Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Earth and Exploration Geophysicists
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Nov 2010
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Aug 2010
Volume 13, Issue 2 - May 2010
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Paleoseismological Study and Evaluation of Maximum Earthquake Magnitude along the Yangsan and Ulsan Fault Zones in the Southeastern Part of Korea
Kyung, Jai-Bok ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 3, 2010, Pages 187~197
The paleoseismological study in Korea has begun along the Yangsan fault zone (YFZ) and Ulsan fault zone (UFZ) since 1994. Some evidences related to late Quaternary movement are found at only some part of the YFZ, such as Pyonghae, Yuge, and Eonyang-Tongdosa areas. However, it is found along the most of the UFZ except the northen and southern ends of the fault. The dominant time span of faulting events along the YFZ and UFZ are quite different, and 500 ka to 200 ka and 300 ka to recent time, respectively. The dominant faulting senses of the YFZ and UFZ are right-lateral strike slip and reverse, respectively. These senses correspond well with the focal mechanism of recent occurring earthquakes along these two fault zones. If we evaluate the intensity of the activity of the YFZ from the average slip rate, which is 0.1~0.04 m/ka, it is comparable with the faults of higher C class in Japan. The slip rate of UFZ, which is 0.2~0.06 m/ka, is comparable with the faults of lower B to higher C class. Based on the relationship between maximum displacement and magnitude, the maximum earthquake magnitude is evaluated to be 6.8 and 7.0 in the YFZ and UFZ, respectively. An intensive studies are needed to clarify the problems such as segmentation of faults, return period, and geological evidences related to historical earthquakes.
Focal Mechanism in and around the Korean Peninsula
Jun, Myung-Soon ; Jeon, Jeong-Soo ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 3, 2010, Pages 198~202
In and around the Korean Peninsula, 18 intraplate earthquake focal mechanisms since 1936 were analyzed to understand the characteristic of focal mechanism and regional stress orientation and tectonics. These earthquakes are largest ones from the last century and may represent the characteristics of earthquake in this region. Focal mechanism of these earthquakes show predominant strike-slip faulting with small amount of thrust components. The average P-axis is almost horizontal ENE-WSW direction. This mechanism pattern and the direction of maximum stress axis is very similar with northeastern part of China and southwestern part of Japan. However they are quite different with the eastern part of East Sea. This indicate that not only the subducting Pacific Plate from east but also the indenting Indian Plate controls focal mechanism in the far east of the Eurasian Plate.
Suggestion of Additional Criteria for Site Categorization in Korea by Quantifying Regional Specific Characteristics on Seismic Response
Sun, Chang-Guk ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 3, 2010, Pages 203~218
The site categorization and corresponding site amplification factors in the current Korean seismic design guideline are based on provisions for the western United States (US), although the site effects resulting in the amplification of earthquake ground motions are directly dependent on the regional and local site characteristic conditions. In these seismic codes, two amplification factors called site coefficients,
, for the short-period band and midperiod band, respectively, are listed according to a criterion, mean shear wave velocity (
) to a depth of 30 m, into five classes composed of A to E. To suggest a site classification system reflecting Korean site conditions, in this study, systematic site characterization was carried out at four regional areas, Gyeongju, Hongsung, Haemi and Sacheon, to obtain the
profiles from surface to bedrock in field and the non-linear soil properties in laboratory. The soil deposits in Korea, which were shallower and stiffer than those in the western US, were examined, and thus the site period in Korea was distributed in the low and narrow band comparing with those in western US. Based on the geotechnical characteristic properties obtained in the field and laboratory, various site-specific seismic response analyses were conducted for total 75 sites by adopting both equivalent-linear and non-linear methods. The analysis results showed that the site coefficients specified in the current Korean provision underestimate the ground motion in the short-period range and overestimate in the mid-period range. These differences can be explained by the differences in the local site characteristics including the depth to bedrock between Korea and western US. Based on the analysis results in this study and the prior research results for the Korean peninsula, new site classification system was developed by introducing the site period as representative criterion and the mean
to a depth of shallower than 30 m as additional criterion, to reliably determine the ground motions and the corresponding design spectra taking into account the regional site characteristics in Korea.
