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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Earth and Exploration Geophysicists
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Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Nov 2010
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Aug 2010
Volume 13, Issue 2 - May 2010
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Seismic wave propagation through surface basalts - implications for coal seismic surveys
Sun, Weijia ; Zhou, Binzhong ; Hatherly, Peter ; Fu, Li-Yun ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~8
Seismic reflection surveying is one of the most widely used and effective techniques for coal seam structure delineation and risk mitigation for underground longwall mining. However, the ability of the method can be compromised by the presence of volcanic cover. This problem arises within parts of the Bowen and Sydney Basins of Australia and seismic surveying can be unsuccessful. As a consequence, such areas are less attractive for coal mining. Techniques to improve the success of seismic surveying over basalt flows are needed. In this paper, we use elastic wave-equation-based forward modelling techniques to investigate the effects and characteristics of seismic wave propagation under different settings involving changes in basalt properties, its thickness, lateral extent, relative position to the shot position and various forms of inhomogeneity. The modelling results suggests that: 1) basalts with high impedance contrasts and multiple flows generate strong multiples and weak reflectors; 2) thin basalts have less effect than thick basalts; 3) partial basalt cover has less effect than full basalt cover; 4) low frequency seismic waves (especially at large offsets) have better penetration through the basalt than high frequency waves; and 5) the deeper the coal seams are below basalts of limited extent, the less influence the basalts will have on the wave propagation. In addition to providing insights into the issues that arise when seismic surveying under basalts, these observations suggest that careful management of seismic noise and the acquisition of long-offset seismic data with low-frequency geophones have the potential to improve the seismic results.
Evaluation of the applicability of the surface wave method to rock fill dams
Kim, Jong-Tae ; Kim, Dong-Soo ; Park, Heon-Joon ; Bang, Eun-Seok ; Kim, Sung-Woo ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 9~23
In current design practice, the shear wave velocity (Vs) of the core and rock-fill zone of a dam, one of the characteristics essential for seismic response design, is seldom determined by field tests. This is because the borehole seismic method is often restricted in application, due to stabilisation activities and concern for the security of the dam structure, and surface wave methods are limited by unfavourable in-situ site conditions. Consequently, seismic response design for a dam may be performed using Vs values that are assumed, or empirically determined. To estimate Vs for the core and rock-fill zone, and to find a reliable method for measuring Vs, seismic surface wave methods have been applied on the crest and sloping surface of the existing 'M' dam. Numerical analysis was also performed to verify the applicability of the surface wave method to a rock-fill dam. Through this numerical analysis and comparison with other test results, the applicability of the surface wave method to rock-fill dams was verified.
Assessing the repeatability of reflection seismic data in the presence of complex near-surface conditions CO2CRC Otway Project, Victoria, Australia
Al-Jabri, Yousuf ; Urosevic, Milovan ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 24~30
This study utilises repeated numerical tests to understand the effects of variable near-surface conditions on time-lapse seismic surveys. The numerical tests were aimed at reproducing the significant scattering observed in field experiments conducted at the Naylor site in the Otway Basin for the purpose of
sequestration. In particular, the variation of elastic properties of both the top soil and the deeper rugose clay/limestone interface as a function of varying water saturation were investigated. Such tests simulate the measurements conducted in dry and wet seasons and to evaluate the contribution of these seasonal variations to seismic measurements in terms of non-repeatability. Full elastic pre-stack modelling experiments were carried out to quantify these effects and evaluate their individual contributions. The results show that the relatively simple scattering effects of the corrugated near-surface clay/limestone interface can have a profound effect on time-lapse surveys. The experiments also show that the changes in top soil saturation could potentially affect seismic signature even more than the corrugated deeper surface. Overall agreement between numerically predicted and in situ measured normalised root-mean-square (NRMS) differences between repeated (time-lapse) 2D seismic surveys warrant further investigation. Future field studies will include in situ measurements of the elastic properties of the weathered zone through the use of 'micro Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP)' arrays and very dense refraction surveys. The results of this work may impact on other areas not associated with
sequestration, such as imaging oil production over areas where producing fields suffer from a karstic topography, such as in the Middle East and Australia.
