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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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Korean Society of Earth and Exploration Geophysicists
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Volume 1, Issue 3 - Nov 1998
Volume 1, Issue 2 - Aug 1998
Volume 1, Issue 1 - May 1998
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Kinematic Approximation of Partial Derivative Seismogram with respect to Velocity and Density
Shin, Chang-Soo ; Shin, Sung-Ryul ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 8~18
In exploration seismology, the Kirchhoff hyperbola has been successfully used to migrate reflection seismo-grams. The mathematical basis of Kirchhoff hyperbola has not been clearly defined and understood for the application of prestack or poststack migration. The travel time from the scatterer in the subsurface to the receivers (exploding reflector model) on the surface can be a kinematic approximation of Green's function when the source is excited at position of the scatterer. If we add the travel time from the source to the scatterer in the subsurface to the travel time of exploding reflector model, we can view this travel time as a kinematic approximation of the partial derivative wavefield with respect to the velocity or the density in the subsurface. The summation of reflection seismogram along the Kirchhoff hyperbola can be evaluated as an inner product between the partial derivative wavefield and the field reflection seismogram. In addition to this kinematic interpretation of Kirchhoff hyperbola, when we extend this concept to shallow refraction seismic data, the stacking of refraction data along the straight line can be interpreted as a measurement of an inner product between the first arrival waveform of the partial derivative wavefield and the field refraction data. We evaluated the Kirchhoff hyperbola and the straight line for stacking the refraction data in terms of the first arrival waveform of the partial derivative wavefield with respect to the velocity or the density in the subsurface. This evaluation provides a firm and solid basis for the conventional Kirchhoff migration and the straight line stacking of the refraction data.
Three-dimensional Seismic Refraction Travel Time Tomography for Dipping Two Layers
Cho Dong-heng ; Cho Kwang-ho ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 19~24
This paper deals with tomographic travel time inversion of three dimensional seismic refraction survey conducted over a dipping interface. The slowness, and thus velocity as its reciprocal, distribution on the subsurface interface is to be determined applying an ART with under-relaxtion parameter. The models chosen are realistic, i.e., most likely to be met in engineering seismics, and the interface includes anomalous zones. It is found that, generally speaking, the inversion could be misleading or meaningless without the correction of the dip of the interface. This is rather surprising when we recall that usual assumption for the interpretation of refraction seismics data is the horizontal attitude of structures within the limit of
dip or so. To make the present method tenable for a new means of routine seismics, some practical ways of identifying head wave arrivals are to be devised.
Time-Lapse Crosswell Seismic Study to Evaluate the Underground Cavity Filling
Lee, Doo-Sung ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 25~30
Time-lapse crosswell seismic data, recorded before and after the cavity filling, showed that the filling increased the velocity at a known cavity zone in an old mine site in Inchon area. The seismic response depicted on the tomogram and in conjunction with the geologic data from drillings imply that the size of the cavity may be either small or filled by debris. In this study, I attempted to evaluate the filling effect by analyzing velocity measured from the time-lapse tomograms. The data acquired by a downhole airgun and 24-channel hydrophone system revealed that there exists measurable amounts of source statics. I presented a methodology to estimate the source statics. The procedure for this method is: 1) examine the source firing-time for each source, and remove the effect of irregular firing time, and 2) estimate the residual statics caused by inaccurate source positioning. This proposed multi-step inversion may reduce high frequency numerical noise and enhance the resolution at the zone of interest. The multi-step inversion with different starting models successfully shows the subtle velocity changes at the small cavity zone. The inversion procedure is: 1) conduct an inversion using regular sized cells, and generate an image of gross velocity structure by applying a 2-D median filter on the resulting tomogram, and 2) construct the starting velocity model by modifying the final velocity model from the first phase. The model was modified so that the zone of interest consists of small-sized grids. The final velocity model developed from the baseline survey was as a starting velocity model on the monitor inversion. Since we expected a velocity change only in the cavity zone, in the monitor inversion, we can significantly reduce the number of model parameters by fixing the model out-side the cavity zone equal to the baseline model.
Interpretation and Analysis of Seismic Crosshole Data: Case History
Kim Jung-Yul ; Kim Yoo-Sung ; Hyun Hye-Ja ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 31~42
Recently crosshole seismic tomography has come to be widely used especially for the civil engineering, because it can provide more detail information than any other surface method, although the resolution of tomogram will be inevitably deteriorated to some extent due to the limited wavefield aperture on the nonuniqueness of traveltime inversion. In addition, our field sites often consist of a high-velocity bed rock overlain by low-velocity rock, sometimes with a contrast of more than 45 percent, and furthermore the bed rock is folded. The first arriving waves can be then the refracted ones that travel along the bed rock surface for some source/receiver distances. Thus, the desirable first arrivals can be easily misread that cause severe distortion of the resulting tomogram, if it is concerned with (straight ray) traveltime inversion procedure. In this case, comparision with synthetic data (forward modeling) is a valuable tool in the interpretation process. Besides, abundant information is contained in the crosshole data. For instance, examination of tube waves can be devoted to detecting discontinuities within the borehole such as breakouts, faults, fractures or shear zones as well as the end of the borehole. Specific frequency characteristics of marine silty mud will help discriminate from other soft rocks. The aim of this paper is to present several strategies to analyze and interpret the crosshole data in order to improve the ability at first to determine the spatial dimensions of interwell anomalies and furthermore to understand the underground structures. To this end, our field data are demonstrated. Possibility of misreading the first arrivals was illustrated. Tube waves were investigated in conjunction with the televiewer images. Use of shot- and receiver gathers was examined to benefit the detectabilities of discontinuities within the borehole.
