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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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Korean Society of Earth and Exploration Geophysicists
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Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Nov 2008
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Aug 2008
Volume 11, Issue 2 - May 2008
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
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Evaluation and interpretation of the effects of heterogeneous layers in an OBS/air-gun crustal structure study
Tsuruga, Kayoko ; Kasahara, Junzo ; Kubota, Ryuji ; Nishiyama, Eiichiro ; Kamimura, Aya ; Naito, Yoshihiro ; Honda, Fuminori ; Oikawa, Nobutaka ; Tamura, Yasuo ; Nishizawa, Azusa ; Kaneda, Kentaro ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 11, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~14
We present a method for interpreting seismic records with arrivals and waveforms having characteristics which could be generated by extremely inhomogeneous velocity structures, such as non-typical oceanic crust, decollement at subduction zones, and seamounts in oceanic regions, by comparing them with synthetic waveforms. Recent extensive refraction and wide-angle reflection surveys in oceanic regions have provided us with a huge number of high-resolution and high-quality seismic records containing characteristic arrivals and waveforms, besides first arrivals and major reflected phases such as PmP. Some characteristic waveforms, with significant later reflected phases or anomalous amplitude decay with offset distance, are difficult to interpret using only a conventional interpretation method such as the traveltime tomographic inversion method. We find the best process for investigating such characteristic phases is to use an interactive interpretation method to compare observed data with synthetic waveforms, and calculate raypaths and traveltimes. This approach enables us to construct a reasonable structural model that includes all of the major characteristics of the observed waveforms. We present results here with some actual observed examples that might be of great help in the interpretation of such problematic phases. Our approach to the analysis of waveform characteristics is endorsed as an innovative method for constructing high-resolution and high-quality crustal structure models, not only in oceanic regions, but also in the continental regions.
A new method for determining OBS positions for crustal structure studies, using airgun shots and precise bathymetric data
Oshida, Atsushi ; Kubota, Ryuji ; Nishiyama, Eiichiro ; Ando, Jun ; Kasahara, Junzo ; Nishizawa, Azusa ; Kaneda, Kentaro ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 11, issue 1, 2008, Pages 15~25
Ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) positions are one of the key parameters in an OBS-airgun seismic survey for crustal structure study. To improve the quality of these parameters, we have developed a new method of determining OBS positions, using airgun shot data and bathymetric data in addition to available distance measurements by acoustic transponders. The traveltimes of direct water waves emitted by airgun shots and recorded by OBSs are used as important information for determining OBS locations, in cases where there are few acoustic transponder data (<3 sites). The new method consists of two steps. A global search is performed as the first step, to find nodes of the bathymetric grid that are the closest to explaining the observed direct water-wave traveltimes from airgun shots, and acoustic ranging using a transponder system. The use of precise 2D bathymetric data is most important if the bottom topography near the OBS is extremely rough. The locations of the nodes obtained by the first step are used as initial values for the second step, to avoid falling into local convergence minima. In the second step, a non-linear inverse method is executed. If the OBS internal clock shows large drift, a secondary correction for the OBS internal clock is obtained, as well as the OBS location, as final results by this method. We discuss the error and the influence of each measurement used in the determination of OBS location.
Interactive analysis tools for the wide-angle seismic data for crustal structure study (Technical Report)
Fujie, Gou ; Kasahara, Junzo ; Murase, Kei ; Mochizuki, Kimihiro ; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 11, issue 1, 2008, Pages 26~33
The analysis of wide-angle seismic reflection and refraction data plays an important role in lithospheric-scale crustal structure study. However, it is extremely difficult to develop an appropriate velocity structure model directly from the observed data, and we have to improve the structure model step by step, because the crustal structure analysis is an intrinsically non-linear problem. There are several subjective processes in wide-angle crustal structure modelling, such as phase identification and trial-and-error forward modelling. Because these subjective processes in wide-angle data analysis reduce the uniqueness and credibility of the resultant models, it is important to reduce subjectivity in the analysis procedure. From this point of view, we describe two software tools, PASTEUP and MODELING, to be used for developing crustal structure models. PASTEUP is an interactive application that facilitates the plotting of record sections, analysis of wide-angle seismic data, and picking of phases. PASTEUP is equipped with various filters and analysis functions to enhance signal-to-noise ratio and to help phase identification. MODELING is an interactive application for editing velocity models, and ray-tracing. Synthetic traveltimes computed by the MODELING application can be directly compared with the observed waveforms in the PASTEUP application. This reduces subjectivity in crustal structure modelling because traveltime picking, which is one of the most subjective process in the crustal structure analysis, is not required. MODELING can convert an editable layered structure model into two-way traveltimes which can be compared with time-sections of Multi Channel Seismic (MCS) reflection data. Direct comparison between the structure model of wide-angle data with the reflection data will give the model more credibility. In addition, both PASTEUP and MODELING are efficient tools for handling a large dataset. These software tools help us develop more plausible lithospheric-scale structure models using wide-angle seismic data.
