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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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Korean Society of Earth and Exploration Geophysicists
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Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 4 - Nov 2002
Volume 5, Issue 3 - Aug 2002
Volume 5, Issue 2 - May 2002
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
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A Study on the DC Resistivity Method to Image the Underground Structure Beneath River or Lake Bottom
Kim Jung-Ho ; Yi Myeong-Jong ; Song Yoonho ; Choi Seong-Jun ; Lee Seoung Kon ; Son Jeong-Sul ; Chung Seung-Hwan ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 5, issue 4, 2002, Pages 223~235
Since weak Bones or geological lineaments are likely to be eroded, there may develop weak Bones beneath rivers, and a careful evaluation of ground condition is important to construct structures passing through a river. DC resistivity method, however, has seldomly applied to the investigation of water-covered area, possibly because of difficulties in data aquisition and interpretation. The data aquisition having high quality may be the most important factor, and is more difficult than that in land survey, due to the water layer overlying the underground structure to be imaged. Through the numerical modeling and the analysis of a case history, we studied the method of resistivity survey at the water-covered area, starting from the characteristics of measured data, via data acquisition method, to the interpretation method. We unfolded our discussion according to the installed locations of electrodes, ie., floating them on the water surface, and installing them at the water bottom, because the methods of data acquisition and interpretation vary depending on the electrode location. Through this study, we could confirm that the DC resistivity method can provide fairly reasonable subsurface images. It was also shown that installing electrodes at the water bottom can give the subsurface image with much higher resolution than floating them on the water surface. Since the data acquired at the water-covered area have much lower sensitivity to the underground structure than those at the land, and can be contaminated by the higher noise, such as streaming potential, it would be very important to select the acquisition method and electrode array being able to provide the higher signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) data as well as the high resolving power. Some of the modified electrode arrays can provide the data having reasonably high S/N ratio and need not to install remote electrode(s), and thus, they may be suitable to the resistivity survey at the water-covered area.
Three-dimensional Imaging of Subsurface Structures by Resistivity Tomography
Yi Myeong-Jong ; Kim Jung-Ho ; Chung Seung-Hwan ; Suh Jung Hee ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 5, issue 4, 2002, Pages 236~249
We have extended the three-dimensional (3-D) resistivity imaging algorithm to cover the 3-D resistivity tomography problem, where resistivity data are acquired using electrodes installed in several boreholes as well as at the earth surface. The imaging algorithm consists of the 3-D finite element forward modeling and least-squares inversion scheme, where the ACB (Active Constraint Balancing) is adopted to enhance the resolving power of the inversion. Sensitivity analysis with numerical verifications shows that 3-D resistivity tomography is a very appealing method and can be used to get 3-D attitude of subsurface structures with very high-resolution. Moreover, we could accurately handle the topography effect, which could cause artifacts in the resistivity tomography. In the application of 3-D resistivity tomography to the real field data set acquired at the quarry mine, we could derive a very reasonable and accurate image of the subsurface.
The Crosshole Resistivity Method Using the Mixed Array
Cho In-Ky ; Han Sung-Hoon ; Kim Ki-Ju ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 5, issue 4, 2002, Pages 250~256
Resistivity tomography has become an important tool to image underground resistivity distribution. This method has been widely applied to site investigation for engineering and environmental purpose. In resistivity tomography, various electrode arrays can be used and each array has both merits and demerits. For example, the pole-pole array has high signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio), but its resolution is too low. The dipole-dipole array has low S/N ratio, but its resolution is very high. The Pole-dipole may has intermediate Snf ratio and resolution. The modified Pole-dipole array, recently proposed, shows reasonable S/N ratio and resolution, which are comparable to the pole-dipole array. These electrode arrays except the pole-pole array, however, have the problem that the apparent resistivity can diverge at some special electrode Positions. Also, the Pole-Pole array may not reflect the doe resistivity of an anomalous body. In this study, we propose a new electrode array, mixed array, where pole-dipole and modified pole-dipole ways are selectively used with the relative positions of current and potential electrodes. The mixed array has the same level of S/N ratio and resolution as the pole-dipole array and the apparent resistivity does not diverge in the receiver hole. Furthermore, the apparent resistivity using the array can reflect the true resistivity of the anomalous body.
