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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Sep 2016
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
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Scientific Analysis and Provenance Study of Bronze Artifacts Excavated from Dongchon Site in Sunchang, Jeollabuk-do, Korea
Bae, Go Woon ; Chung, Kwang Yong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 101~108
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.01
Lead isotope ratio of bronze artifacts excavated from Dongchon Site in Sunchang have determined by TIMS. As results of comparison lead isotope ratio of bronze objects with the provenance data of galenas of Korea, China, and Japan, the provenance of three material of bronze objects were turned out to originate from the southern and northern part of China. On the other hands, data were plotted either in zone 3 of the South Korean galena map. The results of these scientific analysis of bronze objects can be used as basic data in comparison researches on manufacturing technology, provenance of bronze objects to be found in the future.
The Characteristics of Lacquer Coating of Mother-of-Pearl Turtle Shell Lacquerware
Lee, Seon Joo ; Okada, Fumio ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 109~121
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.02
Mother-of-pearl turtle shell lacquerware refers to a decoration made of a mother-of-pearl, a turtle shell and metal wires. This lacquerware features bright color tone as it is produced by sprinkling metal powder over its entire surface. This study aimed to find out its material properties and characteristics by using an optical microscopy and conducting a SEM-EDS analysis on the cross section of lacquer coating. As a result, it was found that charcoal powder and soil powder were mixed for undercoating. Then a mixture of cinnabar lacquer and monoclinic arsenic sulfide mineral (
) was coated on the undercoating and brass powder was sprinkled on top of it. Especially, a little amount of pigment was found on the lacquer layer, which is distinguished from the colors used for conventional lacquer patterns. In addition, it was also found that the cinnabar lacquer and monoclinic arsenic sulfide mineral were mixed together.
Physicochemical and Archaeometric Characteristics of Goryeo Period Potteries from the Sandongri in Seosan, Korea
Lee, Chan Hee ; Jin, Hong Ju ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 123~139
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.03
The excavated potteries of Goryeo Period from the Sandongri archaeological site in Seosan were studied on physicochemical analyses. Surface color of the samples are mainly grayish blue, and showed the natural glaze by melting the body soils during the burning. Partly, swelling surface are observed bloated marks because of blow out gas by burning. The potteries are some possibility of making the similar source clay on the basis of magnetic susceptibilities (about
) and general occurrences. Values of specific gravity, apparent porosity and absorption ratio are divided two groups as highly different cases of bloating surface samples. The source clay of the potteries used mainly microcrystalline clay, the mineral compositions are quartz and some colored minerals. Based on the analysis, the burning temperature of the potteries are assumed that they were around
because detection of quartz and mullite within hard and compact matrices. As geochemical variations of the samples, evolution trends of rare earth, compatible and incompatible elements showed very similar patterns excepting the some major elements, that means the potteries are interpreted to making by elutriation processes using the same raw clays from very similar basement rocks of genetically.
Study on Image Composition and the Manufacturing Techniques of Bamboo Mudguard with Gilt-bronze Openwork from Cheonmachong Ancient Tomb
Lee, Seung Ryul ; Shin, Yong Bi ; Jung, Won Seob ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 141~154
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.04
The gilt-bronze decorated bamboo mudguards with heavenly horse design excavated in 1973 at Cheonma Tomb of Shilla are the unprecedented relics in Korean history as it has its original structure. Although the bamboo mudguards were excavated in not only Cheonma Tomb, but also in Geumgwanchong and Geumryeongchong, all of them remains into pieces. In addition, there are no exact data related with its structure and manufacturing technique. The report deals with the manufacturing technique of the bamboo mudguards with heavenly horse design excavated in Cheonma Tomb through the naked eye's observation, X-Ray Fluorescence, and Transmission X-rays analysis etc. Bamboo mudguards basically have the three divided structure with central-focus structure of a radiation style. And the mudguards consists of Bratticing gilt-bronze, fabric, and bamboo plates together, as ornamental fringe of 4 plates. The surface of the gilt bronze plates was decorated with a variety of workmanship and pendant. Bamboo plates have a waved pattern by using about three hundred bamboo bark. Two types of textiles were mainly found in the textile plates, and the leather were partially found. In order to combine all plates together, gilt-bronze bottonhead, pendant decoration, and ornamental fringe were used. It would be helpful to study bamboo mudguards during 5th-6th centuries in Shilla period and basis investigations of Geumgwanchong and Geumryeongchong excavations.
