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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Earth and Exploration Geophysicists
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Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 4 - Nov 1999
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Aug 1999
Volume 2, Issue 2 - May 1999
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
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Seismic Traveltime Tomography using Neural Network
Kim, Tae-Yeon ; Yoon, Wang-Jung ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 4, 1999, Pages 167~173
Since the resolution of the 2-D hole-to-hole seismic traveltime tomography is affected by the limited ray transmission angle, various methods were used to improve the resolution. Linear traveltime interpolation(LTI) ray tracing method was chosen for forward-modeling method. Inversion results using the LTI method were compared with those using the other ray tracing methods. As an inversion algorithm, SIRT method was used. In the iterative non-linear inversion method, the cost of ray tracing is quite expensive. To reduce the cost, each raypath was stored and the inversion was performed from this information. Using the proposed method, fast convergence was achieved. Inversion results are likely to be affected by the initial velocity guess, especially when the ray transmission angle was limited. To provide a good initial guess for the inversion, generalized regression neural network(GRNN) method was used. When the transmitted raypath angle is not limited or the geological model is very complex, the inversion results are not affected by initial velocity model very much. Since the raypath angles, however, are limited in most geophysical tomographic problems, the enhancement of resolution in tomography can be achieved by providing a proper initial velocity model by another inversion algorithm such as GRNN.
Applications of SASW Method to Civil Engineering
Song Myung-Jun ; Jung Yun-Moon ; Lee Young-Nam ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 4, 1999, Pages 174~179
Shear wave velocity, one of major elastic constants in the dynamic design for civil structures, is conventionally measured from downhole, crosshole or sonic logging tests. SASW (Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves) method, which overcomes the disadvantage of the in-hole tests, can evaluate subsurface stiffness nondestructively and nonintrusively through measuring surface waves on surface. In this paper, principles of the SASW method are briefly described and the results of various field tests, conducted to investigate the applicability of the method, are summarized. The SASW method was successfully applied in evaluating the effects of dynamic compaction at Inchon international airport site, applied in evaluating the integrity of the lining and sidewall at a testing tunnel located in Mabukri, and applied in detecting thickness of a concrete retaining wall. The results of field tests and the nondestructive and economical characteristics of the method show the promising future of the SASW method in civil engineering projects.
Development of a Seismic Measurement System with a reference for the Reduction of Artificial Noise
Hwang, Hak-Soo ; Lee, Tai-Sup ; Sung, Nak-Hoon ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 4, 1999, Pages 180~183
A proto-type seismic measurement system with a reference was developed to improve S/N (signal-to-noise ratio) of seismic data, especially in noisy urban areas. Two pairs of correlation measurements (the one for microphone and geophone, and another for electromagnetic (EM) loop and geophone) were carried out near Kimpo Airport and at Kimje. The spectrum analyses were also performed to investigate the correlation of two pairs of time series; one for microphone and geophone, and another for EM loop and geophone. The sound waves measured with the microphone and the geophone are highly correlated. However, differences in the reponses are readily identifiable across 200 Hz; in the vicinity of 100 Hz, the spectral energy for geophone is 20 dB higher than that for microphone, and at near 500 Hz, the spectral energy for microphone is 30 dB higher than that for geophone. Overall, the spectral energy appears concentrated on the frequency window below 600 Hz for geophone. It contrasts with the observation of dominant frequency at the range of above 200 Hz for microphone. The wave forms of EM noise (due to an ACDC inverter) measured with EM loop and geophone are consistently and highly correlated each other. The power spectrum of the EM noise for EM loop shows that the spectral energies at odd harmonic frequencies of 60 Hz are higher than those at even harmonic frequencies of 60 Hz. It is compared to the power spectrum for geophone; the spectral energies at odd harmonics are nearly same as those at even harmonic frequencies.
