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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science
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Physical therapy rehabilitation science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 2 - Oct 2014
Volume 3, Issue 1 - Jun 2014
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The effects of low-level laser therapy in patients with wrist pain: is this Mickey Mouse science?
Petrofsky, Jerrold S. ; Chung, Wendy ; De Fazio, Lesley ; Harris, Holly ; Laymon, Michael ; Lee, Haneul ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 3, issue 1, 2014, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2014.3.1.1
Objective: Low level laser treatment (LLLT) is widely used in physical therapy practice. It is combined with physical therapy or LLLT alone. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of LLLT on patients' perception of general wrist pain. Design: Longitudinal study. Methods: Forty-eight subjects with wrist pain who were in the age range of 18-70 years old were examined. The subjects were asked, via an interview and a visual analog scale, to grade their wrist pain. They were asked to rotate their wrists through full range of motion and the angle at which any pain occurred was assessed. Each subject was then exposed to one of the following: 1) treatment with an infrared laser with the power turned off (placebo), 2) treatment with an infrared therapeutic laser, 3) treatment with a red therapeutic laser, 4) treatment with an ultraviolet laser, 5) treatment with a blue laser, 6) treatment with a Mickey Mouse flashlight. The duration of the treatment was 3 sessions in 3 days. Results: The results of the experiments showed that while pain was reduced both immediately after and the next day after laser therapy (p<0.05), there was no significant difference between the laser groups and the placebo group. However, the Mickey Mouse flashlight treatment groups had a greater range of motion than the laser groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: While pain was reduced in all laser groups, it was probably a placebo effect. The Mickey Mouse flashlight group probably received benefit from the heat of the flashlight.
Effects of 3-dimensional balance trainer in combination with a video-game system on balance and gait ability in subacute stroke patients
Ha, Hyun Geun ; Ko, Young Jun ; Lee, Hwang Jae ; Lee, Wan Hee ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 3, issue 1, 2014, Pages 7~12
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2014.3.1.7
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a three dimensional balance trainer in combination with a video-game system and visual feedback on balance recovery and gait function in subacute stroke patients. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: Twenty-three subacute stroke patients were assigned to either an experimental (n=12) or a control group (n=11) using a random permuted block design and sealed envelopes. The experimental group received additional 3-dimensional balance training combined with visual feedback and a game program for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Both groups received 30-min of conservative physical therapy sessions based on neurodevelopmental therapy. Before and after the 20 sessions, walking abilities were evaluated by the the GaitRite system and balances were evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). The Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS) was used to assess trunk muscle performances. Results: After the 4-week intervention, BBS and TIS scores were significantly increased in both groups (p<0.05), and increases in these scores were significantly greater in the experimental group (p<0.05). After the 4-week intervention, gait speed and cadence were significantly increased in both groups (p<0.05), and as was observed for BBS and TIS scores, changes of gait speed and cadence were significantly greater in the experimental group (p<0.05). Conclusions: The study shows that the 3-dimensional balance trainer combined with visual biofeedback and a video-game system provides a therapeutic means for improving balance and gait ability in subacute stroke patients.
A pilot study of augmented reality-based postural control training in stroke rehabilitation
Park, Yu Hyung ; Lee, Chi Ho ; Kim, Hang Jin ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 3, issue 1, 2014, Pages 13~19
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2014.3.1.13
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Augmented Reality-based Postural Control (ARPC) training on balance and gait function in patients with stroke. Design: Single-blind randomized controlled trial. Methods: Twenty participants who experienced a stroke were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the ARPC (n=10) or control group (n=10). Subjects in both groups received conventional physical therapy for 60 min per session, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. In addition, subjects in the ARPC group received ARPC training for 30 min per day, 3 days per week, for 4 weeks. The participants watched established normal postural control patterns on a head-mounted display and repeated the movements in ARPC training. Outcome measurements were assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) before and after 4 weeks of training. Results: Of the 20 randomized participants, only 18 completed the 4-week training program. The ARPC group showed significant improvement in the BBS and 10MWT after training (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the control group did not exhibit improvement in either variable. In addition, the ARPC group showed significantly greater improvement than the control group in the 10MWT (p<0.05), whereas no significant difference was observed between the groups for the BBS. Conclusions: The results of this study confirmed the benefits of ARPC training on dynamic balance and functional gait ability. Additionally, this study may provide evidence supporting the use of an ARPC training program for improving balance and gait ability in patients after a chronic stroke.
