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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science
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Physical therapy rehabilitation science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Oct 2015
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Jun 2015
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Correlation between lateral abdominal, rectus femoris, and triceps brachii muscle thickness and endurance during prone bridge exercise in healthy young adults
Lee, Kyeong Bong ; Kim, Jong Geun ; Park, Han Gi ; Kim, Ji Eun ; Kim, Hye Sun ; Lee, Wan Hee ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 4, issue 1, 2015, Pages 11~16
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2015.4.1.11
Objective: Prone bridge exercise is one of the core strengthening exercise for improving abdominal, lower and upper extremity muscles. In addition, coactivation of the trunk muscles and extremities is important for treatment of low back pain. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the thickness, cross-sectional area of the target muscle, and endurance during prone bridge exercise. Our hypothesis was that an increase in muscle thickness is positively related to the hold time for the static prone bridge exercise. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Fourteen healthy university students (8 men and 6 women) voluntarily participated in the study at Sahmyook University. Hold time for the prone bridge with one and both legs was measured. The resting and contracted thickness of the lateral abdominal, rectus femoris, and triceps muscles was measured using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. The correlation between muscle thickness and endurance for maintenance time was evaluated. Results: The prone bridge with both legs and the contraction thickness of the triceps muscle showed a positive correlation (r=0.692, p<0.05); the prone bridge with one leg and the contraction thickness of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles showed a positive correlation (r=0.545, 0.574, p<0.05, 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: Endurance for the prone bridge exercise with a stable support surface is correlated with the contraction thickness of arm muscles; the prone bridge exercise with an unstable support surface is correlated with the contraction thickness of the deep abdominal muscles.
Effects of aerobic exercise on antioxidants in rat models with cardiomyopathy
Kim, Eun-Jung ; Hwang, Sujin ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 4, issue 1, 2015, Pages 17~21
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2015.4.1.17
Objective: In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise might exert its cardio-protective effect by preventing oxidative stress and improving cardiac function in rat models with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: We randomly divided experimental rats into four groups: the normal group was used as a non-cardiomyopathy normal control (n=10); the control group included non-aerobic exercise after doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy (n=10); the experimental group I included aerobic exercise (3 m/min) after doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy (n=10); and experimental group II included aerobic exercise (8 m/min) after doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Rats in the treadmill training groups underwent treadmill training, which began at 2 weeks after the first intraperitoneal injection. At the end of the exercise period, we determined the heart weight change for each rat. Changes in the levels of oxidative stress enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS], and catalase) in the cardiac tissue of rats from all four groups were examined at the end of the experiment. Results: Significant cardiac myocyte injury and increase in myocardial TBARS concomitant with a reduction in myocardial SOD and catalase were observed following cardiomyopathy (p<0.05). Significant cardiac tissue and increase in myocardial TBARS along with reduction in myocardial SOD and catalase were observed following cardiomyopathy (p<0.05). Oxidative parameters were significantly improved in the aerobic exercise groups compared with the control group. Conclusions: These findings indicate that aerobic exercise effectively prevents oxidative stress in rat models with cardiomyopathy.
The effects of strengthening exercise, stretching and meditation on electromyography onset timing of the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius during vertical jump performance in healthy adults
Eum, Ji Young ; Kim, Yeoung Kyun ; Park, Eun Ji ; Lee, Ju Hee ; Lee, Ji Eun ; Lim, Jin Ju ; Choi, Man Ho ; Kim, Hyun Hee ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 4, issue 1, 2015, Pages 22~27
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2015.4.1.22
Objective: Jump training helps increase the muscle power by improving the muscle strength and reaction time of the muscle in operation. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of strengthening, stretching exercise and meditation on electromyographic (EMG) onset timing of rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscle during vertical jump performance. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Ten healthy adults (5 male and 5 female) who were familiar with the vertical jumping task and had no lower extremity injuries or any bone or joint disorders, were recruited for this study. Muscle onset timing was measured by surface EMG. After EMG onset timing were measured during performing three baseline vertical jump trials, strengthening and stretching exercises of the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius, and meditation were performed in random order. EMG onset timing was measured during vertical jump after intervention, respectively. EMG value was averaged for the three trials and analyzed using one-way repeated ANOVA. Results: During vertical jump, EMG onset timing of gastrocnemius was a significant difference after intervention (p<0.05), and then there was significantly faster in strengthening exercise than meditation (p<0.05). Conclusions: These results indicate the potential positive effect of performing strengthening exercise of the gastrocnemius before a jumping event. Future research is required to identify the effects of intervention over a long period.
