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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Microbiology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Microbiological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Dec 1986
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Sep 1986
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Jun 1986
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Mar 1986
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Ultrastructural Studies for Protoplasts and Protoplast Fusion in Streptomyces lavendulae
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 197~203
Morphology and ultrastructure of protoplast fusion mode in Streptomyces lavendulae were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The isolated protoplasts were stable in some degree in hypertonic solution except that several protoplasts showed irregular morphology. Fusion events were occurred as follows; contact zone, fusion zone and separation zone were appeared sequentially. After formation of the separation zone, cytoplasm and DNA from both parents were mixed eventually. In the contact zone, two menbranes were still separated by electron transparent space. The contact zone changed to fusion zone by formation of fusion membrane that phospholipid molecules of two membranes were rearranged. Thereafter, nonmembraneous separation zone was formed by disappearance of fusion membrane. These changes were characterized by successive changes in typical membrane structure in fusion areas and by a progressive loss of bispherical shape.
Aspergillus nidulans의 tRNA 유전자의 구조와 발현에 관한 연구 VI
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 204~210
One clone(pANt32) carring tRNA/sup Arg/ gene was selected from Aspergillus total tRNA gene clones. The nucleotide sequences of this tRNA gene were determined by Maxam and Gilbert's chemical cleavage methods. The sequence of this tRNA gene is as follow; 5'GGCCGGCTGCCCAATTGGCAAGGCGTCTGACTACGAATCAGGAGAT TGCAGGTTCGAGCCCTGCGTGGGTCA3'. This sequence conicides with the characteristecs of other eukaryotic tRNA. Some consensus sequences (ACT-TA bow, TATTTT and T-cluster) are found in both 5'-end and 3'-end flanking regions.
Intergeneric Transfer of Nitrogen Fixation Genes from Rhizobium leguminosarum by RP4::Mu cts
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 211~220
Nitrogen fixation (nif) genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum were transferred to nif Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli by conjugation after partial heat induction of
:: Mu cts in Rhizobium
transconjugant, and the hybrid plasmids in the transconjugant strains were isolated and characterized. In order to transfer the nif genes from Rhizobium, the hybrid plasmid
:: Mu cts was transferred by conjugation from E. coil to the symbiotic nitrogen fixer, R. leguminosarum. After stabillity test, the
:: Mu cts in Rhixobium
transconjugant was subjected to partial heat induction by culturing it statically at
for 16 hours, and then conjugated with the nif defective mutant strains of K. pneumoniae or nif mutant strains of E. coli having whole nif gene plasmid. Recombinant strains of K. pneumoniae, which could grow in a N-free medium and exhibit the nitrogenase activity were selected. However, in the case of E. coli, they could grow well in a NA medium containing antibiotices, but hardly frow in a N-free medium. The hybrid plasmids in these transconjugal strains were isolated by gel electrophoresis and compared their molecular sizes.
The Effects of uvsH Gene in Aspergillus nidulans on Mitotic Recombination Behabiour
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 221~227
The strain of Aspergillus nidulans carring a uvsH mutation which had been shown to be absolutely required for UV or 4-NQO induced mutagenic processes was studied on mitotic recombinational behaviour. Although the effect of uvsH locus on spontaneous mitotic crossing over between fpB37 and centromere was not considerable, UV-induced intergenic recombination did not occur in uvsH/uvsH homozygotic diploid. In case of gene conversion at riboflavin locus between a pair of non-complementary alleles, riboA1 and riboA3, the uvsH mutation was not concerned with that process occurred spontaneously or induced by UV irradiation. When the cells were irradiated by UV light, high degrees of aneuploid productions were detected in diploid homozygous for uvsH as compared with wild type, while much difference was not found during normal growth.
Spheroplast Formatation and Regeneration of Zymomonas mobilis
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 228~235
The aims of the present studies were to develop conditions for the spheroplast formation of Zymomonas mobilis and regeneration of the spheroplasts to normal cells in synthetic media. Z. mobilis cells harvested from exponential growth phase were treated with lysozyme, mutanolysin, and glycine in various conditions. It was found that spheroplasts were formed only with the treatment of glycine but not with the enzymes treatments. It was therefore considered that the tetrapeptide strand of peptide strand of peptidoglycan might play more important roles than the glycan strand in maintaining the vital mechanical function of Z. mobilis. It was found also that removal of outher membrane was the major problem in protoplast formation of Z.mobilis. As results, It was observed that over 85% of cells were readly converted to spheroplasts with sole glycine treatment for 4 hr and 7-10% of the spheroplasts were regenerated to normal cells in synthetic media.
