mural painting is at risk for damages of the painting layer by atmosphere gas because it is exposed at external environment. In this study, it did experiment about an effect to Malachite and Azurite by environmental pollution gas(
) then analysis and estimate about test for pieces using mural painting colored that two pigments. As a result, Malachite and Azurite were changed on
but not changed
. Especially as the concentration of
is increased, exfoliation of the pigment layer weave remarkably formed pores on the pigment particles on SEM, the phenomenon to be pieces were observed together with smaller particles. In the case of Malachite that were exposed to
gas, new compounds(Rouaite : dicopper (nitrate(V) trihydroxide,
)) was appeared by XRD analysis. Therefore, there had been able to verify the fact that the cause exfoliation and discoloration phenomena accompanied by chemical changes for Malachite and Azurite.
Examination of Smelting and Smithing Slags Excavated from the Iron Production Site of the Nogye Village
Lee, Eun Woo ; Lee, Jang Jon ; Chae, Mi Hui ; Kim, Eun Ji ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 411~427
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.09
The purpose of the present study is to examine the objects excavated from the archaeological site of the Nogye Village in terms of their relationships with the iron production facilities such as 1ho smithing hearth and 2ho smelting furnace. 32 samples including slags, iron ores, and wall were analyzed to identify the mineralogical and chemical characterization. In addition, in the case of the 1ho smithing hearth slag, differing points of the cross-section were analyzed to examine its formation in depth. The analysis results suggest that the slags from the each site adjacent to the 1ho smithing hearth and 2ho furnace are related to smithing and smelting process respectively. Furthermore, it is possible to draw some conclusions that the aspects of the increased contents of nonferrous elements such as CaO in the slags in comparison with those of the iron ores are due to various factors such as charcoal ash and analytical reasons rather than an addition of CaO as flux.
A Study on the Physical Properties of Seokrok and Noerok Used as Green Pigment
Park, Ju Hyun ; Jeong, Hye Young ; Go, In Hee ; Jeong, Sir Lin ; Jo, A Hyeon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 429~441
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.10
The purpose of this study is to analyse the properties of Seokrok and Noerok that are used for restoration of heritage and arts. Malachite is main constituent mineral for Seokrok and Celadonite is Main component of Noerok. To evaluate the physical properties of pigment, A,B-class Seokrok and heated Seokrok that are sold in market were selected. To compare this results, Noerok sold in Japan were studied. In addition, we studied the pigments of Noerok. The heat treatment had no significant effect on the physical properties, except for the color-difference. The color-difference of Seokrok is larger than that of the Noerok sold in Japan. The
values of Seokrok specimens are horizontal distribution, so it will expand the coloring ranges. The properties that are chromaticity, specific gravity and oil-absorption of Noerok are different from Seokrok. Noerok is suggested that achromatic color because the values of
located near zero. Specific gravity of Noerok is smaller than Seokrok, but oil-absorption is larger twice. Noerok and Amnok, although ingredients are different, it is possible to use alternative because of similar physical characteristics. The result from this study expects to be used as useful referencing data for conservation and restoration of cultural heritage and understanding phenomena of the properties.
Experimental study on Light and Gas Pollution Resistance of Commercial Natural Pigments for Dancheong - Focucing on Korea, Japan and China Products -
Lee, Kyeong Min ; Kim, Soon Kwan ; Bae, Su Bin ; Kim, Mi Jeong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 443~455
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.11
To verifying the stability of Natural pigments for Dancheong which is available on the market was carried out as light resistance and gas corrosion test. In this particular case, we will confirm the characteristics of the only pigments except of Dancheong technique and influence of substance. Medium using for coloring are animal glue and synthetic resin that widely used for Dancheong in currently. Selected to artificial light source is a xenon arc lamp, contaminated gas is nitrogen dioxide gas in experiment. Degree of degradation of pigment were compared by measuring the degree of color change. The result of light resistance test, mineral pigments were good; color is green and blue type, soil pigments also good; color is yellow ocher, white clay, red clay etc. Gamboge, unghwang, cinnabar, red lead were confirmed not good. The result of gas corrosion test, most of the natural pigments were good condition except the red lead. Generally, animal glue samples had better than a synthetic resin samples.