Effect of Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Treatment for Surface Stabilization of Waterlogged Wood of Wan-do Shipwreck Impregnated with Polyethylene Glycol
Kim, Eung Ho ; Han, Gyu Seong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 155~165
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.05
This study aimed at verifying the effect of hydroxypropyl cellulose(HPC) treatment on polyethylene glycol(PEG)-treated waterlogged wood for surface stabilizing. This research investigated macroscopic and microscopic appearance, color change, weight change, and dimensional change. And effect of HPC was verified through variance analysis (ANOVA) and least significant difference test(LSD). HPC formed thin layer on the surface of wood specimen, and blocked the pore of tracheid and the gap between the crack. Specimens without deterioration showed no invisible change except HPC 1,000,000 treatment group. Whitening was appeared at the sound surface of HPC 1,000,000 treated wood. Specimens with deterioration showed a little color difference change by external moisture adsorption. Thin layer of HPC on the surface of wood specimen was maintained after the deterioration, and this HPC layer significantly suppressed the weight and dimensional change by moisture adsorption.
A Study on the Material Characteristics and Functionality Evaluation of a Size Layer of a Canvas
Kim, Hwan Ju ; Lee, Hwa Soo ; Chung, Yong Jae ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 167~178
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.06
Despite the size layer is an important part for conserving the artworks in the configuration of oil painting, the conservation scientific approaches of that have not been made yet. Therefore, this study produced standard samples on the basis of the analysis results of oil painting works, and carried out the evaluation of functions of the size layer materials. As a result of literature material, traditionally, animal glue was used for the size layer, whereas synthetic resin have been used in combination with animal glue since the modern age, in particular, it was identified that Polyvinyl Acetate(PVAc) was in general use. As a result of analysis of oil painting works, size layer was detected on the support and it was identified as animal glue. As a result of analysis based on Funaoka canvas for ground, it showed that the lead oxide and the titanium dioxide were the main constituents. On the basis of these results, standard samples were produced. As a result of evaluation on the functions of the size layer materials, in the case of the animal glue, stable result was observed in the shrinkag expansion rate, whereas slight weakness was observed in moisture proofing, color, and tensile strength, and dense cracks were found on surface. As for PVAc(A), moisture proofing, color, and the tensile strength exhibited stable results. Higher shrinkage rate was observed and the cracks with wide gaps were found on surface. As for PVAc(B), tensile strength, shrinkage expansion rate, and surface observation showed stable results, whereas moisture proofing property showed poor results. Different aspects were observed in each experiment, and this phenomena were considered to be due to the density and the adhesion properties between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules in the size layer materials. The results are expected to be used as materials for the oil painting work conservation henceforth.
Inferring Animal Husbandry Practice in the Baekje Period using Stable Isotope Analysis of Animal Bones from the Pungnaptoseong Fortress
Choe, Hyeon Goo ; Shin, Ji Young ; Han, Ji Sun ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 179~188
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.07
This paper presents a new information on animal husbandry practice in the Baekje period using stable isotope analysis of 17 animal bones excavated from the Pungnaptoseong Fortress. Stable carbon isotope evidence implies that wild animals such as deer and pigs had mainly
-based diet whereas domestic cattle and horses might have consumed more
plants. In addition, we propose one potential that domestic pigs show higher nitrogen isotope values in comparison with wild boar because they were possibly fed by humans.
Metallurgical Analysis for Non-ferrous Smelting Slag Collected from Seosan Area
Lee, Hye Jin ; Lee, Hye Youn ; Lee, So Dam ; Cho, Nam Chul ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 189~202
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.08
To figure out the material characteristics about slag and raw materials which are founded in iron product sites in Seosan area, we used XRF, EDS to analysis chemical compositions. Also we observe the microstructure by microscope and SEM. To identify the mineral component, XRD analysis was used and to assume the provenance of the raw material, lead isotope ratio analysis was used. From the results, we figure out that slags are non-ferrous created when metal was refined. Also, main tissue of slags were Fayalite, Galena, Magnetite, and raw materials were identified as mineral of Galena, Anglesite, Pyrite etc. From the result about lead isotope ratio analysis, we found out most samples are classified as the Western Gyeonggi massif in South Korea. Especially three of raw materials and slag samples which collected in the Seosan Doseongri was presumed to be the provenance. We figure out that slags we analyzed were made in non-ferrous metal smelting process and especially that were more likely to smelt from Seosan Doseongri. If various slags in this area are analysed by someone, It will contribute understanding non-ferrous metal refining process as well as metal refining which are composed.