Analysis on the nucleotide sequence of the signal region of bacillus subitilis extracellular cellulase gene
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 236~242
The nucleotide sequence of the genetic control site of Bacillus subtilis gene for
endoglucanase (cellulase) was determined according to the procedures of the dideoxy chain termination method(Sanger et. al., 1977). The deduced amino acid sequence of this enzyme has a hydrophobic signal peptide at the
terminus similar to those found in fifteen other extracellualr enzymes from Bacillus species. This is followed by a sequence resembling the Bacillus ribosome binding site 14 nucleotide before the first codon of the gene. The presumptive promoter sequence was located 92 base pairs upstream fromthe initiation codon. The homology region in signal sequences was striking when comparing all the signal sequences of sixteen extracellular enzymes from Bacillus species so far compiled.
Protoplast fusion of Candia Pseudotropicalis: The conditions for protoplast formation, regeneration and fusion
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 243~250
Protoplast formation and regeneration from wild-type and auxotrophic mutants of Candida pseudotropicalis CBS 607 as well as fusion between complementary mutants were carried out. Frequencies of protoplast formation from wild-type and histidine or adenine requiring mutants ranged from 96 to 100% whereas those from methionine or tryptophan auxotrophs were 52 and 72%, respectively. When bovine serum albumin(4mg/ml, BSA) was added to protoplasting buffer for cells of methionine or tryptophan auxotrophs grown in a medium supplemented with myoinositol(0.5mg/ml), 96-99 % of cells were converted to protoplasts. Protoplasts were regenerated at the frequencies ranging from 18 to 20%. However, the addition of BSA to protoplasting buffer and the supplement of myoinositol to a medium of cell growth doubled the regeneration rate except adenine auxotroph in which such an improvement was not observed. It was found that optimal concentrations of polyethylene glycol and
are 20% and 100mM while optimal pH and exposure time are 6.0 and 30min. The fusion frequencies between complementary mutants ranged from
and were enhanced by the improvement in the rate of protoplast regeneration. When histidine auxotroph was fused with tryptophan mutant, several fusion products were obtained which were found to be in the state of aneuploid or diploid, judging from DNA content and the presence of a large nucleus in the products.
Purification and Characterization of High-Molecular-Weight
-Glucosidase from Trichoderma koningii
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 251~262
(EC 220.127.116.11) was purified from the culture filtrate of Trichoderma koningii through a four-step procedure including chromatography on Bio-Gel P-150, DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and SP-Sephadex C-50; and chromatofocusing on Polybuffer exchanger PBE 94. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined to be about 101,000 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses, and the isoelectric point was estimated to be 4.96 by analytical isoelectric focusing. The temperature optimum for activity was about
, and the pH optimumwas 3.5. The enzyme was considerably thermostable, for no loss of activity was observed when the enzyme was preincubated at
for 5h. Km values for cellobiose, gentiobiose, sophorose, salicin and
were 99.2, 14.7, 7.09, 3.15 and 0.70 mM, respectively, which indicates that the enzyme has much higher affinity towards
than towards the other substrates, especially cellobiose. Substrate inhibition by
and salicin was observed at the conecntrations exceeding 5mM. Gluconolactone was a powerful inhibitor against the action of the enzyme on
, wherease glucose was much less effective (
1.95 mM). Inhibition was of the competitive type in each case. Transglucosylation activity was detected shen the readtion products formed from
by the enzyme were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography.
Active role of oxygen on penicillin sensitivity and fromation of membrane protein in escherichia coli K12
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 263~269
Membrane proteins of facultatively anaerobic Escherichia coli K12 which was logarithmically grown in aerobiosis and anaerobiosis were compared on 5 to 10% liner gradient gel electrophoresis (Na Dod
). Membrane proteins were formed as different patterns between aerobiosis and anaerobiosis. Among them, 91Kdal protein (pbp1a) was not synthesized in aerobiosis and 60Kdal protein (fts cluster), in anaerobiosis. Thereby cells cultured aerobically were differenciated as diversiform cell shape, comparing cells cultured anaerobically and the latter were resistant to penicillin G. Thus it is believed that in facultative anaerobes atmospheric oxygen regulated the synthesis of membrane proteins and even the expression of equivalent genes, and moreover alleviated the resistance to an antibiotic penicillin.