Method of Estimating the Ground-Motion Intensity Measures at a Nearby Site by using the Time-domain Transformation of Site Response
Yun, Kwan-Hee ; Park, Dong-Hee ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 3, 2010, Pages 219~226
Current earthquake alert notification for immediate post-earthquake procedures for the critical facilities is exclusively dependent on the ground-motion intensity measures observed at the seismic station located within the site. This practice is prune to false notification due to a noise and problems of missing and poor quality records of the seismic station. The credibility of the earthquake alert notification can be enhanced by utilizing the multiple transformed records of the nearby seismic stations at other sites interconnected to the same earthquake monitoring system by a network. The time-domain transformation of the site-response between the seismic stations is implemented by convoluting the nearby records with a pair of forward and inverse FIR filters designed for the site response relative to a seismic basement. The transformed records from the nearby seismic stations can be used to estimate the ground-motion intensity measures missing at the site or to evaluate the data quality along with other various possible applications in the area of geoscience and earthquake engineering.
Analysis of Characteristics of Vertical Response Spectrum of Ground Motions from Domestic Earthquakes
Kim, Jun-Kyoung ; Hong, Seung-Min ; Park, Ki-Jong ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 3, 2010, Pages 227~234
The vertical response spectra using the observed ground motions from the recent more than 30 macro earthquakes were analysed and then were compared both to the seismic design response spectra (Reg Guide 1.60), applied to the domestic nuclear power plants, and to the Korean Standard Design Response Spectrum for general structures and buildings (1997). 176 vertical ground motions, without considering soil types, were used for normalization with respect to the peak acceleration value of each ground motion. The results showed that response spectrum had strong dependency on epicentral distance. The results also showed that the vertical response spectra revealed much higher values for frequency bands above 5~7 Hz than Reg. Guide (1.60). The results were also compared to the Korean Standard Response Spectrum for the 3 different soil types and showed that the vertical response spectra revealed much higher values for the frequency bands below 0.2 second (5 Hz) than the Korean Standard Response Spectrum (SD soil condition). These frequency-dependent spectral values could be related to the characteristics of the domestic crustal attenuation and the effect of each site amplification. However, through the qualitative improvements and quantitative enhancement of the observed ground motions, the conservation of vertical seismic design response spectrum should be considered more significantly for the frequency bands above 5 Hz.
Source Parameters of Two Moderate Earthquakes at the Yellow Sea Area in the Korean Peninsula on March 22 and 30, 2003
Choi, Ho-Seon ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 3, 2010, Pages 235~242
Two moderate earthquakes with local magnitude 4.9 and 5.0 at the Yellow Sea area occurred successively around Hong island on March 22, 2003 and Baengnyeong island on March 30, 2003, respectively, close to the Korean Peninsula. Focal mechanisms by the waveform inversion analysis are strike slip faulting with a thrust component for the March 22 event, and normal faulting for the March 30 event. The direction of P-axes of two events were ENE-WSW which were similar to previous studies on that of P-axes in and around the Korean Peninsula. Moment magnitudes determined by the waveform inversion analysis were 4.7 and 4.5, respectively, whereas those determined by spectral analysis were 4.8 and 4.6, respectively. As regards the March 22 event, regional stress by combined tectonic forces from compressions of plates colliding to the Eurasian plate, rather than mere local stress, was indicated. However, it was estimated that the March 30 event took place when the weak zone generated from the existing collision zone was reactivated when subjected to local stress in the tensile direction. This seismological observation indirectly supports the idea that the collision zone may extend to the Korean Peninsula.
