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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Earth and Exploration Geophysicists
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Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 4 - Nov 1999
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Aug 1999
Volume 2, Issue 2 - May 1999
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
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Weathering Characteristics of On-Yang Gneiss using Ground Penetrating Radar
Shin, Sung-Ryul ; Park, Boo-Seong ; Jang, Won-Il ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 1, 1999, Pages 1~7
We investigated the weathering characteristics of On-Yang gneiss by means of geological survey and Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR). The results of geological survey and boring show the two sets of vertical joint and horizontal joint developed by foliation which is composed of salic and melanic layers. GPR section evidently shows foliation direction and differential weathering due to discontinuity and mineral composition of metamorphic rock. The GPR section for instantaneous phase attribute based on complex trace analysis evidently shows continuity and foliation direction of metamorphic rock. The strong reflection amplitude which is derived from the banded structure of weathered rock can be incorrectly interpreted as a reflection of bedrock. The depth of rock basement should be estimated from the overall exploration result such as boring, seismic method, and electrical resistivity method.
Subsurface Geological Structure Using Shallow Seismic Reflection Survey
Kim Gyu-Han ; Kong Young-Sae ; Oh Jinyong ; Lee Jung-Mo ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 1, 1999, Pages 8~16
In terms of high resolution, seismic reflection survey is by far the most significant geophysical method applied to define subsurface structure. In shallow seismic reflection survey, it is, however, difficult to obtain high resolution image due to both the wave attenuation in the unconsolidated layer and the existence of source-generated surface waves Therefore, when collecting data, it is imperative to select proper equipments and choose optimum field data acquisition parameters for acquiring high S/N data. In this survey, a small size hammer was used as a low energy source and 40-Hz vertical geophones were used as receivers. Trigger signal was obtained from the hammer starter attached in the aluminum plate and thus it was possible to control the source onset time for the vertical stack. During the field work, a modified standard CMP technique was introduced to achieve the many-fold CMP data effectively. Data processing was conducted by the 'Seismic Unix' which is mounted on PC with a Linux operating system. The main distinctions were the emphasis and detail placed on near-surface velocity analysis and the extra care exercised in muting.
Electromagnetic Traveltime Tomography with Wavefield Transformation
Lee, Tae-Jong ; Suh, Jung-Hee ; Shin, Chang-Soo ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 1, 1999, Pages 17~25
A traveltime tomography has been carried out by transforming electromagnetic data in frequency domain to wave-like domain. The transform uniquely relates a field satisfying a diffusion equation to an integral of the corresponding wavefield. But direct transform of frequency domain magnetic fields to wave-field domain is ill-posed problem because the kernel of the integral transform is highly damped. In this study, instead of solving such an unstable problem, it is assumed that wave-fields in transformed domain can be approximated by sum of ray series. And for further simplicity, reflection and refraction energy compared to that of direct wave is weak enough to be neglected. Then first arrival can be approximated by calculating the traveltime of direct wave only. But these assumptions are valid when the conductivity contrast between background medium and the target anomalous body is low enough. So this approach can only be applied to the models with low conductivity contrast. To verify the algorithm, traveltime calculated by this approach was compared to that of direct transform method and exact traveltime, calculated analytically, for homogeneous whole space. The error in first arrival picked by this study was less than that of direct transformation method, especially when the number of frequency samples is less than 10, or when the data are noisy. Layered earth model with varying conductivity contrasts and inclined dyke model have been successfully imaged by applying nonlinear traveltime tomography in 30 iterations within three CPU minutes on a IBM Pentium Pro 200 MHz.