The effects of low level laser radiation on bacterial growth
Chung, Wendy ; Petrofsky, Jerrold S. ; Laymon, Michael ; Logoluso, Jason ; Park, Joon ; Lee, Judy ; Lee, Haneul ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 3, issue 1, 2014, Pages 20~26
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2014.3.1.20
Objective: The low level lasers currently in the market vary in wavelength, dosage, and frequency. These devices are used with much different clinical pathology. Most notably, some studies claim that wounds heal faster with low level laser therapy due to the fact that bacteria commonly found in wounds are killed by laser light. Systemic and meta-analysis studies found the difficulty of comparison of numerous research studies because of differences in the intensities and frequencies of low level laser treatment (LLLT). The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of LLLT on controlling bacterial growth. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Variables included LLLT dosage and wavelength on 3 bacteria commonly seen in wounds, strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used on commercially available 5.0-cm agar plates. Blue, green, and red, ultraviolet (UV) and infrared laser light sources were adjusted to either low or high intensity settings. Five Petri dishes at a time were placed directly beneath laser light sources with the exception of UV which was placed six inches below the suspended light and infrared which was placed directly on top of the Petri dish lid. Each group of five Petri dishes was irradiated for 15 minutes. Results: The results showed no effect of any of 9 different LLLT intensities or colors on bacteria growth compared to sham light. Conclusions: At least for claims of bacterial growth inhibition with LLLT, no support for this claim can be found here.
Wheelchair martial arts practitioners have similar bone strength, sitting balance and self-esteem to healthy individuals
Fong, Shirley S.M. ; Ng, Shamay S.M. ; Li, Anthony O.T. ; Guo, X. ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 3, issue 1, 2014, Pages 27~32
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2014.3.1.27
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the radial bone strength, sitting balance ability and global self-esteem of wheelchair martial arts practitioners and healthy control participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Nine wheelchair martial art practitioners with physical disabilities and 28 able-bodied healthy individuals participated in the study. The bone strength of the distal radius was assessed using the Sunlight Mini-Omni Ultrasound Bone Sonometer; sitting balance was quantified using the modified functional reach test (with reference to a scale marked on the wall); and the self-administered Rosenberg self-esteem (RSE) scale was used to measure the global self-esteem of the participants. The velocity of the ultrasound wave (speed of sound, m/s) traveling through the outer surface of the radial bone was measured and was then converted into a T-score and a Z-score. These ultrasound T-score and Z-score that represent bone strength; the maximum forward reaching distance in sitting (cm) that represents sitting balance; and the RSE total self-esteem score that indicates global self-esteem were used for analysis. Results: The results revealed that there were no statistically significant between-group differences for radial bone-strength, maximum forward reaching distance, or self-esteem outcomes. Conclusions: The wheelchair martial arts practitioners had similar radial bone strength, sitting balance performance and self-esteem to able-bodied healthy persons. Our results imply that wheelchair martial arts might improve bone strength, postural control and self-esteem in adult wheelchair users. This new sport-wheelchair martial arts-might be an exercise option for people with physical disabilities.
Effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound in activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and inhibition inflammation cytokine synthesis in chondrocytes
Kim, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Gye-Yeop ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 3, issue 1, 2014, Pages 33~37
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2014.3.1.33
Objective: Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been shown to accelerate cell proliferation and tissue healing in both animal models and clinical trials. However, details of the clinical effects of LIPUS have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LIPUS on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in rat articular chondrocytes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Chondrocyte were cultured in six well cell culture plates for 72 hours at
, and then exposed to LIPUS at 1.5 MHz frequency and
power. Changes in chondrocyte activities were evaluated in response to oxydative stress in dose-dependent (0 and 300 uM) and time-dependent (0-24 hr) manner. The cell viability were analyzed using MTT [3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide]. The expression of p38 MAPK was measured using western blotting. Results: Oxidative stress was induced in rat chondrocytes using hydrogen peroxide (
). The cell viability was decreased in chondrocytes after the
dose and time-dependent treatment. The p38 MAPK phosphorylation occurred at a significantly increased rate after
treated (p<0.05). Expression of p38 MAPK was decreased in the p38 inhibitor groups compared with the oxidative stress-induced chondrocyte damage via the p38 MAPK signaling pathways (p<0.05). Conclusions: It could be concluded that LIPUS can inhibit oxidative stress-induced chondrocyte damage via the p38 MAPK signaling pathways.
