Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Earth and Exploration Geophysicists
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Nov 2006
Volume 9, Issue 3 - Aug 2006
Volume 9, Issue 2 - May 2006
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
High Resolution Cross-well Seismic Tomography for Description of Shear Zone in Inter-well Region
Lee, Doo-Sung ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 255~260
Measurements in two adjacent (about 1.5 m separation) boreholes reveal that there is a significant degree of variations in the width and property (permeability) of shear zones in the granitic rock. A high frequency (>10 kHz) cross-well seismic tomography was conducted to characterize the features of permeability distribution at the shear zones in the inter-well region. At the shear zones, the correlation between the permeability at the well location and the velocity pattern shown in the cross-well velocity tomogram suggests that a high resolution velocity tomogram may provide useful information for the shear zone characteristics, such as permeability, fracture density, width, and length.
Use of Audio-Band on the Interpretation of Magnetotelluric Data
Lee, Tae-Jong ; Lee, Seong-Kon ; Song, Yoon-Ho ; Uchida, Toshihiro ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 261~270
Two-dimensional (2-D) inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data for two survey lines having south-north direction from Jeju Island has been carried out. Broad band MT sounding curves with good quality could be gathered by performing audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) survey during the MT survey and by operating the remote reference in Kyushu Island, Japan. Comparison of the 2-D inversion model using MT band only and that using both AMT and MT bands for the field data as well as for the data from numerical 2-D modeling said that high frequency information from AMT survey can be useful for interpreting not only the shallow part but also the deep structures, especially when the formation is resistive. The 2-D inversion models of field data show a thick layer having around 10 ohm-m in the depth of a few hundred meters throughout the survey area, which can be considered as the unconsolidated sedimentary layer. And they also show a conductive anomaly at the central part of each survey lines. It can be either the effect of the surrounding sea water, or the structures due to ancient volcanic events. But unfortunately by now, we do not have any further information about the anomaly.
Application of Geophysical Methods to Cavity Detection at the Ground Subsidence Area in Karst
Kim, Chang-Ryol ; Kim, Jung-Ho ; Park, Sam-Gyu ; Park, Young-Soo ; Yi, Myeong-Jong ; Son, Jeong-Sul ; Rim, Heong-Rae ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 271~278
Investigations of underground cavities are required to provide useful information for the reinforcement design and monitoring of the ground subsidence areas. It is, therefore, necessary to develop integrated geophysical techniques incorporating different geophysical methods in order to accurately image and to map underground cavities in the ground subsidence areas. In this study, we conducted geophysical investigations for development of integrated geophysical techniques to detect underground cavities at the field test site in the ground subsidence area, located at Yongweol-ri, Muan-eup, Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do. We examined the applicability of geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, and microgravity to cavity detection with the aid of borehole survey results. The underground cavities are widely present within the limestone bedrock overlain by the alluvial deposits in the test site where the ground subsidences have occurred in the past. The limestone cavities are mostly filled with groundwater or clays saturated with water in the site. The cavities, thus, have low electrical resistivity and density compared to the surrounding host bedrock. The results of the study have shown that the zones of low resistivity and density correspond to the zones of the cavities identified in the boreholes at the site, and that the geophysical methods used are very effective to detect the underground cavities. Furthermore, we could map the distribution of cavities more precisely with the study results incorporated from the various geophysical methods. It is also important to notice that the microgravity method, which has rarely used in Korea, is a very promising tool to detect underground cavities.
Application of Borehole Radar to Tunnel Detection
Cho, Seong-Jun ; Kim, Jung-Ho ; Kim, Chang-Ryol ; Son, Jeong-Sul ; Sung, Nak-Hun ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 279~290
The borehole radar methods used to tunnel detection are mainly classified into borehole radar reflection, directional antenna, crosshole scanning, and radar tomography methods. In this study, we have investigated the feasibility and limitation of each method to tunnel detection through case studies. In the borehole radar reflection data, there were much more clear diffraction signals of the upper wings than lower wings of the hyperbolas reflected from the tunnel, and their upper and lower wings were spreaded out to more than 10m higher and lower traces from the peaks of the hyperbolas. As the ratio of borehole diameter to antenna length increases, the ringing gets stronger on the data due to the increase in the impedance mismatching between antennas and water in the boreholes. It is also found that the reflection signals from the tunnel could be enhanced using the optimal offset distance between transmitter and receiver antennas. Nevertheless, the borehole radar reflection data could not provide directional information of the reflectors in the subsurface. Direction finding antenna system had a advantage to take a three dimensional location of a tunnel with only one borehole survey even though the cost is still very high and it required very high expertise. The data from crosshole scanning could be a good indicator for tunnel detection and it could give more reliable result when the borehole radar reflection survey is carried out together. The images of the subsurface also can be reconstructed using travel time tomography which could provide the physical property of the medium and would be effective for imaging the underground structure such as tunnels. Based on the results described above, we suggest a cost-effective field procedure for detection of a tunnel using borehole radar techniques; borehole radar reflection survey using dipole antenna can firstly be applied to pick up anomalous regions within the borehole, and crosshole scanning or reflection survey using directional antenna can then be applied only to the anomalous regions to detect the tunnel.