Case studies of shallow marine investigations in Australia with advanced underwater seismic refraction (USR)
Whiteley, Robert J. ; Stewart, Simon B. ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 11, issue 1, 2008, Pages 34~40
Underwater seismic refraction with advanced interpretation approaches makes important contributions to shallow marine exploration and geotechnical investigations in Australia's coastal areas. A series of case studies are presented to demonstrate the recent applications of continuous and static USR methods to river crossing and port infrastructure projects at various sites around Australia. In Sydney, static underwater seismic refraction (USR) with bottom-placed receivers and borehole seismic imaging assisted the development of improved geotechnical models that reduced construction risk for a tunnel crossing of the Lane Cove River. In Melbourne, combining conventional boomer reflection and continuous USR with near-bottom sources and receivers improved the definition of a buried, variably weathered basalt flow and assisted dredging assessment for navigation channel upgrades at Geelong Ports. Sand quality assessment with continuous USR and widely spaced borehole information assisted commercial decisions on available sand resources for the reclamation phase of development at the Port of Brisbane. Buried reefs and indurated layers occur in Australian coastal sediments with the characteristics of laterally limited, high velocity, cap layers within lower velocity materials. If these features are not recognised then significant error in depth determination to deeper refractors can occur. Application of advanced refraction inversion using wavefront eikonal tomography to continuous USR data obtained along the route of a proposed offshore pipeline near Fremantle allowed these layers and the underlying bedrock refractor to be accurately imaged. Static USR and the same interpretation approach was used to image the drowned granitic regolith beneath sediments and indurated layers in the northern area of Western Australia at a proposed new berthing site where deep piling was required. This allowed preferred piling sites to be identified, reducing overall pile lengths. USR can be expected to find increased application to shallow marine exploration and geotechnical investigations in Australia's coastal areas as economic growth continues and improved interpretation methods are developed.
Velocity-porosity relationships in oceanic basalt from eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge: The effect of crack closure on seismic velocity
Tsuji, Takeshi ; Iturrino, Gerardo J. ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 11, issue 1, 2008, Pages 41~51
To construct in situ velocity-porosity relationships for oceanic basalt, considering crack features, P- and S-wave velocity measurements on basaltic samples obtained from the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge were carried out under confining pressures up to 40 MPa. Assuming that the changes in velocities with confining pressures are originated by micro-crack closure, we estimated micro-crack aspect ratio spectra using the Kuster-
theory. The result demonstrates that the normalised aspect ratio spectra of the different samples have similar characteristics. From the normalised aspect ratio spectrum, we then constructed theoretical velocity-porosity relationships by calculating an aspect ratio spectrum for each porosity. In addition, by considering micro-crack closure due to confining pressure, a velocity-porosity relationship as a function of confining pressure could be obtained. The theoretical relationships that take into account the aspect ratio spectra are consistent with the observed relationships for over 100 discrete samples measured at atmospheric pressure, and the commonly observed pressure dependent relationships for a wide porosity range. The agreement between the laboratory-derived data and theoretically estimated values demonstrates that the velocity-porosity relationships of the basaltic samples obtained from the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and their pressure dependence, can be described by the crack features (i.e. normalised aspect ratio spectra) and crack closure.