Electroencephalographic brain frequency in athletes differs during visualization of a state of rest versus a state of exercise performance: a pilot study
Berk, Lee ; Mali, Deeti ; Bains, Gurinder ; Madane, Bhagwant ; Bradburn, Jessica ; Acharya, Ruchi ; Kumar, Ranjani ; Juneja, Savleen ; Desai, Nikita ; Lee, Jinhyun ; Lohman, Everett ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 4, issue 1, 2015, Pages 28~31
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2015.4.1.28
Objective: Psychomotor imagery has been widely used to improve motor performance and motor learning. Recent research suggests that during visualization, changes occur in neurophysiological networks that make physical practice more effective in configuring functional networks for skillful behaviors. The aim of our pilot study was to determine if there was change and to what extent there was differentiation in modulation in electroencephalography (EEG) frequencies between visualizing a state of rest and a state of exercise performance and to identify the preponderant frequency. Design: Quasi-experimental design uncontrolled before and after study. Methods: EEG brain wave activity was recorded from 0-40 Hz from nine cerebral cortical scalp regions F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, C4, P3, POz, and P4 with a wireless telemetric EEG system. The subjects, while sitting on a chair with eyes closed, were asked to visualize themselves in a state of routine rest/relaxation and after a period of time in a state of their routine exercise performance. Results: The gamma frequency, 31-40 Hz, (
) was the predominant wave band in differentiation between visualizing a state of rest versus visualizing a state of exercise performance. Conclusions: We suggest these preliminarily findings show the EEG electrocortical activity for athletes is differentially modulated during visualization of exercise performance in comparison to rest with a predominant
wave band frequency observed during the state of exercise. Further controlled experimental studies will be performed to elaborate these observations and delineate the significance to optimization of psychomotor exercise performance.
Effects of mobile texting and gaming on gait with obstructions under different illumination levels
Cha, Jaeyun ; Kim, Hyunjin ; Park, Jaemyoung ; Song, Changho ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 4, issue 1, 2015, Pages 32~37
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2015.4.1.32
Objective: This study was conducted to test the effects of mobile texting and gaming on gait with obstructions under different illumination levels. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Twelve healthy adults aged 20 to 36 years (mean 23.5 years) were tested under six different conditions. All participants used touchscreen smartphones. Testing conditions included: 1) Walking with an obstruction under a bright illumination level; 2) walking with an obstruction with a low level of illumination; 3) walking with an obstruction while texting under a bright illumination level; 4) walking with an obstruction while texting with a low level of illumination; 5) walking with an obstruction while gaming under a bright illumination level; and 6) walking with an obstruction while gaming with a low level of illumination. All participants were asked to text the Korean national anthem by their own phone and play Temple Run 2 using an iPhone 5. Gait variances were measured over a distance of 3 m, and the mean value after three trials was used. A gait analyzer was used to measure the data. Results: Compared to normal gait with obstruction, gait speed, step length, stride length, step time, stride time, cadence while texting and gaming showed significant differences (p<0.05). Differences between the illumination levels included gait speed, step length, stride length, and step time (p<0.05) with no significant differences in stride time and cadence. Conclusions: Dual-tasking using a smartphone under low levels of illumination lowers the quality of gait with obstructions.
Ultrasound imaging for age-related differences of lower extremity muscle architecture
Kim, Min Kyu ; Ko, Young Jun ; Lee, Hwang Jae ; Ha, Hyun Geun ; Lee, Wan Hee ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 4, issue 1, 2015, Pages 38~43
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2015.4.1.38
Objective: To investigate and compare the size of the rectus femoris (RF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (GMM) using ultrasound (US) imaging in young, elderly, and very elderly groups. Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: This study consisted of 25 young (age 20 years), 24 elderly (age 65-74 years), and 25 very elderly (age 75-90 years) people with no physical dysfunctions. The cross sectional area (CSAs) of the RF and muscle thickness of the TA and GMM were measured at rest and during contraction using an US system. Results: The CSA of the RF and thickness of the TA and GMM were significantly smaller in the elderly and very elderly groups than in the young group (p<0.05). There was a significant difference of the CSA of the RF at rest and during contraction between elderly and very elderly group (p<0.05). In the comparison of the TA and GMM thickness between elderly and very elderly groups, there were no significant differences except for the TA thickness during contraction. There was a significant difference in the percentage change in RF CSA among the three groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: Our results revealed loss of muscle mass in the RF, TA, and GMM in elderly and very elderly people (
years old). In particular, the greatest age-related decline in muscle mass was observed for the RF. Furthermore, the CSA of the RF declined with aging in the very elderly groups (