Distortion of Resistivity Data Due to the 3D Geometry of Embankment Dams
Cho, In-Ky ; Kang, Hyung-Jae ; Kim, Ki-Ju ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 291~298
Resistivity method is a practical and effective geophysical technique to detect leakage zones in embankment dams. Generally, resistivity survey conducted along the crest assumes that the embankment dam has a 2D structure. However, the 3D topography of embankments distorts significantly resistivity data measured on anywhere of the dam. In this study, we analyse the influence from 3D effects created by specific dam geometry through the 3D finite element modeling technique. We compared 3D effects when resistivity surveys are carried out on the upstream slope, left edge of the crest, center of the crest, right edge of the crest and downstream slope. We ensure that 3D effect is greatly different according to the location of the survey line and data obtained on the downstream slope are most greatly influenced by 3D dam geometry. Also, resistivity data are more influenced by the electrical resistivity of materials constituting reservoir than 3D effects due to specific dam geometry. Furthermore, using resistivity data synthesized with 3D modeling program for an embankment dam model with leakage zone, we analyse the possibility of leakages detection from 2D resistivity surveys performed along the embankment dam.
Inversion of Small Loop EM Data by Main-Target Emphasizing Approach
Cho, In-Ky ; Kang, Mi-Kyung ; Kim, Ki-Ju ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 299~303
Geologic noise, especially located at shallow depth, can be a great obstacle in the interpretation of geophysical data. Thus, it is important to suppress geologic noise in order to accurately detect major anomalous bodies in the survey area. In the inversion of geophysical data, model parameters at shallow depth, which have small size and low contrast of physical property, can be regarded as one of geologic noise. The least-squares method with smoothness constraint has been widely used in the inversion of geophysical data. The method imposes a big penalty on the large model parameter, while a small penalty on the small model parameter. Therefore, it is not easy to suppress small anomalous boies. In this study, we developed a new inversion scheme which can effectively suppress geologic noise by imposing a big penalty on the slowly varying model parameter and a small penalty on the largely varying model parameter. We call the method MTE (main-target emphasizing) inversion. Applying the method to the inversion of 2.5D small loop EM data, we can ensure that it is effective in suppressing small anomalous boies and emphasizing major anomalous bodies in the survey area.
Measurement of GPR Direct Wave Velocity by f-k Analysis and Determination of Dielectric Property by Dispersive Guided Wave
Yi, Myeong-Jong ; Endres, Anthony L. ; Kim, Jung-Ho ;
Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration, volume 9, issue 4, 2006, Pages 304~315
We have examined the applicability of f-k analysis to the GPR direct wave measurement for water content to characterize vadose zone condition. When the vadose zone consists of a dry surface layer over wet substratum, we obtained f-k spectra where most of the energy is bounded by the air and dry soil velocities. In this case, dry soil velocity was successfully estimated by using high frequency data. On the other hands, when wet soil overlies dry substratum, the f-k spectra show a contrasting response where most of the energy travels with the velocity bounded by dry and wet soil velocities. In this case, the radar waves are trapped and guided within wet soil layer, exhibiting velocity dispersion. By adopting modal propagation theory, we could formulae a simple inversion code to find two layer's dielectric constants as well as layer thickness. By inverting the velocity dispersion curve obtained from f-k spectra of synthetic modeling data, we could obtain good estimates of dielectric constants of each layer as well as first layer thickness. Moreover, we could obtain more accurate results by including the higher mode data. We expect this method will be useful to get the quantitative property of real subsurface when the field condition is similar.