A marine deep-towed DC resistivity survey in a methane hydrate area, Japan Sea
Goto, Tada-Nori ; Kasaya, Takafumi ; Machiyama, Hideaki ; Takagi, Ryo ; Matsumoto, Ryo ; Okuda, Yoshihisa ; Satoh, Mikio ; Watanabe, Toshiki ; Seama, Nobukazu ; Mikada, Hitoshi ; Sanada, Yoshinori ; Kinoshita, Masataka ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 11, issue 1, 2008, Pages 52~59
We have developed a new deep-towed marine DC resistivity survey system. It was designed to detect the top boundary of the methane hydrate zone, which is not imaged well by seismic reflection surveys. Our system, with a transmitter and a 160-m-long tail with eight source electrodes and a receiver dipole, is towed from a research vessel near the seafloor. Numerical calculations show that our marine DC resistivity survey system can effectively image the top surface of the methane hydrate layer. A survey was carried out off Joetsu, in the Japan Sea, where outcrops of methane hydrate are observed. We successfully obtained DC resistivity data along a profile
long, and detected relatively high apparent resistivity values. Particularly in areas with methane hydrate exposure, anomalously high apparent resistivity was observed, and we interpret these high apparent resistivities to be due to the methane hydrate zone below the seafloor. Marine DC resistivity surveys will be a new tool to image sub-seafloor structures within methane hydrate zones.
Fast numerical methods for marine controlled-source electromagnetic (EM) survey data based on multigrid quasi-linear approximation and iterative EM migration
Ueda, Takumi ; Zhdanov, Michael S. ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 11, issue 1, 2008, Pages 60~67
In this paper we consider an application of the method of electromagnetic (EM) migration to the interpretation of a typical marine controlled-source (MCSEM) survey consisting of a set of sea-bottom receivers and a moving electrical bipole transmitter. Three-dimensional interpretation of MCSEM data is a very challenging problem because of the enormous number of computations required in the case of the multi-transmitter and multi-receiver data acquisition systems used in these surveys. At the same time, we demonstrate that the MCSEM surveys with their dense system of transmitters and receivers are extremely well suited for application of the migration method. In order to speed up the computation of the migration field, we apply a fast form of integral equation (IE) solution based on the multigrid quasi-linear (MGQL) approximation which we have developed. The principles of migration imaging formulated in this paper are tested on a typical model of a sea-bottom petroleum reservoir.
An efficient 2.5D inversion of loop-loop electromagnetic data
Song, Yoon-Ho ; Kim, Jung-Ho ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 11, issue 1, 2008, Pages 68~77
We have developed an inversion algorithm for loop-loop electromagnetic (EM) data, based on the localised non-linear or extended Born approximation to the solution of the 2.5D integral equation describing an EM scattering problem. Source and receiver configuration may be horizontal co-planar (HCP) or vertical co-planar (VCP). Both multi-frequency and multi-separation data can be incorporated. Our inversion code runs on a PC platform without heavy computational load. For the sake of stable and high-resolution performance of the inversion, we implemented an algorithm determining an optimum spatially varying Lagrangian multiplier as a function of sensitivity distribution, through parameter resolution matrix and Backus-Gilbert spread function analysis. Considering that the different source-receiver orientation characteristics cause inconsistent sensitivities to the resistivity structure in simultaneous inversion of HCP and VCP data, which affects the stability and resolution of the inversion result, we adapted a weighting scheme based on the variances of misfits between the measured and calculated datasets. The accuracy of the modelling code that we have developed has been proven over the frequency, conductivity, and geometric ranges typically used in a loop-loop EM system through comparison with 2.5D finite-element modelling results. We first applied the inversion to synthetic data, from a model with resistive as well as conductive inhomogeneities embedded in a homogeneous half-space, to validate its performance. Applying the inversion to field data and comparing the result with that of dc resistivity data, we conclude that the newly developed algorithm provides a reasonable image of the subsurface.
Near-surface geophysical studies in the Ulsan Fault Zone of Korea
Kim, Ki-Young ; Kim, Dong-Hoon ; Lee, So-Young ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 11, issue 1, 2008, Pages 78~84
Recent earthquakes near nuclear power plants in Korea have triggered public concerns about possible seismicity of the Ulsan Fault Zone in the south-eastern part of the Korean peninsula. To reveal subsurface structures of this fault zone, we conducted high-resolution seismic refraction and reflection surveys, and closely spaced gravity measurements in the Dongchon River valley north of Ulsan, Korea. Here alluvium covers the north-south trending fault zone in a 1-km wide valley. Both source points and receivers were spaced at 5-m intervals for the 24-channel seismic refraction and reflection methods, along two profiles of 835 m and 415 m length. Gravity data were also measured along these profiles at 131 stations using a 10-m interval. Synergetic interpretation of seismic refraction, high-resolution seismic reflection, and gravity surveys across the valley indicates that the Ulsan Fault Zone was formed by apparent north-south strike-slip motions during the Cretaceous, and that some faults may have been reactivated by east-west compressional or transpressional stresses during the Tertiary or Quaternary.