Nonlinear Traveltime Tomography Method Using Fresnel Zone
Cho, Chang-Soo ; Ji, Jun ; Lee, Doo-Sung ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 43~48
Recently seismic tomography has been widely used to visualize subsurface structure for resource explorations and construction site evaluation. We studied a way to include fresnel zone concept in the conventional ray-based traveltime tomography. The algorithm developed uses the same order of computing time as the conventional traveltime to mography but incorporates the rigorous wavepath concept of wave-equation tomography. Some experiments to synthetic and real data show reasonable results compared to conventional ray-based traveltime tomography.
Acoustic 2-D Full-waveform Inversion with Initial Guess Estimated by Traveltime Tomography
Han Hyun Chul ; Cho Chang Soo ; Suh Jung Hee ; Lee Doo Sung ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 49~56
Seismic tomography has been widely used as high resolution subsurface imaging techniques in engineering applications. Although most of the techniques have been using travel time inversion, waveform method is being driven forward owing to the progress of computational environments. Although full-waveform inversion method has been known as the best method in terms of model resolving power without high-frequency restriction and weak scattering approximation, it has practical disadvantage that it is apt to get stuck in local minimum if the initial guess is far from the actual model and it consumes so much time to calculate. In this study, 2-D full-waveform inversion algorithm in acoustic medium is developed, which uses result of traveltime tomography as initial model. From the application on synthetic data, it is proved that this approach can efficiently reduce the problem of conventional approaches: our algorithm shows much faster convergence rate and improvement of model resolution. Result of application on physical modeling data also shows much improvement. It is expected that this algorithm can be applicable to real data.
Investigation of Contaminated Waste Disposal Site Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique
Jung Yunmoon ; Woo Ik ; Kim Jungho ; Cho Seongjun ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 57~63
The electrical resistivity method, one of old and widely used geophysical prospecting methods, has extended its scope to civil & environmental engineering areas. The electrical resistivity imaging technique was performed at the waste disposal site located in Junju to verify the applicability to the environmental engineering area. The dipole-dipole array, with the dipole spacing of 10 m, was applied along eight survey lines. The field data were obtained under the control of automatic acquisition softwares and topographic effects were corrected during processing stage. The processed resistivity images show that very low resistivity develops inside the disposal site and the distribution of low resistivity is exactly in accord with the boundary of the site except the river side. The depth of low resistivity zones is deeper toward the river side, which is interpreted that there is a high possibility for contaminants to be scattered to the river. From resistivity images, it was feasible to deduce the depth of waste disposal as well as the horizontal/vertical distribution of the contaminated zone, which proved the applicability of the electrical resistivity imaging technique to the environmental engineering area.
Application of Diffraction Tomography to GPR Data
Kim Geun-Young ; Shin Changsoo ; Suh Jung Hee ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 64~70
Diffraction tomography (DT) is a quantitative technique for high resolution subsurface imaging. In general DT algorithm is used for crosswell imaging. In this study high resolution GPR DT algorithm which is able to reconstruct high resolution image of subsurface structures in multi-monostatic geometry is developed. Developed algorithm is applied to finite difference data and its criteria of application and its limit are studied. Inversion parameters (number of imaging frequency, regularization factor, frequency range) are deduced from isolated weak scattering model. And the usuability of the algorithm is proved by applying to models which break the weak scattering approximation.
Generalized Rapid Relaxation Inversion of Two-Dimensional Magnetotelluric Survey Data
Jeong, Yong-Hyun ; Suh, Jung-Hee ; Shin, Chang-Soo ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 71~78
Inversion schemes of 2-D MT survey data generally take enormous computational time and computer memory. In addition, careful attention must be paid in handling MT data, especially in cases of TM mode, inversion results can be seriously distorted because of static effect caused by current channeling across inhomogeneous surface boundaries. There-fore inversion algorithm using the GRRI scheme for TM mode MT data was implemented. This scheme is based on a perturbation analysis with a locally 2-D analysis and local inversions were sequently performed over each divided section without additional forward modelings. The algorithm was applied to several synthetic data for the purpose of verification of its efficiency and applicability. With less computer resources than conventional schemes, it could handle static effect directly by including current channeling across inhomogeneous boundaries. Thus it is expected to be used for an useful tool such as a real-time inversion scheme in the field.