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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Earth and Exploration Geophysicists
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Nov 2007
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Aug 2007
Volume 10, Issue 2 - May 2007
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
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Numerical studies of information about elastic parameter sets in non-linear elastic wavefield inversion schemes
Sakai, Akio ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 1, 2007, Pages 1~18
Non-linear elastic wavefield inversion is a powerful method for estimating elastic parameters for physical constraints that determine subsurface rock and properties. Here, I introduce six elastic-wave velocity models by reconstructing elastic-wave velocity variations from real data and a 2D elastic-wave velocity model. Reflection seismic data information is often decoupled into short and long wavelength components. The local search method has difficulty in estimating the longer wavelength velocity if the starting model is far from the true model, and source frequencies are then changed from lower to higher bands (as in the 'frequency-cascade scheme') to estimate model elastic parameters. Elastic parameters are inverted at each inversion step ('simultaneous mode') with a starting model of linear P- and S-wave velocity trends with depth. Elastic parameters are also derived by inversion in three other modes - using a P- and S-wave velocity basis
; P-impedance and Poisson's ratio basis
; and P- and S-impedance
. Density values are updated at each elastic inversion step under three assumptions in each mode. By evaluating the accuracy of the inversion for each parameter set for elastic models, it can be concluded that there is no specific difference between the inversion results for the
mode and the
Poisson mode. The same conclusion is expected for the
mode, too. This gives us a sound basis for full wavelength elastic wavefield inversion.
Multi-station joint inversion of receiver function and surface-wave phase velocity data for exploration of deep sedimentary layers
Kurose, Takeshi ; Yamanaka, Hiroaki ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 1, 2007, Pages 19~28
In this study, we propose a joint inversion method, using genetic algorithms, to estimate an S-wave velocity structure for deep sedimentary layers from receiver functions and surface-wave phase velocity observed at several sites. The method takes layer continuity over a target area into consideration by assuming that each layer has uniform physical properties, especially an S-wave velocity, at all the sites in a target area in order to invert datasets acquired at different sites simultaneously. Numerical experiments with synthetic data indicate that the proposed method is effective in reducing uncertainty in deep structure parameters when modelling only surface-wave dispersion data over a limited period range. We then apply the method to receiver functions derived from earthquake records at one site and two datasets of Rayleigh-wave phase velocity obtained from microtremor array surveys performed in central Tokyo, Japan. The estimated subsurface structure is in good agreement with the results of previous seismic refraction surveys and deep borehole data. We also conclude that the proposed method can provide a more accurate and reliable model than individual inversions of either receiver function data only or surface-wave dispersion data only.
Seismic attenuation from VSP data in methane hydrate-bearing sediments
Matsushima, Jun ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 1, 2007, Pages 29~36
Recent seismic surveys have shown that the presence of methane hydrate (MH) in sediments has significant influence on seismic attenuation. I have used vertical seismic profile (VSP) data from a Nankai Trough exploratory well, offshore Tokai in central Japan, to estimate compressional attenuation in MH-bearing sediments at seismic frequencies of 30-110 Hz. The use of two different measurement methods (spectral ratio and centroid frequency shift methods) provides an opportunity to validate the attenuation measurements. The sensitivity of attenuation analyses to different depth intervals, borehole irregularities, and different frequency ranges was also examined to validate the stability of attenuation estimation. I found no significant compressional attenuation in MH-bearing sediments at seismic frequencies. Macroscopically, the peaks of highest attenuation in the seismic frequency range correspond to low-saturation gas zones. In contrast, high compressional attenuation zones in the sonic frequency range (10-20 kHz) are associated with the presence of methane hydrates at the same well locations. Thus, this study demonstrated the frequency-dependence of attenuation in MH-bearing sediments; MH-bearing sediments cause attenuation in the sonic frequency range rather than the seismic frequency range As a possible reason why seismic frequencies in the 30-110 Hz range were not affected in MH-bearing sediments, I point out the effect of thin layering of MH-bearing zones.
Fusion of 3D seismic exploration and seafloor geochemical survey for methane hydrate exploration
Nagakubo, Sadao ; Kobayashi, Toshiaki ; Fujii, Tetsuya ; Inamori, Takao ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 1, 2007, Pages 37~43
The MH21 Research Consortium has conducted a high-resolution 3D seismic survey and a seafloor geochemical survey, to explore methane hydrate reservoirs in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan. Excellent geological information about shallow formations was obtained from the high-resolution 3D seismic survey, which was designed to image the shallow formations where methane hydrates exist. The information is useful in constructing a geological and geochemical model, and especially to understand the complex geology of seafloor, including geochemical manifestations and the structure of migration conduits for methane gas or methane-bearing fluid. By comparing methane seep sites observed by submersibles with seismic sections, some significant relationships between methane hydrate reservoirs, free gas accumulations below the seafloor, and seafloor manifestations are recognised. Bathymetric charts and seafloor reflection amplitude maps, constructed from seismic reflections from the seafloor, are also useful in understanding the relationships over a vast area. A new geochemical seafloor survey targeted by these maps is required. The relationships between methane hydrate reservoirs and seafloor manifestations are becoming clearer from interpretation of high-resolution 3D seismic data. The MH21 Research Consortium will continue to conduct seafloor geochemical surveys based on the geological and geochemical model constructed from high-resolution 3D seismic data analysis. In this paper, we introduce a basis for exploration of methane hydrate reservoirs in Japan by fusion of 3D seismic exploration and seafloor geochemical surveys.