Automatic velocity analysis using bootstrapped differential semblance and global search methods
Choi, Hyung-Wook ; Byun, Joong-Moo ; Seol, Soon-Jee ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 31~39
The goal of automatic velocity analysis is to extract accurate velocity from voluminous seismic data with efficiency. In this study, we developed an efficient automatic velocity analysis algorithm by using bootstrapped differential semblance (BDS) and Monte Carlo inversion. To estimate more accurate results from automatic velocity analysis, the algorithm we have developed uses BDS, which provides a higher velocity resolution than conventional semblance, as a coherency estimator. In addition, our proposed automatic velocity analysis module is performed with a conditional initial velocity determination step that leads to enhanced efficiency in running time of the module. A new optional root mean square (RMS) velocity constraint, which prevents picking false peaks, is used. The developed automatic velocity analysis module was tested on a synthetic dataset and a marine field dataset from the East Sea, Korea. The stacked sections made using velocity results from our algorithm showed coherent events and improved the quality of the normal moveout-correction result. Moreover, since our algorithm finds interval velocity (
) first with interval velocity constraints and then calculates a RMS velocity function from the interval velocity, we can estimate geologically reasonable interval velocities. Boundaries of interval velocities also match well with reflection events in the common midpoint stacked sections.
Deriving geological contact geometry from potential field data
Ugalde, Hernan ; Morris, William A. ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 40~50
The building process of any geological map involves linking sparse lithological outcrop information with equally sparse geometrical measurements, all in a single entity which is the preferred interpretation of the field geologist. The actual veracity of this interpretative map is partially dependent upon the frequency and distribution of geological outcrops compounded by the complexity of the local geology. Geophysics is commonly used as a tool to augment the distribution of data points, however it normally does not have sufficient geometrical constraints due to: a) all geophysical inversion models being inherently non-unique; and b) the lack of knowledge of the physical property contrasts associated with specific lithologies. This contribution proposes the combined use of geophysical edge detection routines and 'three point' solutions from topographic data as a possible approach to obtaining geological contact geometry information (strike and dip), which can be used in the construction of a preliminary geological model. This derived geological information should first be assessed for its compatibility with the scale of the problem, and any directly observed geological data. Once verified it can be used to help constrain the preferred geological map interpretation being developed by the field geologist. The method models the contacts as planar surfaces. Therefore, it must be ensured that this assumption fits the scale and geometry of the problem. Two examples are shown from folded sequences at the Bathurst Mining Camp, New Brunswick, Canada.
Helicopter-borne and ground-towed radar surveys of the Fourcade Glacier on King George Island, Antarctica
Kim, K.Y. ; Lee, J. ; Hong, M.H. ; Hong, J.K. ; Shon, H. ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 51~60
To determine subglacial topography and internal features of the Fourcade Glacier on King George Island in Antarctica, helicopter-borne and ground-towed ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data were recorded along four profiles in November 2006. Signature deconvolution, f-k migration velocity analysis, and finite-difference depth migration applied to the mixed-phase, single-channel, ground-towed data, were effective in increasing vertical resolution, obtaining the velocity function, and yielding clear depth images, respectively. For the helicopter-borne GPR, migration velocities were obtained as root-mean-squared velocities in a two-layer model of air and ice. The radar sections show rugged subglacial topography, englacial sliding surfaces, and localised scattering noise. The maximum depth to the basement is over 79m in the subglacial valley adjacent to the south-eastern slope of the divide ridge between Fourcade and Moczydlowski Glaciers. In the ground-towed profile, we interpret a complicated conduit above possible basal water and other isolated cavities, which are a few metres wide. Near the terminus, the GPR profiles image sliding surfaces, fractures, and faults that will contribute to the tidewater calving mechanism forming icebergs in Potter Cove.
Magnetotelluric survey applied to geothermal exploration: An example at Seokmo Island, Korea
Lee, Tae-Jong ; Han, Nu-Ree ; Song, Yoon-Ho ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 61~68
A magnetotelluric (MT) survey has been performed to delineate deeply extended fracture systems at the geothermal field in Seokmo Island, Korea. To assist interpretation of the MT data, geological surveying and well logging of existing wells were also performed. The surface geology of the island shows Cretaceous and Jurassic granite in the north and Precambrian schist in the south. The geothermal regime has been found along the boundary between the schist and Cretaceous granite. Because of the deep circulation along the fracture system, geothermal gradient of the target area exceeds
, which is much higher than the average geothermal gradient in Korea. 2D and 3D inversions of MT data clearly showed a very conductive anomaly, which is interpreted as a fracture system bearing saline water that extends at least down to 1.5 km depth and is inclined eastwards. After drilling down to the depth of 1280 m, more than 4000 tons/day of geothermal water overflowed with temperature higher than
. This water showed very similar chemical composition and temperature to those from another existing well, so that they can be considered to have the same origin; i.e. from the same fracture system. A new geothermal project for combined heat and power generation was launched in 2009 in Seokmo Island, based on the survey. Additional geophysical investigations including MT surveys to cover a wider area, seismic reflection surveys, borehole surveys, and well logging of more than 20 existing boreholes will be conducted.