Monitoring North Korea Nuclear Tests: Comparison of 1st and 2nd Tests
Chi, Heon-Cheol ; Park, Jung-Ho ; Kim, Geun-Young ; Che, Il-Young ; Sheen, Dong-Hoon ; Shin, Jin-Soo ; Cho, Chang-Soo ; Lee, Hee-Il ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 3, 2010, Pages 243~248
Two suspicious events, which were claimed as underground nuclear tests by North Korea, were detected in the northern Korean Peninsula on October 9, 2006 and May 25, 2009. The KIGAM and Korea-China Joint seismic stations are distributed uniformly along the boundaries between North Korea and adjacent countries. In this study, the data from broadband stations with the distance of 200 to 550 km from the test site are used to analyze and compare two nuclear tests of North Korea. By comparing the time differences of the Pn-wave arrival times of 1st and 2nd tests at multiple stations, the relative locations of two test sites could be calculated precisely. From the geometrical calculation with the velocity of Pn wave
= 8 km/s, the 2nd test site is estimated to move in the WNW direction from 1st one with the distance of 2 km. Body wave magnitude, mb of the 2nd test, which was announced officially as the network average of 4.5, varies widely with the directional location of stations from 4.1 to 5.2. The magnitude obtained from Lg wave,
(Lg), shows less variation between 4.3 to 4.7 with the average of 4.6. The moving-window spectra of time traces of 1st and 2nd tests show very similar pattern with different scale level. In addition, the corner frequencies of P wave of 1st and 2nd tests at each station show no or negligible difference. This indicates the burial depths of two tests might be very similar. The relative yield amount of the 2nd test is estimated 8 times larger than that of the 1st from the weighted average of ground-velocity amplitude ratios.
Polarization Analysis of Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) Geomagnetic Data for Monitoring Earthquake-precusory Phenomenon in Korea
Yang, Jun-Mo ; Lee, Heui-Soon ; Lee, Young-Gyun ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 3, 2010, Pages 249~255
Since the 1990's, a number of ULF geomagnetic disturbance associated with earthquake occurrences have actively been reported, and polarization analysis of geomagnetic fields becomes one of potential candidates to be capable of predicting short-term earthquake. This study develops the modified polarization analysis method based on the previous studies, and analyzes three-component geomagnetic fields obtained at Cheongyang geomagnetic observatory using the developed method. A daily polarization value (the ratio of spectral power of horizontal and vertical geomagnetic field) is calculated with a focus on the 0.01 Hz band, which is known to be the most sensitive to seismogenic ULF radiation. We analyze a total of 10 months of geomagnetic data obtained at Cheongyang observatory, and compare the polarization values with the Kp index and the earthquake occurred in the analysis period. The results show that there is little correlation between the temporal variations of polarization values and Kp index, but remarkable increases in polarization values are identified which are associated with two earthquakes. Comparison the polarization values obtained at Cheongyang and Kanoya observatory indicates that the increases of polarization values at Cheongyang might be due to not global geomagnetic induction but the locally occurred earthquakes. Furthermore, these features are clearly shown in normalized polarization values, which take account in the statistical characteristics of each geomagnetic field. On the basis of these results, polarization analysis can be used as promising tool for monitoring the earthquake-precursory phenomenon.
Comments on Seismicity and Crustal Structure of the Korean Peninsula
Lee, Kie-Hwa ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 3, 2010, Pages 256~267
Earthquakes in the Korean Peninsula occur along the faults formed and boundaries between major geological units ruptured due to violent tectonic activities during the Mesozoic. E-W and/or ENE-SSW compressive stress regime resulting from collisions between the Eurasian plate and neighbouring the Indian plate, the Pacific plate and the Philippine plate trigger Korean earthquakes of thrust faulting with predominant strike-slip components along the mostly NNE-SSW trending active faults. Seismicity of the Korean peninsula has been moderate to low during the past 20 centuries except for the period from the 15th to the 18th centuries of exceptionally high seismicity, showing the typical irregularity of intraplate seismicity. The structure of the Korean peninsula is rather homogeneous without the Conrad discontinuity sharply dividing the upper and lower crust. Lateral heterogeneities exist in the crust. The crust with an average thickness of about 33 km is thicker in the mountainous region than the plain due to the Airy-type isostatic equilibrium maintained in the peninsula. Crustal P-wave velocity with average of about 6.3 km/sec increases gradually from the near surface to the Moho. The upper mantle P-wave (Pn) velocity is about 7.8 km/sec.