3D gravity inversion with Euler deconvolution as a priori information
Rim, Hyoung-Rae ; Park, Yeong-Sue ; Lim, Mu-Taek ; Koo, Sung-Bon ; Kwon, Byung-Doo ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 1, 2007, Pages 44~49
It is difficult to obtain high-resolution images by 3D gravity inversion, because the problem is extremely underdetermined - there are too many model parameters. In order to reduce the number of model parameters we propose a 3D gravity inversion scheme utilising Euler deconvolution as a priori information. The essential point of this scheme is the reduction of the nonuniqueness of solutions by restricting the inversion space with the help of Euler deconvolution. We carry out a systematic exploration of the growing body process, but only in the restricted space within a certain radius of the Euler solutions. We have tested our method with synthetic gravity data, and also applied it to a real dataset, to delineate underground cavities in a limestone area. We found that we obtained a more reasonable subsurface density image by means of this combination between the Euler solution and the inversion process.
Robust 1D inversion of large towed geo-electric array datasets used for hydrogeological studies
Allen, David ; Merrick, Noel ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 1, 2007, Pages 50~59
The advent of towed geo-electrical array surveying on water and land has resulted in datasets of magnitude approaching that of airborne electromagnetic surveying and most suited to 1D inversion. Robustness and complete automation is essential if processing and reliable interpretation of such data is to be viable. Sharp boundaries such as river beds and the top of saline aquifers must be resolved so use of smoothness constraints must be minimised. Suitable inversion algorithms must intelligently handle low signal-to-noise ratio data if conductive basement, that attenuates signal, is not to be misrepresented. A noise-level aware inversion algorithm that operates with one elastic thickness layer per electrode configuration has been coded. The noise-level aware inversion identifies if conductive basement has attenuated signal levels so that they are below noise level, and models conductive basement where appropriate. Layers in the initial models are distributed to span the effective depths of each of the geo-electric array quadrupoles. The algorithm works optimally on data collected using geo-electric arrays with an approximately exponential distribution of quadrupole effective depths. Inversion of data from arrays with linear electrodes, used to reduce contact resistance, and capacitive-line antennae is plausible. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the algorithm using theoretical examples and an example from a salt interception scheme on the Murray River, Australia.
A new algorithm for SIP parameter estimation from multi-frequency IP data: preliminary results
Son, Jeong-Sul ; Kim, Jung-Ho ; Yi, Myeong-Jong ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 1, 2007, Pages 60~68
Conventional analysis of spectral induced polarization (SIP) data consists of measuring impedances over a range of frequencies, followed by spectral analysis to estimate spectral parameters. For the quantitative and accurate estimation of subsurface SIP parameter distribution, however, a sophisticated and stable inversion technique is required. In this study, we have developed a two-step inversion approach to obtain the two-dimensional distribution of SIP parameters. In the first inversion step, all the SIP data measured over a range of frequencies are simultaneously inverted, adopting cross regularisation of model complex resistivities at each frequency. The cross regularisation makes it possible to enhance the noise characteristics of the inversion by imposing a strong assumption, that complex resistivities should show similar characteristics over a range of frequencies. In numerical experiments, we could verify that our inversion approach successfully reduced inversion artefacts. As a second step, we have also developed an inversion algorithm to obtain SIP parameters based on the Cole-Cole model, in which frequency-dependent complex resistivities from the first step are inverted to obtain a two-dimensional distribution of SIP parameters. In numerical tests, the SIP parameter images showed a fairly good match with the exact model, which suggests that SIP imaging can provide a very useful subsurface image to complement resistivity.
Numerical modelling of electromagnetic waveguide effects on crosshole radar measurements
Jang, Han-Nu-Ree ; Park, Mi-Kyung ; Kim, Hee-Joon ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 1, 2007, Pages 69~76
High-frequency electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation associated with borehole ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a complicated phenomenon. To improve the understanding of the governing physical processes, we employ a finite-difference time-domain solution of Maxwell's equations in cylindrical coordinates. This approach allows us to model the full EM wavefield associated with crosshole GPR surveys. Furthermore, the use of cylindrical coordinates is computationally efficient, correctly emulates the three-dimensional geometrical spreading characteristics of the wavefield, and is an effective way to discretise explicitly small-diameter boreholes. Numerical experiments show that the existence of a water-filled borehole can give rise to a strong waveguide effect which affects the transmitted waveform, and that excitation of this waveguide effect depends on the diameter of the borehole and the length of the antenna.