Monitoring of grout material injected under a reservoir using electrical and electromagnetic surveys
Suzuki, Koichi ; Oyama, Takahiro ; Kawashima, Fumiharu ; Tsukada, Tomoyuki ; Jyomori, Akira ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 69~79
In order to reduce leakage from a reservoir, a large amount of cement milk (grout) was injected from boreholes drilled around the shores of the reservoir, and monitored to establish the infiltration of cement milk into the bedrock under the reservoir. From laboratory tests using rock core samples, it was revealed that the resistivity of cement milk is much lower than that of the groundwater at this location. Therefore, it was expected that the resistivity of the zones filled with cement milk would be significantly reduced. Geophysical surveys are expected to be suitable methods to check the effectiveness of grouting in improving the water-retaining performance of a reservoir. DC electrical surveys (seven in total) and two Controlled Source Audio-frequency Magneto-Telluric (CSAMT) surveys were conducted along survey lines in the reservoir to monitor the infiltration of cement milk during the grouting. Extremely low resistivity zones (
or less) were observed in resistivity sections obtained by 2D inversion. The zones are inferred to be fractured zones filled with cement milk. In sections showing the rate of change of resistivity, three zones that showed significant change showed gradual expansion to deeper parts as the grouting progressed. These zones correspond to highly permeable zones detected by Lugeon tests at grout boreholes. We have confirmed that it is possible to measure the resistivity change by DC electrical and CSAMT surveys from the surface of the reservoir. It seems that such monitoring results could be reflected in future grouting plans.
Improvement in facies discrimination using multiple seismic attributes for permeability modelling of the Athabasca Oil Sands, Canada
Kashihara, Koji ; Tsuji, Takashi ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 80~87
This study was conducted to develop a reservoir modelling workflow to reproduce the heterogeneous distribution of effective permeability that impacts on the performance of SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage), the in-situ bitumen recovery technique in the Athabasca Oil Sands. Lithologic facies distribution is the main cause of the heterogeneity in bitumen reservoirs in the study area. The target formation consists of sand with mudstone facies in a fluvial-to-estuary channel system, where the mudstone interrupts fluid flow and reduces effective permeability. In this study, the lithologic facies is classified into three classes having different characteristics of effective permeability, depending on the shapes of mudstones. The reservoir modelling workflow of this study consists of two main modules; facies modelling and permeability modelling. The facies modelling provides an identification of the three lithologic facies, using a stochastic approach, which mainly control the effective permeability. The permeability modelling populates mudstone volume fraction first, then transforms it into effective permeability. A series of flow simulations applied to mini-models of the lithologic facies obtains the transformation functions of the mudstone volume fraction into the effective permeability. Seismic data contribute to the facies modelling via providing prior probability of facies, which is incorporated in the facies models by geostatistical techniques. In particular, this study employs a probabilistic neural network utilising multiple seismic attributes in facies prediction that improves the prior probability of facies. The result of using the improved prior probability in facies modelling is compared to the conventional method using a single seismic attribute to demonstrate the improvement in the facies discrimination. Using P-wave velocity in combination with density in the multiple seismic attributes is the essence of the improved facies discrimination. This paper also discusses sand matrix porosity that makes P-wave velocity differ between the different facies in the study area, where the sand matrix porosity is uniquely evaluated using log-derived porosity, P-wave velocity and photographically-predicted mudstone volume.
An integrated airborne gravity survey of an offshore area near the northern Noto Peninsula, Japan
Komazawa, Masao ; Okuma, Shigeo ; Segawa, Jiro ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 88~95
An airborne gravity survey using a helicopter was carried out in October 2008, offshore along the northern Noto Peninsula, to understand the shallow and regional underground structure. Eleven flight lines, including three tie lines, were arranged at 2 km spacing within 20 km of the coast. The total length of the flight lines was ~700 km. The Bouguer anomalies computed from the airborne gravimetry are consistent with those computed from land and shipborne gravimetry, which gradually decrease in the offshore direction. So, the accuracy of the airborne system is considered to be adequate. A local gravity low in Wajima Bay, which was already known from seafloor gravimetry, was also observed. This suggests that the airborne system has a structural resolution of ~2 km. Reduction of gravity data to a common datum was conducted by compiling the three kinds of gravity data, from airborne, shipborne, and land surveys. In the present study, we have used a solid angle numerical integration method and an iteration method. We finally calculated the gravity anomalies at 300 m above sea level. We needed to add corrections of 2.5 mGals in order to compile the airborne and shipborne gravity data smoothly, so the accuracy of the Bouguer anomaly map is considered to be nearly 2 mGal on the whole, and 5 mGals at worst in limited or local areas.