Earthquake Monitoring : Future Strategy
Chi, Heon-Cheol ; Park, Jung-Ho ; Kim, Geun-Young ; Shin, Jin-Soo ; Shin, In-Cheul ; Lim, In-Seub ; Jeong, Byung-Sun ; Sheen, Dong-Hoon ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 3, 2010, Pages 268~276
Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Law was activated into force on March 2009. By the law, the obligation to monitor the effect of earthquake on the facilities was extended to many organizations such as gas company and local governments. Based on the estimation of National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), the number of free-surface acceleration stations would be expanded to more than 400. The advent of internet protocol and the more simplified operation have allowed the quick and easy installation of seismic stations. In addition, the dynamic range of seismic instruments has been continuously improved enough to evaluate damage intensity and to alert alarm directly for earthquake hazard mitigation. For direct visualization of damage intensity and area, Real Time Intensity COlor Mapping (RTICOM) is explained in detail. RTICOM would be used to retrieve the essential information for damage evaluation, Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA). Destructive earthquake damage is usually due to surface waves which just follow S wave. The peak amplitude of surface wave would be pre-estimated from the amplitude and frequency content of first arrival P wave. Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system is conventionally defined to estimate local magnitude from P wave. The status of EEW is reviewed and the application of EEW to Odesan earthquake is exampled with ShakeMap in order to make clear its appearance. In the sense of rapidity, the earthquake announcement of Korea Meteorological Agency (KMA) might be dramatically improved by the adaption of EEW. In order to realize hazard mitigation, EEW should be applied to the local crucial facilities such as nuclear power plants and fragile semi-conduct plant. The distributed EEW is introduced with the application example of Uljin earthquake. Not only Nation-wide but also locally distributed EEW applications, all relevant information is needed to be shared in real time. The plan of extension of Korea Integrated Seismic System (KISS) is briefly explained in order to future cooperation of data sharing and utilization.
A Review of the
Study of the South Korea
Chung, Tae-Woong ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 3, 2010, Pages 277~285
For regional earthquakes in the Korean Peninsula, the seismic Lg waves have the largest amplitude. Our researches in South Korea found that more reasonable low
was obtained as the inter-station distances increase. The other methods such as coda normalization method and multiple lapse time window method also produced that the low
is related to the values of seismically inactive region.
State-of-the-art Studies on Infrasound Monitoring in Korea
Che, Il-Young ; Lee, Hee-Il ; Jeon, Jeong-Soo ; Shin, In-Cheul ; Chi, Heon-Cheol ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 3, 2010, Pages 286~294
Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has installed and operated seven seismoacoustic (infrasound) arrays as well as seismic stations in Korea. The seismo-acoustic array, which consists of co-located seismometers and micro-barometers, can observe both seismic and infrasonic signals from distant explosive phenomena. The infrasound is defined as low frequency (<20 Hz) acoustic waves in atmosphere. In particular, it can be detectable at long distance due to its low energy attenuation during propagation in atmosphere. KIGAM adopted the infrasound technology to discriminate surface explosions from earthquakes only because the surface explosion generally generates infrasound following seismic signal. In addition to surface explosions, these arrays have detected diverse geophysically natural and artificial phenomena, such as infrasound signal from the North Korean nuclear test. This review introduced the state-of-the-art studies and examples of infrasonic signals in and around the Korean Peninsula. In conclusion, infrasound technology would be clearly accepted itself as a new Earth monitoring technology by expanding its detectable regime to lithosphere-Earth surface-atmosphere. In future, an advanced technology, which allows to analyze seismic and infrasonic wave fields together, will enlarge the understanding of geophysical phenomena and be used as a robust analysis method for remote explosive phenomena in the broad infrasound regime.
Characteristics of Tsunamis and Mitigation Planning
Cho, Yong-Sik ; Ha, Tae-Min ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 13, issue 3, 2010, Pages 295~300
Recently, many tsunamis triggered by impulsive undersea ground motions occurred in subduction zones around the Pacific Ocean area including the East Sea surrounded by Korea, Japan and Russia. The wave height of a tsunami may be in the order of several meters, while the wavelength can be up to 1,000 km in the ocean, where the average water depth is about 4 km. A tsunami could cause a severe coastal flooding and property damage not only at neighboring countries but also at distant countries. A fundamental and economic way to mitigate unusual tsunami attacks is to construct tsunami hazard maps along coastal areas vulnerable to tsunami flooding. These maps should be developed based on the historical tsunami events and projected scenarios. The map could be used to make evacuation plans in the event of a real tsunami assault.