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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Earth and Exploration Geophysicists
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Nov 2007
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Aug 2007
Volume 10, Issue 2 - May 2007
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
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Multi-Frequency Crosswell Seismic Experiment
Lee, Doo-Sung ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 223~228
First arrival signals of multi-frequency crosswell seismic data, acquired in wells drilled in granitic rock, were analyzed to investigate the characteristic behavior of the signals at the shear zones. Dominant frequencies of the sources were; 10-, 20-, 40-, 56-, and 80 kHz. No obvious changes in the waveform at the shear zones were found; however, at the shear zones, some degree of velocity reductions were observed in the signals of all frequency sources. The 80 kHz signal is slightly faster than 10 kHz signal in the survey region, and the velocity difference between the two signals were found largest at the shear zone where the permeability measured greatest in the survey interval.
Seismic Traveltime Tomography in Inhomogeneous Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media
Jeong, Chang-Ho ; Suh, Jung-Hee ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 229~240
In this study, seismic anisotropic tomography algorithm was developed for imaging the seismic velocity anisotropy of the subsurface. This algorithm includes several inversion schemes in order to make the inversion process stable and robust. First of all, the set of the inversion parameters is limited to one slowness, two ratios of slowness and one direction of the anisotropy symmetric axis. The ranges of the inversion parameters are localized by the pseudobeta transform to obtain the reasonable inversion results and the inversion constraints are controlled efficiently by ACB(Active Constraint Balancing) method. Especially, the inversion using the Fresnel volume is applied to the anisotropic tomography and it can make the anisotropic tomography more stable than ray tomography as it widens the propagation angle coverage. The algorithm of anisotropic tomography is verified through the numerical experiments. And, it is applied to the real field data measured at limestone region and the results are discussed with the drill log and geological survey data. The anisotropic tomography algorithm will be able to provide the useful tool to evaluate and understand the geological structure of the subsurface more reasonably with the anisotropic characteristics.
Characteristics of the Point-source Spectral Model for Odaesan Earthquake (M=4.8, '07. 1. 20)
Yun, Kwan-Hee ; Park, Dong-Hee ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 241~251
The observed spectra from Odaesan earthquake were fitted to a point-source spectral model to evaluate the source spectrum and spatial features of the modelling error. The source spectrum was calculated by removing from the observed spectra the path and site dependent responses (Yun, 2007) that were previously revealed through an inversion process applied to a large accumulated spectral dataset. The stress drop parameter of one-corner Brune's
source model fitted to the estimated source spectrum was well predicted by the scaling relation between magnitude and stress drop developed by Yun et al. (2006). In particular, the estimated spectrum was quite comparable to the two-corner source model that was empirically developed for recent moderate earthquakes occurring around the Korean Peninsula, which indicates that Odaesan earthquake is one of typical moderate earthquakes representative of Korean Peninsula. Other features of the observed spectra from Odaesan earthquake were also evaluated based on the commonly treated random error between the observed data and the estimated point-source spectral model. Radiation pattern of the error according to azimuth angle was found to be similar to the theoretical estimate. It was also observed that the spatial distribution of the errors was correlated with the geological map and the
map which are indicatives of seismic boundaries.
Geostatistical Interpretation of Sparsely Obtained Seismic Data Combined with Satellite Gravity Data
Park, Gye-Soon ; Oh, Seok-Hoon ; Lee, Heui-Soon ; Kwon, Byung-Doo ; Yoo, Hai-Soo ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 252~258
We have studied the feasibility of geostatistics approach to enhancing analysis of sparsely obtained seismic data by combining with satellite gravity data. The shallow depth and numerous fishing nets in The Yellow Sea, west of Korea, makes it difficult to do seismic surveys in this area. Therefore, we have attempted to use geostatistics to integrate the seismic data along with gravity data. To evaluate the feasibility of this approach, we have extracted only a few seismic profile data from previous surveys in the Yellow Sea and performed integrated analysis combining with the results from gravity data under the assumption that seismic velocity and density have a high physical correlation. First, we analyzed the correlation between extracted seismic profiles and depths obtained from gravity inversion. Next, we transferred the gravity depth to travel time using non-linear indicator transform and analyze residual values by kriging with varying local means. Finally, the reconstructed time structure map was compared with the original seismic section given in the previous study. Our geostatistical approach demonstrates relatively satisfactory results and especially, in the boundary area where seismic lines are sparse, gives us more in-depth information than previously available.