An Iterative, Interactive and Unified Seismic Velocity Analysis
Suh Sayng-Yong ; Chung Bu-Heung ; Jang Seong-Hyung ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 1, 1999, Pages 26~32
Among the various seismic data processing sequences, the velocity analysis is the most time consuming and man-hour intensive processing steps. For the production seismic data processing, a good velocity analysis tool as well as the high performance computer is required. The tool must give fast and accurate velocity analysis. There are two different approches in the velocity analysis, batch and interactive. In the batch processing, a velocity plot is made at every analysis point. Generally, the plot consisted of a semblance contour, super gather, and a stack pannel. The interpreter chooses the velocity function by analyzing the velocity plot. The technique is highly dependent on the interpreters skill and requires human efforts. As the high speed graphic workstations are becoming more popular, various interactive velocity analysis programs are developed. Although, the programs enabled faster picking of the velocity nodes using mouse, the main improvement of these programs is simply the replacement of the paper plot by the graphic screen. The velocity spectrum is highly sensitive to the presence of the noise, especially the coherent noise often found in the shallow region of the marine seismic data. For the accurate velocity analysis, these noise must be removed before the spectrum is computed. Also, the velocity analysis must be carried out by carefully choosing the location of the analysis point and accuarate computation of the spectrum. The analyzed velocity function must be verified by the mute and stack, and the sequence must be repeated most time. Therefore an iterative, interactive, and unified velocity analysis tool is highly required. An interactive velocity analysis program, xva(X-Window based Velocity Analysis) was invented. The program handles all processes required in the velocity analysis such as composing the super gather, computing the velocity spectrum, NMO correction, mute, and stack. Most of the parameter changes give the final stack via a few mouse clicks thereby enabling the iterative and interactive processing. A simple trace indexing scheme is introduced and a program to nike the index of the Geobit seismic disk file was invented. The index is used to reference the original input, i.e., CDP sort, directly A transformation techinique of the mute function between the T-X domain and NMOC domain is introduced and adopted to the program. The result of the transform is simliar to the remove-NMO technique in suppressing the shallow noise such as direct wave and refracted wave. However, it has two improvements, i.e., no interpolation error and very high speed computing time. By the introduction of the technique, the mute times can be easily designed from the NMOC domain and applied to the super gather in the T-X domain, thereby producing more accurate velocity spectrum interactively. The xva program consists of 28 files, 12,029 lines, 34,990 words and 304,073 characters. The program references Geobit utility libraries and can be installed under Geobit preinstalled environment. The program runs on X-Window/Motif environment. The program menu is designed according to the Motif style guide. A brief usage of the program has been discussed. The program allows fast and accurate seismic velocity analysis, which is necessary computing the AVO (Amplitude Versus Offset) based DHI (Direct Hydrocarn Indicator), and making the high quality seismic sections.
A Modeling Study on the AVO and Complex Trace Analyses of the Fracture Bone Reflection
Han Soo-Hyung ; Kim Ji-Soo ; Ha Hee-Sang ; Min Dong-Joo ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 1, 1999, Pages 33~42
AVO and complex trace analyses mainly used to characterize natural gas reservoir were tested in this paper for a possible application to detection of major geological discontinuities such as fracture zones. The test data used in this study were calculated by utilizing a viscoelastic numerical program which was based on the generalized Maxwell body for a horizontal fracture model. In AVO analysis of a horizontal fracture zone, p-wave reflection appears to be variant depending upon the acoustic-impedence contrast and the offset distance. The fracture zone is also effectively clarified both in gradient stack and range-limited stack in which fracture zone reflection is attenuated with the increasing offset distance. In complex attribute plots (instantaneous amplitude, frequency, and phase), the top and bottom of the fracture Tone are characterized by a zone of strong amplitudes and an event of the same phase. Low frequency characteristics appear at the fracture zone and the underneath. Amplitude attenuation and waveform dispersion are dependent on Q-contrast between the fracture zone and the surrounding media. They were properly compensated by optimum inverse Q-filtering.
2.5-Dimensional Electromagnetic Numerical Modeling and Inversion
Ko Kwang-Beom ; Suh Jung-Hee ; Shin Chang-Soo ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 1, 1999, Pages 43~53
Numerical modeling and inversion for electromagnetic exploration methods are essential to understand behaviour of electromagnetic fields in complex subsurface. In this study, a finite element method was adopted as a numerical scheme for the 2.5-dimensional forward problem. And a finite element equation considering linear conductivity variation was proposed, when 2.5-dimensional differential equation to couple eletric and magnetic field was implemented. Model parameters were investigated for near-field with large source effects and far-field with responses dominantly by homogeneous half-space. Numerical responses by this study were compared with analytic solutions in homogeneous half-space. Blocky inversion model was modified to be applied to the forward calculation in this study and it was also adopted in the inversion algorithm. Resolution for isolated bodies were investigated to confirm possibility and limitation of inversion for electromagnetic exploration data.
Prestack Datuming by Wavefield Depth Extrapolation using the DSR Equation
Ji Jun ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 1, 1999, Pages 54~62
This paper describes a datuming scheme for a prestack dataset which uses wavefield depth extrapolation. The formulation of the prestack datuming algorithm is performed by finding the adjoint operator to the corresponding forward prestack wavefield extrapolation from a flat surface to an irregular surface. Here I used double-square-root (DSR) equation to extrapolate wavefield in prestack sense. This correspond to the forward model of the well known `survey sinking` prestack imaging algorithm.