Conservation Treatment of Modern Cultural Heritage Rickshaw
Kim, Soo Chul ; Park, Jung Hae ; Jang, Han Ul ; Choi, Jae Wan ; Ahn, Joo Young ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 203~213
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.09
Conservation treatment of modern cultural heritage rickshaw from National Museum of Korean Contemporary History were carried out. The Rickshaw is divided into three parts which are chair part, sun-block cover part, wheels part. Treatment was referred to analysis results of P-XRF, species identification, FT-IR and microscope observation on Rickshaw. Outer films of rickshaw were chipped off. Therefore, conservation and restoration treatment were carried out in the damaged area. Degradation in armrest, saddle and backside of chair may cause serious problem. Therefore, the reinforcement were carried out with similar materials. Dry and wet cleaning were performed in sun-block cover to remove white stain and corrosion contaminant. Furthermore, reinforcement and restoration were performed in damaged area. Rickshaw from National Museum of Korean Contemporary History was made with various materials. This research result expects to be a great example of conservation treatment for modern cultural heritage which is made of various materials and to be used as useful data for conservation and restoration in modern cultural heritage.
Characteristic Analysis of Paint used in Defense Industries Equipments of Korean Conflict in The War Memorial of Korea
Kang, Hyun Sam ; Kim, Soo Chul ; Park, Min Soo ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 215~221
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.10
This study conducted analysis of paint samples from defense industries equipments of Korean Conflict in The War Memorial of Korea to identify the characteristics of the modern paint. The samples were analyzed by microscopic observation, infrared spectroscopy and SEM-EDS. Cross-section of paint samples are made up of several layers of about 9 to 20 times, and thickness of the layer is not uniform in the
. The putty was used for the surface treatment before painting. Inorganic analysis showed that one type of the putty consist of minium and kaolin, talc, titanium dioxide. According to the results of infrared spectroscopy, paint samples were identified as alkyd resin. Some bands such as C-H bending, C-O and C-C stretching, C-H rocking were found in spectra.
Evaluation of Physical Properties according to Mixing Ratio and the Survey of the Current Situation for Epoxy Resin used in Conservation
Lee, Eun Ji ; Jang, Sung Yoon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 223~234
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.11
Two-component epoxy resin is widely used in the cultural heritage restoration field. However according to mixing ratio of resin and hardener, curing property, mechanical strength and chemical structure differ which have possibility to effect the stability of cultural heritage. Result of questionnaire survey shows hands-on workers in the conservation field tend to mix the epoxy resin with his or her eye measurement when the using amount is small or mix additional hardener to shorten the pot life of epoxy resin. This research aims to analyze the curing property, mechanical strength and chemical structure of rapid curing type epoxy resin and medium curing type one depending on relative ratio of 0.25~4 of hardener to resin. When the amount of hardener was 0.5~2 times more than the resin, exothermic heat and curing speed were both increased. In case of included hardener to resin was lower than official ratio, mechanical strength (tensile shear strength, tensile strength and compressive strength) became higher along with active cross-linking bonding of the epoxy resin. Medium curing type epoxy relatively had lower exothermic heat and slower reaction during curing process. It was observed to be put to definite point of mechanical strength under lower content of hardener than official ratio. While, hardener ratio more than twice the resin slowed down the curing greatly and lowered the adhesion strength also. In conclusion, under the lower mixing rate of hardener than official ratio would show relatively fast reaction with similar mechanical strength. Over the official ratio on the other hand, material property drops rapidly. Accordingly, mixing ratio of epoxy resin is expected to be influential to the stability of cultural heritage.
Study of Noncontact Condition Diagnosis on Painting with Terahertz Waves
Baek, Na Yeon ; Kang, Dai Ill ; Ha, Tae Woo ; Sim, Kyung Ik ; Lee, Ho Won ; Kim, Jae Hoon ; Lee, Han Hyoung ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 235~247
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.12
Conventional imaging techniques such as ultraviolet, infrared, and X-ray are used mainly to diagnose the damaged parts of the painted cultural assets in Korea. These techniques, however, have limits in diagnosing damages of interlayer parts. We have performed and extensive study on the applicability of Terahertz(THz) analysis technique, introduced recently to this field of study on cultural properties in Korea, to diagnose painted cultural assets. The specimens, produced to imitate the damage types of Korean painted properties, were analyzed over their painting, supporting, and backing layers by terahertz pulse imaging technique. The analyzed results provided information about the cracks, the separated areas, and the separated distances between layers on the specimens. Our research, then, was extended to real painted cultural remains, Birojana Sam-shin Gwebul-do at Bongseon Temple in Namyang-ju, Korea National Treasure Number 1792, through which we have obtained 3D information about the extent and pattern of damages to the asset. These results demonstrate that terahertz 3D imaging technique has the capability of noncontact 3D diagnosis on painted cultural properties.