An Efficient 3D Inversion of MT Data Using Approximate Sensitivities
Han, Nu-Ree ; Nam, Myung-Jin ; Kim, Hee-Joon ; Lee, Tae-Jong ; Song, Yoon-Ho ; Suh, Jung-Hee ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 259~267
An efficient algorithm for inverting static-shifted magnetotelluric (MT) data has been proposed to produce a three-dimensional (3D) resistivity model. In the Gauss-Newton approach, computational costs associated with construction of a full sensitivity matrix usually make 3D MT inversion impractical. This computational difficulty may be overcome by using approximate sensitivities. We use four kinds of sensitivities in particular orders in the inversion process. These sensitivities are computed 1) analytically for an initial, homogeneous earth, 2) exactly for a current model, 3) approximately by the Broyden method, and 4) approximately using the previous adjoint fields. Inversion experiments with static-shifted synthetic and field MT data indicate that inversion results are highly dependent on characteristics of data and thus applying various combinations of sensitivities is helpful in obtaining a good image of the subsurface structure with reasonable computation time.
A Study on Geoelectrical Structure of Jeju Island Using 3D MT Inversion of 2D Profile Data
Choi, Ji-Hyang ; Kim, Hee-Joon ; Nam, Myung-Jin ; Lee, Tae-Jong ; Han, Nu-Ree ; Lee, Seong-Kon ; Song, Yoon-Ho ; Suh, Jung-Hee ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 268~274
Traditional two-dimensional (2D) interpretation of magnetotelluric (MT) data utilizes only transverse magnetic (TM)-mode data, because 2D inversion of transverse electric (TE)-mode data results in spurious features when 3D structures exist in the subsurface. The application of a 3D inversion algorithm to a single MT profile can reduce contamination due to off-profile anomalies and help us to incorporate TE-mode data in the interpretation. In this study, we conduct 2D and 3D inversions of MT data observed along two lines in Jeju Island. First, we invert apparent resistivities and phases in the TM and TE modes separately. Then, we perform 2D joint inversion of both TM- and TE-mode data and 3D inversion of both Zxy- and Zyx-mode data corresponding to TE- and TM-mode data in 2D. The resistivity images derived from all four data show that the geoelectrical structure in Jeju Island is a three-layered earth with the resistive-conductive-resistive stratigraphy within a depth of 5 km. The 3D inversion does not produce clear anomalies in the reconstructed profile image, while all of 2D do. This attributed to the possibility that 2D inversion results are distorted by exiting off-profile 3D anomalies in Jeju. With 3D inversion of 2D profile MT data, we can deduce more reliable results that are not seriously distorted by off-profile 3D anomalies.
Effects of 3D Topography on Magnetotelluric Responses
Nam, Myung-Jin ; Kim, Hee-Joon ; Song, Yoon-Ho ; Lee, Tae-Jong ; Suh, Jung-Hee ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 275~284
For precise interpretation of magnetotelluric (MT) data distorted by irregular surface terrain, topography effects are investigated by computing apparent resistivities, phases, tippers and induction vectors for a three-dimensional (3D) hill-and-valley model. To compute MT responses for the 3D surface topography model, we use a 3D MT modeling algorithm based on an edge finite-element method which is free from vector parasites. Distortions on the apparent resistivity and phase are mainly caused by distorted currents that flow along surface topography. The distribution of tipper amplitudes over both hill and valley are the same, while the tipper points toward the center of hill and the base of the valley. The real part of induction vector also points in the same direction as that of tipper, while the imaginary part in the opposite direction.
Electromagnetic Source Localization of the Cultural Noise in MT Data
Lee, Choon-Ki ; Kwon, Byung-Doo ; Song, Yoon-Ho ; Lee, Tae-Jong ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 285~292
Magnetotelluric data recorded in the middle part of the Korean Peninsula are contaminated by severe noises at dead-band frequencies. In this study, we estimated the location of noise source using a source localization method. Since conventional beamforming techniques were not adequate for the localization of electromagnetic sources, we used the matched field processing and a genetic algorithm. The solutions for the strong noise signals tend to be localized in a narrow area, whereas those for natural MT signals shows randomly distributed patterns. The strong noise sources are mainly located in the western part of Kyonggi-do.