Basic Characteristics and Application of Modern Dancheong Pigment Jangdanyuksaek (Incarnadine)
Kim, Eun Ji ; Chung, Kwang Yong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 457~476
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.12
This study is expected to present instructions and analysis of Modern Dancheong pigments by its physical characteristics. Search pigments currently used and experiments proper mixing ratio of Jangdanyuksaek(Incarnadine). Samples are made by based on presented a mixture ratio which is less exfoliation, cracks and color change. And put into accelerated weathering test and ultraviolet ray degradation test. As a result in case of Jidang(
) Rutile type is superior in discoloration and durability. Rutile type makes color difference remarkably because of oil absorption difference while mixing with Jangdan. Water paints which are used as a alternative present yellowness which means water paints lack in durability. whiting should be taken carefully as it has high brightness after degradation.
A Study on Structural Reinforcement Suitable for the Weathering Properties of Stone Cultural Heritage
Lee, Dong Sik ; Kim, Hyun Yong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 477~488
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.13
At this, in this study, some tests were conducted to come up with a method to minimize intervention, to reduce the secondary damage to original materials, and to produce remarkable reinforcing effects. The followings show objective standards. The proportion of original material to steel reinforcement bar (the ratio of steel reinforcement bar) needs to be calculated in light of weathering intensity. Second, in the case of partial damage, prosthetic treatment is applied to add new stone materials to original materials. In that case, the ratio of steel reinforcement bar should be calculated based on material that is highly resistant to weathering. With the results of this study, it is possible to suggest conditions that can structurally stabilize stone cultural heritage, according to the weathering area. As a result, the ratio of steel reinforcement bars can be 0.13 to 0.23 in the case of
or less, 0.24 to 0.28 in
or higher, and 0.29 to 0.5 in
or higher. In particular, there is the need to take the coefficient of rupture of stone material and the properties of the steel reinforcement bar into account in cases of calculating the ratio of steel reinforcement bars according to weathering intensity.
A Study on Manufacturing Method of iron Sickles Found in Jangjae-ri, Yeongi, Korea
Cho, Hyun Kyung ; Cho, Nam Chul ; Lee, Seon Young ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 489~497
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.14
Iron sickle is tool used in various ways and have various form. It has agricultural feature as well as is used in weapon. Previous studies have been focused on features of farming tools. In this study, metallurgical analysis of iron sickles are introduced because examples of analysis for iron sickles is rare. Two sickles form Yeongi Jangjae-ri are investigated and compared to one sickle of Yeongi Songwon-ri. Three sickles have forging molding process and heat treatment process. No.1 sickle of Jangjae-ri have martensite of quenching. No.2 sickle of Jangjae-ri was undergone high temperature as compared with others. This show manufacturing technology of sickles from Jangjae-ri in over the Songwon-ri`s.
Identification and Removal of Pigments in Blood-colored Grooves of Long Sword, Admiral Yi Sun-sin (Treasure No. 326)
Kwon, Hyuk Nam ; Youn, Hye Seong ; Ryu, Dong Wan ; Lee, Jeong Won ; Lee, Jang Jon ; Han, Min Soo ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 499~506
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2015.31.4.15
The artifacts of Admiral Yi Sun-sin (Treasure No.326) consist of six items with two long swords, a jade decoration, a belt and two peach-shaped cups. In commemoration of the opening of Chungmugong Yi sun-sin Memorial Museum (April 28, 2011), there were conservation treatments for those artifacts at the beginning of 2011. At that time, from the result of non-destructive surface analysis on pigments in blood-colored grooves of the two long swords, it was presumed to be synthetic resin paints. This study shows the accurate identification on pigments which was presumed as synthetic resin paints and its removal. To identify pigments in blood-colored grooves, the optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, Micro-XRF, XRD and FT-IR were used for the analysis. The results turned out that the thickness of
in a single layer was measured. And major components containing Pb and Cr and lead chromium molybdenum oxide were identified and to identify components of adhesives from the analysis by FT-IR, it turned out to be alkyd resin, which can be presumed that they were recently colored with synthetic paints. The synthetic paints easily react with most of the organic solvents. And it is so easy to handle without the effect on metal that it was removed with acetone. While removing synthetic paints, all of paints on it were collected for identifying whether there is traditional pigment but nothing was identified.