Seismic Data Processing For Gas Hydrate using Geobit
Jang Seong-Hyung ; Suh Sang-Yong ; Chung Bu-Heung ; Ryu Byung-Jae ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 4, 1999, Pages 184~190
A study of gas hydrate is a worldwide popular interesting subject as a potential energy source. A seismic survey for gas hydrate have performed over the East sea by the KIGAM since 1997. General indicators of natural submarine gas hydrates in seismic data is commonly inferred from the BSR (Bottom Simulating Reflection) that occurred parallel to the see floor, amplitude decrease at the top of the BSR, amplitude Blanking at the bottom of the BSR, decrease of the interval velocity, and the reflection phase reversal at the BSR. So the seismic data processing for detecting gas hydrates indicators is required the true amplitude recovery processing, a accurate velocity analysis and the AVO (Amplitude Variation with Offset) analysis. In this paper, we had processed the field data to detect the gas hydrate indicators, which had been acquired over the East sea in 1998. Applied processing modules are spherical divergence, band pass filtering, CDP sorting and accurate velocity analysis. The AVO analysis was excluded, since this field data had too short offset to apply the AVO analysis. The accurate velocity analysis was performed by XVA (X-window based Velocity Analysis). This is the method which calculate the velocity spectrum by iterative and interactive. With XVA, we could determine accurate stacking velocity. Geobit 2.9.5 developed by the KIGAM was used for processing data. Processing results say that the BSR occurred parallel to the sea floor were shown at
depths (two way travel time about 1800 ms) from the sea floor through shot point 1650-1900, the interval velocity decrease around BSR and the reflection phase reversal corresponding to the reflection at the sea floor.
Three-dimensional Inversion of Resistivity Data
Yi Myeong-Jong ; Kim Jung-Ho ; Cho Seong-Jun ; Chung Seung-Hwan ; Song Yoonho ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 4, 1999, Pages 191~201
The interpretation of resistivity data has, so far, mainly been made under the assumption that the earth is of relatively simple structure and then using one or two-dimensional inversion scheme. Since real earth structure and topography are fully three-dimensional and very complicated In nature, however, such assumptions often lead to misinterpretation of the earth structures. In such situations, three-dimensional inversion is probably the only way to get correct image of the earth. In this study, we have developed a three-dimensional inversion code using the finite element solution for the forward problem. The forward modeling algorithm simulates the real field situation with irregular topography. The inverse problem is solved iteratively using the least-squares method with smoothness constraint. Our inversion scheme employs ACB (Active Constraint Balancing) to enhance the resolving power of the inversion. Including Irregular surface topography in the inversion, we can accurately define the earth structures without artifact in the numerical tests. We could get reasonable image of earth structure by Inverting the real field data sets taken over highway bridge construction site.
Geoacoustic Modeling for Analysis of Attenuation Characteristics using Chirp Acoustic Profiling data
Chang Jae-Kyeong ; Yang Sung-Jin ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 4, 1999, Pages 202~208
We introduce a new acoustic parameter for the classification of seafloor sediments from chirp sonar acoustic profiling data. The acoustic parameter is defined as a derivative of the unwrapped phase of the Fourier transform of acoustic profiling data. Consequently, it represents the characteristics of attenuation by dissipative dispersion in sediments. And we estimated acoustic properties by geoacoustic modeling using Chirp data obtained from the different sedimentary facies. Our classification results, when compared with the results of analysis of sampled sediments, show that the acoustic parameter discriminates sedimentary facies and bottom hardness. Thus the method in this paper is expected to be an effective means of geoacoustic modeling of the seafloor.
Field Experiment Generating Shear Waves by Using french Method
Lee, Doo-Sung ; Kim, Hyoun-Gyu ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 2, issue 4, 1999, Pages 209~214
A field experiment generating shear waves by trench method was conducted at two places in Taejun area. We were able to separate the P- and S-waves by summing and subtracting the vertical and horizontal component of the data recorded at a three component downhole geophone in the borehole. The analysis of the records revealed that the shear waves were polarized to NS and EW directions. The faster shear waves were polarized to NS direction. The NS direction generally agrees with the dominant joints direction observed from the cores collected from the borehole.