Analysis of cross-borehole pulse radar signatures measured at various tunnel angles
Kim, Sang-Wook ; Kim, Se-Yun ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 96~101
A pulse radar system has been developed recently to detect dormant underground tunnels that are deeply located at depths of hundreds of metres. To check the ability of the radar system to detect an obliquely oriented tunnel, five different borehole pairs in the tunnel test site were chosen so that the horizontal lines-of-sight cut the tunnel axis obliquely, in
steps. The pulse radar signatures were measured over a depth range of 20 m around the centre of the air-filled tunnel. Three canonical parameters, consisting of the arrival time, attenuation, and dispersion time were extracted from the first and second peaks of the measured radar signatures. Using those parameters, the radar system can detect obliquely oriented tunnels at various angles up to 45 from the transmitter-receiver line of sight.
An attempt at soil profiling on a river embankment using geophysical data
Takahashi, Toru ; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 102~108
The internal structure of a river embankment must be delineated as part of investigations to evaluate its safety. Geophysical methods can be most effective means for that purpose, if they are used together with geotechnical methods such as the cone penetration test (CPT) and drilling. Since the dyke body and subsoil in general consist of material with a wide range of grain size, the properties and stratification of the soil must be accurately estimated to predict the mechanical stability and water infiltration in the river embankment. The strength and water content of the levee soil are also parameters required for such prediction. These parameters are usually estimated from CPT data, drilled core samples and laboratory tests. In this study we attempt to utilise geophysical data to estimate these parameters more effectively for very long river embankments. S-wave velocity and resistivity of the levee soils obtained with geophysical surveys are used to classify the soils. The classification is based on a physical soil model, called the unconsolidated sand model. Using this model, a soil profile along the river embankment is constructed from S-wave velocity and resistivity profiles. The soil profile thus obtained has been verified by geotechnical logs, which proves its usefulness for investigation of a river embankment.
Optimisation of multiplet identifier processing on a
Hattori, Masami ; Mizuno, Takashi ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 109~117
To enable high-performance computing (HPC) for applications with large datasets using a
) video game console, we configured a hybrid system consisting of a
PC and a
. To validate this system, we implemented the real-time multiplet identifier (RTMI) application, which identifies multiplets of microearthquakes in terms of the similarity of their waveforms. The cross-correlation computation, which is a core algorithm of the RTMI application, was optimised for the
platform, while the rest of the computation, including data input and output remained on the PC. With this configuration, the core part of the algorithm ran 69 times faster than the original program, accelerating total computation speed more than five times. As a result, the system processed up to 2100 total microseismic events, whereas the original implementation had a limit of 400 events. These results indicate that this system enables high-performance computing for large datasets using the
, as long as data transfer time is negligible compared with computation time.
Simulation of eccentricity effects on short- and long-normal logging measurements using a Fourier-hp-finite-element method
Nam, Myung-Jin ; Pardo, David ; Torres-Verdin, Carlos ; Hwang, Se-Ho ; Park, Kwon-Gyu ; Lee, Chang-Hyun ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 118~127
Resistivity logging instruments are designed to measure the electrical resistivity of a formation, and this can be directly interpreted to provide a water-saturation profile. However, resistivity logs are sensitive to borehole and shoulder-bed effects, which often result in misinterpretation of the results. These effects are emphasised more in the presence of tool eccentricity. For precise interpretation of short- and long-normal logging measurements in the presence of tool eccentricity, we simulate and analyse eccentricity effects by combining the use of a Fourier series expansion in a new system of coordinates with a 2D goal-oriented high-order self-adaptive hp finite-element refinement strategy, where h denotes the element size and p the polynomial order of approximation within each element. The algorithm automatically performs local mesh refinement to construct an optimal grid for the problem under consideration. In addition, the proper combination of h and p refinements produces highly accurate simulations even in the presence of high electrical resistivity contrasts. Numerical results demonstrate that our algorithm provides highly accurate and reliable simulation results. Eccentricity effects are more noticeable when the borehole is large or resistive, or when the formation is highly conductive.
Discussion: On 'Negative apparent resistivity in dipole-dipole electrical surveys' (Jung, H.K., Min, D.J., Lee, H.S., Oh, S.H., and Chung, H., Exploration Geophysics, 40, 33-40)
Cho, In-Ky ; Kim, Jung-Ho ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 128~131
Reply by the authors to the discussion by Cho and Kim
Jung, Hyun-Key ; Min, Dong-Joo ; Lee, Hyo-Sun ; Oh, Seok-Hoon ; Chung, Ho-Joon ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 1, 2010, Pages 132~135