Geostatistical Integration of Seismic Velocity and Resistivity Data for Probabilistic Evaluation of Rock Quality
Oh, Seok-Hoon ; Suh, Baek-Soo ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 293~298
A new way to integrate various geophysical information for evaluation of RQD was developed. In this study, we does not directly define the RQD value where borehole data are not sampled. Instead, we infer the probability of RQD values with prior probability of data directly obtained from borehole, and secondary supporting probability from resistivity and seismic tomography data. First, we applied the geostatstical indicator kriging to get prior probability of RQD value, and indicator kriging with soft data to get the supporting probability from resistivity and seismic data. And we finally applied the permanence ratio rule to integrate these information. The finally obtained result was also analyzed to fully utilize the probabilistic features. For example, we showed the probability of wrongly classifying the RQD evaluation and vice versa. This kind of analytical result may be used for decision making process based on the geophysical exploration.
A Study on Slowness Time Coherence Application and its Characteristics from Sonic Log Experiment in Model Holes
Kim, Yeong-Hwa ; Zhao, Weijun ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 299~307
Slowness time coherence (STC) technique has been applied to 3-receiver slim hole sonic log using 3 NX sized concrete model holes of different physical properties. We analyzed the effects of different source center frequencies on the wave forms, their amplitude spectra, and their STC results. We could determine the sonic velocity of each mode accurately by the application of STC method with the semblance projection and efficient selection of center frequency. Theoretical model and experimental model hole studies indicate that 4-receiver condition is the most ideal for STC in near surface slim hole sonic log. The result also indicates that favorable STC result can be obtained from three-receiver sonic log provided with the help of the first arrival picking method.
Rapid 2.5D Small-Loop EM Modeling by Extended Born Approximation
Cho, In-Ky ; Song, Sung-Ho ; Suh, Jung-Hee ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 308~313
The small-loop electromagnetic technique has been used successfully for many geophysical qualitative investigations, particularly for shallow engineering and environmental surveys. Recently, various geophysical imaging methods based on numerical modeling and inversion have been tried in order to get more quantitative subsurface structure. However, conventional 2.5D small loop EM modeling takes a lot of time because responses should be calculated for several wave numbers and transformed into space domain. In this study, we developed a 2.5D HCP small loop EM modeling algorithm using extended Born approximation, which does not require transformation. Also, we checked its validity by comparison with other numerical results.
Joint Inversion of DC Resistivity and Travel Time Tomography Data: Preliminary Results
Kim, Jung-Ho ; Yi, Myeong-Jong ; Cho, Chang-Soo ; Suh, Jung-Hee ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 314~321
Recently, multi-dimensional joint inversion of geophysical data based on fundamentally different physical properties is being actively studied. Joint inversion can provide a way to obtaining much more accurate image of the subsurface structure. Through the joint inversion, furthermore, it is possible to directly estimate non-geophysical material properties from geophysical measurements. In this study, we developed a new algorithm for jointly inverting dc resistivity and seismic traveltime data based on the multiple constraints: (1) structural similarity based on cross-gradient, (2) correlation between two different material properties, and (3) a priori information on the material property distribution. Through the numerical experiments of surface dc resistivity and seismic refraction surveys, the performance of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated and the effects of different regularizations were analyzed. In particular, we showed that the hidden layer problem in the seismic refraction method due to an inter-bedded low velocity layer can be solved by the joint inversion when appropriate constraints are applied.
Integrated Interpretation of ERT Data from the Mineralized Zone in Geumpung Mine
Jung, Yeon-Ho ; Byun, Joong-Moo ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 322~331
In this study, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were conducted to find the mineralized zone at the Geumpung mine in Dojeon-ri, Susan-myeon, Jecheon-si, Chungcheongbuk-do. The deviation of the inclined borehole was measured to obtain the exact positions of the electrodes for correcting apparent resistivity values from ERT. Geophysical loggings such as resistivity and natural gamma were conducted to obtain the properties of the material near the borehole. Measurements of the physical properties of the cores, such as porosity, water content, density, susceptibility, resistivity were performed to analyze the correlation between physical properties and resistivity. Grade analysis for core sample was also conducted to identify relationship between grade and resistivity. Rock property analysis shows that the resistivity is more dominated by susceptibility and grade than by porosity and water content in the mineralized zone. The results of ERT are well consistent with geophysical logging data and geologic column. So ERT is powerful method to identify conductive mineralized zone.