Enzymological Localization of Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases in Pseudomonas carboxydovorans and Acinetobacter sp.1
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 270~275
The localization of carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CO-DHs) in Pseudomonas carvoxydovorans and Acinetobacter sp.1 was examined by comparison of the distribution of CO-oxidizing activity between soluble and particulate fractions obtained after disruption of CO-grown cells by sonic oscillation and of spheroplasts by osmotic shock. When the cells were broken by sonic oscillation, most of the CO-DH activity was recovered from soluble fractions. However, disryption by osmotic lysis of spheroplasts revealed that the enzyme activity is present in the cell membrane. The results indicated the CO-DHs in these cells are loosely attached to the cytoplasmic membrane.
Effect of Rifampicin on the Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acid in Chloroplast isolated from Chlorella ellipsoidea
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 276~287
Chlorella ellipsoidea were cultured in the media containing rifampicin for 7 days. Aliquot cells were taken out after the inoculation and at intervals during cultivation and growth rate of Chlorella cells was measured. In order to investigate the effect of rifampicin on the nucleic acid synthesis, nucleic acid and RNA polymerase were extracted from chloroplast isolated from these cells, and the contents of nucleic acid and activity of enzyme were measured to compared with those of the control. The inhibitory concentration of rifampicin on growth was 80 ppm. The DNA contents in chloroplasts isolated were decreased 60% to compared with control, whole cells were markedly decreased 70% by rifampicin. The contents of base in the RNA were decreased 46% by rifampicin in shole cell, and 77% of base contents were decreased in chloroplast. Rifampicin also inhibited the activity of RNA polymerase, therefore whole cell was decreased 10% of activity and chloroplasts were decreased 42% of activity.
Effects of Ginseng Saponin and Its Related Materials on Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL2999 in semi-Synthetic Media
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 288~294
The effects of ginseng saponin and its related materials on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL2999 in yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium were studied. Maximal production of aflatoxins by the mold in the medium occurred after 9 days at
. When various concentrations of ginseng saponin were added to the medium aflatoxin productions were significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared to the control after 9 days at
. 0.05% of saponin in the medium greatly decreased aflatoxin synthesis, and no aflatoxins were synthesized by the mold in the medium contained 5.0% of saponin. When various concentrations of saponin diol and triol were added to the medium both ingibitory and sitimulatory effects on alfatoxin production were resulted. Saponin fraction numbers of 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 decreased aflatoxin production, however the numbers of 3 and 7 stimulated the toxin production. 0.05% of adenosine, guanosine, caffeine and xanthosine in the media inhibited aflatoxin production (p<0.05), but adenine and cytosine increased the production. When 5.0% of saponin was added to the medium aflatoxins were not synthesized at all, but total lipid synthesis and mold growth were highly stimulated. Both the synthesis of total lipid and mold growth were reduced in case of aflatoxin synthesis stimulated.
Isolation of .betha.-1, 3-glucanase producing strain and cultural conditions of its enzyme production
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 295~301
The bacteria, which were capable of producing
, 3-glucanase inducibly by utilizing cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus as a sole carbon source, were isolated from soil in the campus of Kyungpook National University. Among them, the strain which produced the enzyme excellently was selected and identified to be Pseudomonas stutzeri KF 13 by morphological, cultural and physiological examination. The optimal conditions for the enzyme production from Pseudomonas stutzeri KF 13 were investigated. the enzyme production was reached maximum state shen the broth cultured for 72hr at
. And the enzyme showed the highest activity in the medium containing 3.5% cell wall as an inducer, 15% yeast autolysate as a nitrogen source and 0.05%
at pH 7.5.