Application of SP Survey and Numerical Modeling to the Leakage Problem of Irrigation facilities
Song Sung-Ho ; Kwon Byung-Doo ; Yang Jun-Mo ; Chung Seung-Hwan ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 5, issue 4, 2002, Pages 257~261
We have carried out integrated research including field survey and numerical modeling to appraise the applicability of SP method to the leakage problems of irrigation facilities. The leakage pattern of the dike studied here can be classified into the three categories: leakage through the abutment, leakage by piping through dike, and leakage due to the composite effects of landslide and distortion of the dike structure. for the numerical modeling to interpret quantitatively SP survey results acquired at dike, we have modified the computer code proposed by Sill (1983) to apply to the leakage problems. The numerical studies match the characteristic patterns of SP anomalies according to the leakage types and appear to be very useful to interpret the leakage zone and path. The SP monitoring results were also well coincided with tidal variations observed at every embankment so we found the SP method is quite effective not only to detect the leakage zone but also to determine the leakage trend. The numerical modeling results also reproduced the SP anomalies due to seawater leakage in the embankment.
A Bayesian Approach to Geophysical Inverse Problems
Oh Seokhoon ; Chung Seung-Hwan ; Kwon Byung-Doo ; Lee Heuisoon ; Jung Ho Jun ; Lee Duk Kee ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 5, issue 4, 2002, Pages 262~271
This study presents a practical procedure for the Bayesian inversion of geophysical data. We have applied geostatistical techniques for the acquisition of prior model information, then the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method was adopted to infer the characteristics of the marginal distributions of model parameters. For the Bayesian inversion of dipole-dipole array resistivity data, we have used the indicator kriging and simulation techniques to generate cumulative density functions from Schlumberger array resistivity data and well logging data, and obtained prior information by cokriging and simulations from covariogram models. The indicator approach makes it possible to incorporate non-parametric information into the probabilistic density function. We have also adopted the MCMC approach, based on Gibbs sampling, to examine the characteristics of a posteriori probability density function and the marginal distribution of each parameter.
Georadar System Using Network-Analyzer
Cho Seong-Jun ; Kim Jung-Ho ; Lee Seoung Kon ; Son Jeong-Sul ; Chung Seung-Hwan ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 5, issue 4, 2002, Pages 272~279
During field survey of ground penetrating radar or borehole radar, we often encounter some problems which could be solved easily by modifying structure of the system such as antenna length, shape or array. In addition, it is necessary that the user could easily modify configuration of the radar system na test various array of antennas in order to verify and confirm numerical modeling results concerning radar antennas. We have developed network-analyzer-based, stepped-frequency georadar system. This system had been comprised with coaxial cable to confirm possibility of the system, then we have upgraded the system to use optical cable that is composed of optical/electric transducers, electric/optical transducers, amp, pre-amp and antennas. The software for the aquisition of data has been developed to control the system automatically using PC with GPIB communication and to display the obtained data graphically. We have tested the system in field survey na the results have been compared with those of RAMAC/GPR system.
Three-Dimensional High-Frequency Electromagnetic Modeling Using Vector Finite Elements
Son Jeong-Sul ; Song Yoonho ; Chung Seung-Hwan ; Suh Jung Hee ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 5, issue 4, 2002, Pages 280~290
Three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic (EM) modeling algorithm has been developed using finite element method (FEM) to acquire more efficient interpretation techniques of EM data. When FEM based on nodal elements is applied to EM problem, spurious solutions, so called 'vector parasite', are occurred due to the discontinuity of normal electric fields and may lead the completely erroneous results. Among the methods curing the spurious problem, this study adopts vector element of which basis function has the amplitude and direction. To reduce computational cost and required core memory, complex bi-conjugate gradient (CBCG) method is applied to solving complex symmetric matrix of FEM and point Jacobi method is used to accelerate convergence rate. To verify the developed 3-D EM modeling algorithm, its electric and magnetic field for a layered-earth model are compared with those of layered-earth solution. As we expected, the vector based FEM developed in this study does not cause ny vector parasite problem, while conventional nodal based FEM causes lots of errors due to the discontinuity of field variables. For testing the applicability to high frequencies 100 MHz is used as an operating frequency for the layer structure. Modeled fields calculated from developed code are also well matched with the layered-earth ones for a model with dielectric anomaly as well as conductive anomaly. In a vertical electric dipole source case, however, the discontinuity of field variables causes the conventional nodal based FEM to include a lot of errors due to the vector parasite. Even for the case, the vector based FEM gave almost the same results as the layered-earth solution. The magnetic fields induced by a dielectric anomaly at high frequencies show unique behaviors different from those by a conductive anomaly. Since our 3-D EM modeling code can reflect the effect from a dielectric anomaly as well as a conductive anomaly, it may be a groundwork not only to apply high frequency EM method to the field survey but also to analyze the fold data obtained by high frequency EM method.