Interpretation of Geophysical Well Logs from Deep Geothermal Borehole in Pohang
Hwang, Se-Ho ; Park, In-Hwa ; Song, Yoon-Ho ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 332~344
Various geophysical well logs have been made along the four deep wells in Pohang, Gyeongbuk. The primary focus of geophysical well loggings was to improve understanding the subsurface geologic structure, to evaluate in situ physical properties, and to estimate aquifer production zones using fluid temperature and conductivity gradient logs. Especially natural gamma logs interpreted with core logs of borehole BH-1 were useful to discriminate the lithology and to determine the lithologic sequences and boundaries consisting of semi-consolidated Tertiary sediments and intrusive rocks such as basic dyke and Cretaceous sediments. Cross-plot of physical properties inferred from geophysical well logs were used to identify rock types such as Cretaceous sandstone and mudstone, Tertiary sediments, rhyolite, and basic dyke. The temperature log indicated
at the depth of 1,981.3 meters in borehole BH-4. However, considering the temperature of borehole BH-2 measured under stable condition, we expect the temperature at the depth in borehole BH-4, if it is measured in stable condition, to be about 5 or
higher. Several permeable fractures also have been identified from temperature and conductivity gradient logs, and cutting logs.
MT surveys near Century Zinc Mine, NW Queensland, Australia
Lee, Tae-Jong ; Lee, Seong-Kon ; Song, Yoon-Ho ; Cull, James ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 345~352
Two-dimensional (2D) MT surveys near the Century mine in Australia have been performed with very far remote reference in Esashi, Japan (RR_ESS) as well as Gregory Downs (RR_GREG), which are roughly 6,400 km and 80 km apart from the survey area, respectively. Good quality of MT data could be obtained by remote reference processing with RR_GREG, while the coherency of magnetic fields between field sites and RR_ESS was not sufficient to be used as remote data. Both 2D and 3D inversion of 2D profile data represented the general geological structure beneath the survey area. The main target of the survey, Termite Range Fault, appeared as a boundary between a conductive block to the north and a resistive block to the south in the reconstructed resistivity section, and is inclined slightly to the north-east direction.
Fresh Water Injection Test to Mitigate Seawater Intrusion and Geophysical Monitoring in Coastal Area
Park, Kwon-Gyu ; Shin, Je-Hyun ; Hwang, Se-Ho ; Park, In-Hwa ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 353~360
We practiced fresh water injection test to identify its applibility as a method of seawater intrusion mitigation technique, and monitored the change of borehole fluid conductivity and the behavior of injected fresh water using borehole multichannel electrical conductivity monitoring and well-logging, and DC resistivity and SP monitoring at the surface. Well-logging and multichannel EC monitoring showed the decrease of fluid conductivity due to fresh water injection. We note that such an injection effect lasts more than several month which means the applibility of fresh water injection as a seawater intrusion control technique. Although SP monitoring did not show meaningful results because of weather condition during monitoring and the defects of electrodes due to long operation time, DC resistivity monitoring showed its effectiveness and applicability as a monitoring and assessment techniques of injection test by means of imaging the behavior and the front of fresh water body in terms of the increase of resistivity with reasonable resolution. In conclusion, we note that geophysical techniques can be an effective method of monitoring and evaluation of fresh water injection test, and expect that fresh water injection may be an practical method for the mitigation of seawater intrusion when applied with optimal design of injection well distribution and injection rate based on geophysical evaluation.
Relationship Between the Groundwater Resistivity and NaCl Equivalent Salinity in Western and Southern Coastal Areas, Korea
Hwang, Se-Ho ; Park, Kwon-Gyu ; Shin, Je-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Kyu ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 361~368
In this paper, we suggested the relationship between resistivity of coastal groundwater and NaCl equivalent salinity for the quantitative interpretation the results of surface/borehole resistivity and electromagnetic data. 38 groundwater samples having electrical conductivity higher than about 1,000
were analyzed to derive the empirical relationship between groundwater resistivity and NaCl equivalent salinity. We used Schlumberger chart GEN-8 to convert ion concentration from hydrochemical analysis to the equivalent NaCl salinity, and the portable meter to measure the in situ electrical conductivity of groundwater samples. From the hydrochemical analysis, relationship between the groundwater resistivity
and equivalent NaCl salinity (Eq_NaCl) is expressed as Eq_NaCl=
, and relationship between the groundwater electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) is expressed as TDS=0.721*EC. We believe these relationships are very useful to assess the seawater intrusion in western and southern coastal area.