Towards remote sensing of sediment thickness and depth to bedrock in shallow seawater using airborne TEM
Vrbancich, Julian ; Fullagar, Peter K. ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 1, 2007, Pages 77~88
Following a successful bathymetric mapping demonstration in a previous study, the potential of airborne EM for seafloor characterisation has been investigated. The sediment thickness inferred from 1D inversion of helicopter-borne time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) data has been compared with estimates based on marine seismic studies. Generally, the two estimates of sediment thickness, and hence depth to resistive bedrock, were in reasonable agreement when the seawater was
deep and the sediment was less than
thick. Inversion of noisy synthetic data showed that recovered models closely resemble the true models, even when the starting model is dissimilar to the true model, in keeping with the uniqueness theorem for EM soundings. The standard deviations associated with shallow seawater depths inferred from noisy synthetic data are about
of depth, comparable with the errors of approximately
arising during inversion of real data. The corresponding uncertainty in depth-to-bedrock estimates, based on synthetic data inversion, is of order of
. The mean inverted depths of both seawater and sediment inferred from noisy synthetic data are accurate to
, illustrating the improvement in accuracy resulting from stacking. It is concluded that a carefully calibrated airborne TEM system has potential for surveying sediment thickness and bedrock topography, and for characterising seafloor resistivity in shallow coastal waters.
Three-dimensional magnetotelluric surveys for geothermal development in Pohang, Korea
Lee, Tae-Jong ; Song, Yoon-Ho ; Uchida, Toshihiro ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 1, 2007, Pages 89~97
A three-dimensional (3D) magnetotelluric (MT) survey has been carried out to delineate subsurface structures and possible fractures, for development of low-temperature geothermal resources in Pohang, Korea. Quite good quality MT data could be obtained throughout the survey region by locating the remote reference in Kyushu, Japan, which is
from the centre of the field site. 3D modelling and inversion are performed taking into account the sea effect in MT measurements near the seashore. The nearby sea in the Pohang area affects MT data at frequencies below
, depending on the distance from the seashore. The most severe sea effects were observed in the south-east parts of the survey area, closer to Youngil Bay. 3D inversion with and without the seawater constraint showed very similar results at shallow depths, roughly down to 2 km. At greater depths, however, a strong sea effect seems to form a fictitious conductive structure in ordinary 3D inversion, especially in the south-eastern part of the survey region. Comparison between drilling results and the resistivity profiles from inversions showed that five layered structures can be distinguished the subsurface beneath the target area. They are: (a) semi-consolidated mudstones with resistivity less than
, which are
thick in the northern part and
thick in the southern part of the survey area; (b) occasional occurrence of trachybasalt and lapilli tuff within the mudstone layer has resistivity of a few tens of
, (c) intrusive rhyolite
thick has resistivity of several hundreds of
, (d) alternating sandstone and mudstone down to 1.5 km depth shows resistivity of
, (e) a conductive structure was found at a depth of
, but more geological and geophysical study should be carried out to identify this structure.
Geoscientific land management planning in salt-affected areas*
Abbott, Simon ; Chadwick, David ; Street, Greg ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 1, 2007, Pages 98~109
Over the last twenty years, farmers in Western Australia have begun to change land management practices to minimise the effects of salinity to agricultural land. A farm plan is often used as a guide to implement changes. Most plans are based on minimal data and an understanding of only surface water flow. Thus farm plans do not effectively address the processes that lead to land salinisation. A project at Broomehill in the south-west of Western Australia applied an approach using a large suite of geospatial data that measured surface and subsurface characteristics of the regolith. In addition, other data were acquired, such as information about the climate and the agricultural history. Fundamental to the approach was the collection of airborne geophysical data over the study area. This included radiometric data reflecting soils, magnetic data reflecting bedrock geology, and SALTMAP electromagnetic data reflecting regolith thickness and conductivity. When interpreted, these datasets added paddock-scale information of geology and hydrogeology to the other datasets, in order to make on-farm and in-paddock decisions relating directly to the mechanisms driving the salinising process. The location and design of surface-water management structures such as grade banks and seepage interceptor banks was significantly influenced by the information derived from the airborne geophysical data. To evaluate the effectiveness ofthis planning., one whole-farm plan has been monitored by the Department of Agriculture and the farmer since 1996. The implemented plan shows a positive cost-benefit ratio, and the farm is now in the top 5% of farms in its regional productivity benchmarking group. The main influence of the airborne geophysical data on the farm plan was on the location of earthworks and revegetation proposals. There had to be a hydrological or hydrogeological justification, based on the site-specific data, for any infrastructure proposal. This approach reduced the spatial density of proposed works compared to other farm plans not guided by site-specific hydrogeological information.