Immediate effects of a neurodynamic sciatic nerve sliding technique on hamstring flexibility and postural balance in healthy adults
Park, Jaemyoung ; Cha, Jaeyun ; Kim, Hyunjin ; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 3, issue 1, 2014, Pages 38~42
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2014.3.1.38
Objective: In this study, we applied a neurodynamic sciatic nerve sliding technique to healthy adults to elucidate its effects on hamstring flexibility and postural balance. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study targeted twenty four healthy adults (16 men, 8 women). A neurodynamic sciatic nerve sliding technique was applied 5 times to all subjects' dominant leg. The subjects were asked to sit on the bed while performing cervical and thoracic flexion, as well as knee flexion with ankle plantar flexion. Then, they were asked to perform cervical and thoracic extension and knee extension with their ankle in dorsiflexion and maintain the position for 60 s. For postural balance, we measured postural sway while the subjects maintained a one-legged standing posture using the Good Balance System and measured the hip joint flexion range of motion using a standardized passive straight leg raise (SLR) test. Results: SLR test increased significantly from
before the intervention to
after the intervention (p<0.05). Regarding the participants' balance evaluated using the one-legged standing test, the X-speed decreased significantly from 18.61 mm/s to 17.17 mm/s (p<0.05), the Y-speed decreased from 22.28 mm/s to 20.52 mm/s (p<0.05), and the velocity moment was significantly decreased from
after the intervention (p<0.05). Conclusions: Application of the neurodynamic sciatic nerve sliding technique exhibited improved hamstring flexibility and postural balance of healthy adults.
Influence of mobile phone texting on gait parameters during ramp ascent and descent
Kim, Hyunjin ; Park, Jaemyoung ; Cha, Jaeyun ; Song, Chang-Ho ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 3, issue 1, 2014, Pages 43~48
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2014.3.1.43
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the influences on gait features during mobile phone use while ramp walking. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Thirty-three healthy adult subjects performed four walking conditions on an outside ramp with a 5 m length, 1.5 m width, and a
angle. All participants were touch screen mobile phone users. Four walking conditions were used: 1) ramp ascent, 2) ramp descent, 3) texting during ramp ascent, and 4) texting during ramp descent. In conditions 3) and 4), subjects texted the words of "Aegukga"-the song of patriotism-while walking. Upon the signal of start, the subjects walked the ramp during texting. Gait parameters were measured at the length of 3 m excluding 1 m of the start and end of the total length. Each situation was repeated three times for each subject, and mean values were calculated. For gait examination, a gait analyzer was used (OptoGait). Results: Subjects ranged in age from 23 to 38 years (mean age, 27.73). Eighty-three percent of subjects in our study had experienced an accident during mobile phone use. Texting on a mobile phone while walking significantly decreased ramp gait, speed, cadence, stride length, step length, and single support (p<0.05) and significantly increased stride time, step time, gait cycle, and double support (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in cadence, step length, stride time, step time, and single support during ramp ascent and descent (p<0.05). Conclusions: Texting on a mobile phone while walking significantly decreased gait quality.
Immediate effects of single-leg stance exercise on dynamic balance, weight bearing and gait cycle in stroke patients
Jung, Ji-Hye ; Ko, Si-Eun ; Lee, Seung-Won ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 3, issue 1, 2014, Pages 49~54
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2014.3.1.49
Objective: This study aimed to identify how various applications of weight bearing on the affected side of hemiplegia patients affect the ability of balance keeping of the affected leg and the gait parameters. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Eighteen patients with hemiplegia participated in this study. There were twelve males and six females. This study investigated the effects of the single-leg stance exercise on dynamic balance, weight bearing, and gait ability compared with four conditions. Dynamic balance and weight bearing were measured using the step test (ST) of the affected side in stroke patients. In addition, gait parameters were measured using the optogait system for analysis of the spatial and temporal parameters of walking in stroke patients. Results: This study investigated the effect of the single leg stance exercise on the paralysis side. The ST showed significant findings for all conditions (p<0.05). Therefore, knee extension and flexion exercise on the affected side single-leg stance (condition 4) significantly improved dynamic balance and weight bearing on the affected side (p<0.05). In the condition of moving the knee joint in a single-leg stance was discovered that the stance phase time significantly increased more than in the condition of supporting the maximal voluntary weight on the affected side (p<0.05). Conclusions: Single-leg stance on the paralysis side with knee flexion and extension increased symmetry in weight bearing during stance phase time. This study suggests that single-leg stance exercises augments improved gait function through sufficient weight bearing in the stance phase of the affected side.