Two-dimensional Modeling and Inversion of MT Data Including Topography
Lee Seong Kon ; Song Yoonho ; Kim Jung-Ho ; Chung Seung-Hwan ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 5, issue 4, 2002, Pages 291~298
We have developed a two-dimensional (2-D) magnetotelluric (MT) inversion algorithm, which can include topographic effects in inversion. We use the finite element method (FEM) to incorporate topography into forward calculation. Topography is implemented simply by moving nodes of rectangular elements in z-direction according to the elevation of air-earth interface. In the inversion process, we adopt a spatially variable Lagrangian multiplier algorithm in the smoothness-constrained least-squares inversion. The inversion algorithm developed in this study reconstructs subsurface resistivity structure quite well when topography variation exists. Also, it turns out to be effective in both resolution and stability from a model study and field data application.
Sensitivity Analysis and Estimation of the Depth of Investigation in Small-Loop EM Surveys
Song Yoonho ; Chung Seung-Hwan ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 5, issue 4, 2002, Pages 299~308
We have derived an analytical expression for the sensitivity of the frequency domain small-loop electromagnetic (EM) surveys over a two-layer earth in order to estimate the depth of investigation with an instrument having the source-receiver separation of about 2 m. We analyzed the sensitivities to the lower layer normalized by those to the upper half-space and estimated the depth of investigation from the sensitivity analyses and the mutual impedance ratio. The computational results showed that the in-phase components of the sensitivity to the lower layer dominates those to the upper layer when the thickness of the upper layer is less than 20 m, while the quadrature components are not sensitive to the lower layer over the entire frequency range. Hence we confirmed that the accurate measurement of the in-phase component is essential to increase the depth of investigation in the multi-frequency small-loop EM survey. When conductive basement of 10 ohm-m underlies the upper layer of 100 ohm-m, an accurate measurement of the in-phase components ensures the depth of the investigation more than 10 m even accounting a noise effect, from which we conclude that the small-loop EM survey is quite effective in imaging the conductive plume down to a considerable depth. On the other hand, in the presence of the resistive basement of 1,000 ohm-m, the depth of investigation may not exceed 5 m considering the instrumental accuracy, which implies that the application of the small-loop EM survey is not recommended over the resistive environment other than detecting the buried conductor.
Detection of Buried Objects and Imaging of Subsurface Resistivity Structure using Loop-Loop EM Methods
Seol Soon Jee ; Song Yoonho ; Cho Seong-Jun ; Son Jeong-Sul ; Chung Seung-Hwan ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 5, issue 4, 2002, Pages 309~315
Conventional electromagnetic (EM) method using small loops as a source and receiver has been used in detection of conductive buried objects like a metal detector or in qualitative estimation of the subsurface conductivity variation. Recently, however, since detection of buried objects and imaging of the subsurface conductivity distribution in a relatively conductive area are in a high demand for environmental and engineering purposes, the quantitative interpretation technique of EM data is actively studied. In this regard, we introduce a brief principle of EM survey and show an example of the detection of buried conductive material and imaging of the subsurface conductivity distribution based on data measured at a test survey area. Through this study, we show that multi-frequency EM surveys using small loops may be a good solution to give quick and detail information of subsurface in a conductive survey area.
A Fast Inversion Method for Interpreting Single-Hole Electromagnetic Data
Kim, Hee-Joon ; Lee, Jung-Mo ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 5, issue 4, 2002, Pages 316~322
A computationally efficient inversion scheme has been developed using the extended Born or localized nonlinear approximation to analyze electromagnetic fields obtained in a single-hole environment. The medium is assumed to be cylindrically symmetric about the borehole, and to maintain the symmetry vertical magnetic dipole source is used throughout. The efficiency and robustness of an inversion scheme is very much dependent on the proper use of Lagrange multiplier, which is often provided manually to achieve desired convergence. In this study, an automatic Lagrange multiplier selection scheme has been developed to enhance the utility of the inversion scheme in handling field data. The inversion scheme has been tested using synthetic data to show its stability and effectiveness.