The Influence of the Commercial Flame Retardant to the Physical and Chemical Properties of Dancheong Pigments
Lee, Han Hyoung ; Kim, Jin Gyu ; Lee, Hwa Soo ; Lee, Ha Rim ; Chung, Yong Jae ; Kim, Do Rae ; Han, Gyu Seong ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 249~259
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.13
Effect of the flame retardants on Dancheong is studied in the present work. Two kinds of flame retardants were applied on Dancheong specimens and compared with control groups on which distilled water was applied instead of the flame retardants. The flame retardants enhanced the hygroscopic property of the surface of Dancheong. Furthermore, the added flame retardants reacted with oyster shell white(
) and lead red(
), producing new chemical compounds like Calcium phosphate tribasic and Lead Phosphates which make the painted layer of Dancheong dissolving and whitening over certain period of time. When applied in excessive amount and exposed in repetitive wet and dry condition, especially, they aggravate the surface problems significantly. These results will provide a good reference on the study of the discoloring/whitening effect of Dancheong layers at many traditional wooden building in Korea.
Characteristics of Painting Film Corresponding with Particle Distribution of Oyster Shell Powders
Song, You Na ; Park, Ga Yeong ; Lee, Han Hyoung ; Chung, Yong Jae ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 261~271
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.14
We have investigated relationship between particle characteristics of oyster shell powder pigments and their performance such as workability and durability. Three types of the powder which have different particle size and shape(spherical, elliptical, columnar and irregular) distributions were made for this study and we evaluated spreadability and uniformity for workability, and adhesion and surface hardness for durability of painted films by each powder paints. As a result, we found out that the workability and durability of the paints were influenced by the particle shape distribution more than the particle size distribution. The durability, especially, was enhanced as the ratio of columnar particles in the powders was increased. This result verifying the important factor affecting the durability can be base data for selecting oyster shell white paint and assessing its quality for conservation and restoration of Dancheong, as well as to produce high quality traditional paints.
Interpretation on Making Techniques of Some Ancient Ceramic Artifacts from Midwestern Korean Peninsula: Preliminary Study
Lee, Chan Hee ; Jin, Hong Ju ; Choi, Ji Soo ; Na, Geon Ju ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 273~291
DOI : 10.12654/JCS.2016.32.2.15
Some ceramic artifacts representing time-wise from comb pattern pottery in the Neolithic Age to white porcelain in Joseon Dynasty were selected from 7 sites in the north and south area of Charyeong Mountain Range in order to making techniques interpretation and development process of ancient ceramics through physicochemical and mineralogical quantitative analysis. Studied pottery samples in the Prehistoric times showed trace of ring piling in soft-type, and pottery in the Three Kingdoms Period had both soft and hard-type but kettle-ware and storage-ware were made with ring piling, but table-ware was made by wheel spinning. Different from pottery after the Three Kingdom Period when refinement of source clay was high, pottery in the Neolithic Age and in the Bronze Age exhibited highly mineral content in sandy source clay, which showed a lot of larger temper than source clay. Groundmass of celadon and white porcelain almost did not reveal primary minerals but had high content of minerals by high temperature firing. Ceramic samples showed some different in major and minor elements according to sites irrespective of times. Geochemical behaviors are very similar indicating similar basic characteristics of source clay. However, loss-on-ignition showed 0.01 to 12.59wt.% range with a large deviation but it rapidly decreased moving from the Prehistoric times to the Three Kingdom Period. They have correlation with the weight loss due to firings, according to burning degree of source clay and detection of high temperature minerals, estimated firing temperatures are classified into 5 groups. Pottery in the Neolithic Age and in the Bronze Age belongs from 750 to
group; pottery in the Three Kingdom Period are variously found in 750 to
range of firing temperature; and it is believed celadon and white porcelain were baked in high temperature of 1,150 to
. It seems difference between refinement of source clay and firing temperature based on production times resulted from change in raw material supply and firing method pursuant to development of production skill. However, there was difference in production methods even at the same period and it is thought that they were utilized according to use purpose and needs instead of evolved development simply to one direction.