Effect of gait training with additional weight on balance and gait in stroke patients
Shin, Seung Ho ; Lee, Mi Young ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 3, issue 1, 2014, Pages 55~62
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2014.3.1.55
Objective: To study the effects of gait training with additional weight and gait training with non-additional weight on balance ability and gait ability in patients with chronic stroke through comparative analysis. Design: Randomized controlled trials. Methods: The subjects were divided randomly into two groups: additional weight group (AWG, n=12), and non-additional weight group (NAWG, n=10). Both groups received general physical therapy for 30 min in 1 session, 5 sessions per week during 6 months. The AWG practiced gait training with additional weight of 0.1 and 0.5 kg for 20 min a day, 3 days per week for 6 months and the NAWG practiced gait training with non-additional weight for 20 min a day, 3 days per week for 6 months. Patients in both groups were instructed to walk as fast as they could along a 35 m long track (straight for 20 m and curved for 15 m). Patients walked with their hemiplegic side on the inside of the track while a physical therapist followed along to instruct patients to maintain a straight posture. Balance ability was tested with the Functional Reach Test, the Timed Up and Go test, and the Berg Balance Scale, and gait ability was tested with GAITRite. The results of balance and gait ability were analyzed before and after interventions. Results: A significant increase in FRT, TUG, BBS was seen in both groups after intervention (p<0.05). A significant increase in gait ability was seen in the AWG after intervention (p<0.05). For balance and gait ability, the results from the AWG was significantly improved compared with the NAWG (p<0.05). Conclusions: Gait training with additional weight improves balance ability and gait ability in stroke patients, this gait training method is effective and suitable for stroke patients to increase the ability of functional performance.
The effect of ankle Kinesio taping on range of motion and agility during exercise in university students
Eom, Se Young ; Lee, Won Jun ; Lee, Jae Il ; Lee, Eun Hee ; Lee, Hye Young ; Chung, Eun Jung ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 3, issue 1, 2014, Pages 63~68
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2014.3.1.63
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ankle Kinesio taping on range of motion and agility during exercise in university students. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Thirty subjects were randomly allocated to two groups: taping group (n=15) and non-taping group (n=15). All groups underwent the same exercise program including stretching for 30 minutes. The exercise program proceeded in the following order: five minutes of stretching, a 20-minutes exercise program, and additional five minutes of stretching. Of the eight exercise methods suggested by Purcell et al, seven were chosen (lateral shuffle, forward and backward running, agility ladder, figure-of-8, forward jogging while jumping over cones, wall jumps and zigzags);
cuts with lateral shuffle were omitted. The range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion was measured using the goniometer. Agility was measured using the side hop test. Results: For ankle range of motion, the taping group showed significant differences in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion on both sides (p<0.05). The non-taping group showed significant differences only in left plantarflexion (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in dorsiflexion on both sides between the taping group and the non-taping group (p<0.05). All groups showed significant differences in agility on the left and right ankle (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in left ankles between the taping group and the non-taping group (p<0.05). Conclusions: Kinesio taping increased range of motion and agility during exercise in university students. Additional research on Kinesio taping for improving range of motion and agility is needed.
Kinematic analysis of rowing exercise using a motor-assisted rowing machine for rowers with spinal cord injury: a case report
Jeong, Ju Ri ; Lee, Bum Suk ; Park, Dae-Sung ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 3, issue 1, 2014, Pages 69~75
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2014.3.1.69
Objective: We developed a Motor-Assisted Rowing Machine (MARM) for Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), by modification of the Concept II rowing machine, so that the seats could be operated automatically in a backward and forward direction by a motor. Design: Case report. Methods: Motor rowing consisted of a chair with inclination control, a motor system, control button, monitor, program, leg supporter, safety belt, and seat. The patients were 2 men rowing athletes with SCI, classified as American Spinal Injury Association class B, participated in the study. Level of thoracic injury ranged from T8 to T10. The subjects rowed at a self-selected stroke rate with 50 watts. Two different rowing methods (static rowing without movement of the seat, dynamic rowing using MARM) were assigned to each participant during 10 minutes; 34 reflective markers were attached to their full bodies. Kinematic data were collected using the Vicon motion analysis system. Based on the full body model provided as a default by the equipment. In the rowing exercise, the rowing motions were divided into Drive Phase and Recovery Phase. Results: The two rowing methods differ in handle range, seat range, handle and seat ratio, handle velocity, and seat velocity during static and dynamic rowing. The rowing exercise using a rowing machine developed MARM increased tendency to the range of motion in the dynamic method compared to the static method. Conclusions: The newly developed MARM could be a useful whole body exercise for people with SCI.