Application of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Using Single Well in Seawater Intrusion Areas
Song, Sung-Ho ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 369~376
Electrical resistivity tomography was carried out at seawater intrusion monitoring wells located at watershed in coastal areas. It is difficult to identify the characteristics of resistivity near monitoring well in case of using high signalto-noise ratio array due to the high conductivity condition in coastal aquifer although electrical resistivity survey is well adopted to delineate hydrogeological characteristics with the distribution of electrical resistivity. To improve the quality of electrical resistivity survey for two sites with seawater intrusion monitoring wells, inversion with the results of holeto-surface electrical resistivity tomography using single well was executed. The results of inversion for aquifer near wells were verified with the results of drilling log with the informations of fracture, electrical conductivity logging and normal resistivity logging. The inversion for aquifer near one of two wells was also performed at low and high tide with the same electrodes, respectively. From the inversion result, it is possible to obtain the resistivity images with high resolution and to identify the characteristics of aquifer related to seawater intrusion with tidal fluctuation. From this study, it was demonstrated that the hole-to-surface electrical resistivity tomography method accompanied with drilling log, electrical conductivity logging and normal resistivity logging would be useful to delineate the hydrogeological structures near monitoring wells in coastal areas.
Tunnel Detection Using Seismic Multi-source Amplitude Data
Suh, Baek-Soo ; Kim, Hoon ; Sohn, Kwon-Ik ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 377~382
Several prospecting methods have been used to detect deep seated small tunnel in Korea. Tunnel interpretation of seismic method has been performed mainly by wave traveltime inversion method. But it often gives inacurate solution for the exact tunnel position because of the short distance between two measuring boreholes and picking errors of first arrivals. In this study, "error tomogram" was proposed to detect tunnel position and applied to theoretical and field dat using multi-source amplitude data.
A Microgravity for Mapping and Monitoring the Subsurface Cavities
Park, Yeong-Sue ; Rim, Hyoung-Rae ; Lim, Mu-Taek ; Koo, Sung-Bon ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 383~392
Karstic features and mining-related cavities not only lead to severe restrictions in land utilizations, but also constitute serious concern about geohazard and groundwater contamination. A microgravity survey was applied for detecting, mapping and monitoring karstic cavities in the test site at Muan prepared by KIGAM. The gravity data were collected using an AutoGrav CG-3 gravimeter at about 800 stations by 5 m interval along paddy paths. The density distribution beneath the profiles was drawn by two dimensional inversion based on the minimum support stabilizing functional, which generated better focused images of density discontinuities. We also imaged three dimensional density distribution by growing body inversion with solution from Euler deconvolution as a priori information. The density image showed that the cavities were dissolved, enlarged and connected into a cavity network system, which was supported by drill hole logs. A time-lapse microgravity was executed on the road in the test site for monitoring the change of the subsurface density distribution before and after grouting. The data were adjusted for reducing the effects due to the different condition of each survey, and inverted to density distributions. They show the change of density structure during the lapsed time, which implies the effects of grouting. This case history at the Muan test site showed that the microgravity with accuracy and precision of
is an effective and practical tool for detecting, mapping and monitoring the subsurface cavities.
Seismic Traveltime Tomography in Anisotropic Black Shale
Kang, Jong-Seok ; Cha, Young-Ho ; Lee, Kwang-Bae ; Jo, Churl-Hyun ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 10, issue 4, 2007, Pages 393~398
Seismic traveltime tomography technique was conducted at a site composed of black shale. It is well known that black shale has strong anisotropic property. Therefore, the anisotropic property of black shale has to be considered to obtain the appropriate subsurface velocity model by an inversion process. To estimate the anisotropic constant of the velocity of the black shale in the survey area, the relation between the velocity, which is calculated by the straight ray path and the first arrival time, and the angle of the ray propagation was examined. The elliptically shaped relation was found and it reveals that the black shale contains the anisotropic property of velocity. It was also noticed that the horizontal velocity is faster than the vertical velocity. When the estimated anisotropic constant was applied in the process of the velocity inversion for three sets of field data, we could obtain the appropriate velocity structures of the site that is consistent with the result of the geological survey.