Properties of Cephalosporinase Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 302~307
In order to investigate the properties of cephalospornase, a strong antibiotic resistant strain(H 112) was isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginose. The extracted enzyme had the following characteristics. Optimum temperature was 45.deg.C and unstable over
, and optimum pH was 8.5. Cephalosporinase activity was not inhibited by metal ions such as
, and EDTA. But it was inhibited by some antibiotics such as carbenicillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, cefamandole, cefoperazone and SDS. The Vmax values of the enzyme were 100 at cephaloridine and 2.8 at cefoperazone, respectively. The molecular weight of cephalosporinase was estimated to be about
by high performance liquid chromatography and nitrocefin reaction.
Distribution of heterotrophic bacteria and physico-chemical characteristics of sediments in Kum river estuary
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 308~316
Vertical distribution of heterotrophic bacteria and physico-chemical characteristics were measuted in Kum River estuarine sediments. And interrelationship between heterotrophic bacterka and environmental factors was also studied. The type of sediment of Site 1 was silty clay, and sand at Site 2. Annual pH ranges were between 7.1 and 7.7 in the clay type sediment (Site 1) and 6.9-7.2 in the sand type sediment (Site 2). It was shown that organic matter contents were higher in the clay type sediment than those of sand type sediment. Redox potential values of sediments were decreased rapidly with depth at Site 1, but those of Sete 2 showed vertical fluctuation. Nitrogens(ammonia+amino acid-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N) and phosphate in the clay type sediment showed higher values than those of sand type sediment. Annual distribution of heterotrophic bacteria were ranged
cells/g dry wt.
cells/g dry wt. In the clay type sediment and
cells/g dry wt.
cells/g dry wt. in the sand type sediment. Distribution of proteolytic, lipolytic, and amylolytic bacteria were decreased with the depth and the highest density was found in April and the lowest in January. Bacterial populations in sediments were closely correlated with such environmental factors as pH, redox potential, moisture content, organic matter contents, and inorganic nutrients such as nitrite-N and phosphate-P.
Degradation of chlorinated herbicides by klebsiella pneumoniae from rhizosphere of rice
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 317~322
It was observed that the strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from rhizosphere of rice, capable of utilizing chlorivated hervicides, such as 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetate, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetate and 3-chlorobenzoate, as sole source of carbon and energy and confirmed that their degrading ability of the herbicides was due to plasmid genes. Characteristics of selected strains such as nitrogenase activity, resistances to antibiotics and heavy metal ion were measured.
Effect of several carbohydrates on lignin degradation by pleurotus ostreatus
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 323~328
To clarify the effects of several carbohydrates on the biodegradation of lignin by Pleurotus ostreatus. The strain was cultured on the media formulated with lignin and carbohydrates such as cellulose, xylan, collobiose, glucose and xylose, which was added individually. The culture mixtures grown 36 days were filtered and then estimated the degree of lignin biodegradation. It was found that the growth of P. ostreatus was stimulated and the depoly-merization was also increased by the addition of carbohydrates. When the carbohydrates were not added, polymerization was apparent in stead of depolymerization. In the case of glucose as an added carbohydrate, the content of lignin by the nitrosolignin method was greatly (about 7.4 times) decreased than control which contains lignin as a carbon source. The peak of lignin at 280nm in UV spectra was decreased about 27% after 27 days of culture. As results, it was assumed that lignin biodegradation was correlated to the carbohydrates and especially glucose was very significant role in lignin degradation.
Microbial Degradation of Polyethylene Glycol
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 24, issue 3, 1986, Pages 329~334
The bacteria capable of utilizing polyethylene glycol(PEG) 6,000 as a sole carbon source were isolated from soil and sewage water connected to factory area. The isolate designated as EL-033 had high biodegradability on PEG 6,000, and was identified as Micrococcus sp. Micrococcus sp. EL-033 could grow on and degrade di-, tri-, tetraethylene glycols and PEGs with molecular weight up to 6,000 and very slowly stilize PEG 20,000 as sole carbon source, but not degrade ethylene glycol. The growth rate of isolate was increased in the higher molecular weight PEGs. The optical culture medium was established to be as follow: PEG 6,000, 0.2%(w/v);
, 0.05%; polypeptone, 0.1% in distilled water, pH7.5. About 90% of PEG 6,000 was degraded in exponential phase of 48h culture and PEG 6,000 was completely degraded during 72h.