Relationship between anticipatory postural adjustment of the trunk, dual tasks and physical performance with chronic stroke survivors: a pilot test
Hwang, Won Jeong ; Cho, Min Kwon ; Chung, Yijung ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 4, issue 1, 2015, Pages 44~48
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2015.4.1.44
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between anticipatory postural adjustment (APA), single task, dual tasks and physical performances. The trunk muscles of APA consist of bilateral erector spinae (ES) and bilateral internal oblique (IO) adnominal muscles, during rapid stepping with the affected or unaffected leg in a sitting posture. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: In patients with chronic stroke, electrodes of surface electromyography (EMG) were attached on the bilateral erector spinae (ES), bilateral internal oblique adnominal (IO), and bilateral rectus femoris (RF) muscles. RF acts as the prime mover. The stroke patients performed hip flexion until
as fast as possible at each leg in a sitting posture according to a visual cue. The visual cue unexpectedly appeared on monitor in front of the stroke patient. The single task was the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. The dual tasks were the TUGconitive, which increased cognitive capacity, and the TUGmanual task, which had an external focus. Results: All EMG data showed earlier onset latency before the prime mover. In affected leg raising, the onset time of unaffected ES muscle of the stroke patients was correlated with the single and dual tasks (p<0.05). In unaffected leg raising, the onset time of the affected IO muscle was related to all the tasks (p<0.05). Gait speed showed a relationship with the unaffected ES muscle only. Conclusions: The trunk muscles of the bilateral ES and bilateral IO play an important role in APA. The single and dual tasks using TUG test were correlated with the APA s of ES and IO muscles. Dual task by the TUG test is a good measuring tool for reflecting the real life in patients with chronic stroke.
The impact of head repositioning accuracy and proprioception on cervical stabilization exercise in healthy adults
Kang, Kyung Wook ; Kang, Dae Won ; Kwon, Gu Ye ; Kim, Han Byul ; Noh, Kyoung Min ; Baek, Gi Hyun ; Cha, Jin Kwan ; Kim, Hyun Hee ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 4, issue 1, 2015, Pages 49~54
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2015.4.1.49
Objective: Cervical stabilization exercises are frequently to improve strength and endurance of cervical muscles. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in head repositioning accuracy (HRA) and neck proprioception through cervical stabilization exercises in healthy adults. Design: One group pretest-posttest design. Methods: Thirteen participants with no previous history of neck pain or injury to the cervical spine were recruited. HRA was measured by equipment including laser pointer, helmet, eye patch and marking pens. The distance between the spot where the beam had stopped and the center of the graph paper was measured three times with the averaged value used as the head repositioning accuracy. Neck proprioception was measured by a cervical range of motion device (CROM). Subjects wore the CROM tester and were to look straight ahead while bending his/her neck. Subjects were instructed to perform extension, lateral flexion and rotation, and the values were then measured and recorded. The measurements were performed pre-intervention, and after cervical stabilization exercise. Results: There was no significant difference on HRA after intervention. In addition, there was no significant difference on neck proprioception compared with pre-intervention. Conclusions: The present study did not identify any effect on HRA and neck proprioception of cervical stabilization exercise. Further investigations are required to elucidate this in old aged participants and patients with neck pain.
The clinical efficacy of thoracolumbar fascia release for shoulder pain
Choi, Don Mo ; Jung, Ji Hye ;
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, volume 4, issue 1, 2015, Pages 55~59
DOI : 10.14474/ptrs.2015.4.1.55
Objective: This study aimed to elucidate the effects of thoracolumbar fascia release (TLFR) on the degree of pain and disability in patients with shoulder pain. Design: Randomized control trial. Methods: Thirty subjects with shoulder pain participated in this study. They were allocated to TLFR group (n=15) and manual physical therapy (MPT) group (n=15). Shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) and the score on the visual analogue scale (VAS) were measured before and after TLFR. Results: In the TLFR group, the degree of shoulder pain as indicated by SPADI measured after the intervention significantly differed from that before the intervention (p<0.05); moreover, in the MPT group, the degree of shoulder pain was significantly lower (p<0.05). The data of the 2 groups before the intervention significantly differed from those after the intervention (p<0.05). SPADI significantly differed within the groups (p<0.05), but not between the groups. The sum of SPADI did not differ significantly between the groups. The VAS scores of shoulder pain measured before the intervention significantly differed from those measured after the intervention (p<0.05) in the both groups. After the intervention, shoulder pain decreased significantly in the TLFR group as compared to that in the MPT group. Conclusions: TLF release was effective in reducing shoulder pain. The results of this study can be applied in clinical practice for TLFR performed to reduce shoulder pain. Further studies will need to be performed to elucidate the effects of TLFR on functional recovery.