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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Microbiology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Microbiological Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Dec 1990
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Sep 1990
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jun 1990
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Mar 1990
Selecting the target year
Expression of recombinant plasmids harboring glucoamylase gene STA in saccharomyces cerevisiae
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 181~187
STA gene coding glucoamylase was introduced into haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae SHY3 and polyploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae 54. We constructed the recombinant plasmid by substituting the promoter region of alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme I gene for that of STA gene to increase the expression of STA gene and found that the activity of glucoamylase was increased in transformants. The plasmid stability was improved remarkably when we got the STA gene into the plasmid which had centromere. The activity of glucoamylase and transformation frequency of it, however, was decreased because of low copy number. Industrial polyploid strain was transformed with the recombinant plasmid having the
origin of replication and STA gene. It produced more alcohol than host when fermented in liquefied starch media. The industrial strain, however, was not transformed with the autonomously replicating plasmid containing centromere.
Factors affecting transfer frequency of pAM
from streptococcus faecalis to lactobacillus casei
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 188~191
The streptococcal plasmid pAM
(erythromycin resistance)was transferred via conjugation from Streptococcus faecalis DS 5 to Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018 by a filter mating method. The transfer frequency depended greatly on the type, pore size and side(front or back) of membrane filter. Water passing through a membrane under reduced pressure induced very tight contact between the cells, increased the transconjugation frequency about 1.3 to 37-fold when Millipore membrane filter (0.45.
m, front side up) was used.
Function of muc Gene on Mutagenesis and DNA Repair
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 192~198
To determine whether the muc region of pKM101 and its mutant pSL4 is sufficient for the expression of these phenotypes, muc regions of pKM101 and pSL4 were subcloned onto the highcopy number vector pKB354 and were selected the cloned pJB200 and pJB210. The recombinant plasmids pJB200 and pJB210 were introduced into umu
(TK610) strain and determined the protection effect and mutagenecity for UV and MMS. The protection effect and mutagenecity of umu
(TK610) were supressed by muc gene of the recombinant plasmids. The muc gene of pSL4 has higher effect than that of pKM101. The recombiant plasmid pJB210(inclued muc gene of pKM101) did not affect uv-mutagenesis in the
Distribution of Heterotrophic Bacterial Flora in Soil on the King George Island (Antarctica) and Their Enzyme Activities
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 199~203
To study distribution of bacterial flora and their biochemical characteristics in the Antarctic soilecosystem, these experiments were performed during the austral summer(Feb., 1989) on the King George Island, Antarctica. The numbers of heterotrophic bacterial colonies and extracellular enzyme actibities were estimated from the Antarctic terrestrial soils which were sampled from 17 different locations near Sejong station (Korea) and Teniente Jubany station (Argentina) on the King George Island. The numbers of heterotrophic bacterial colonies were extremely variable with sampling sites and incubation temperatures. Arithmetric average numbers were
soil at the incubation temperature of
, respectively. The activities of extracellular
-glucosidase and N-acetyl-
-glucosaminidase were shown as similar mean percentage in the colonies obtained at different temperatures. Mean value of protease activities, however, was remarkably higher (92%) in the colonies grown at
Heterotrophic Bacterial Community and Alkaline Phosphatase Releasing Bacteria in Lake Soyang
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 204~209
The total and heterotrophic bacterial distributions, compositions and alkaline phosphatese actibities were analyzed in Lake Soyang from Sep. 1987 to Aug. 1988. The heterotrophic bacteria was small portion, 0.07-2.63% of total bacterial number which ranged from
. The composition of bacterial community was less diverse in summer and at the fish farm site and Peridinium blooming site. Pseudomonas and Flavo bacterium were the dominant genera in all sites. The highest proportion and activity of alkaline phsophatase was appeared in Flavobacterium, while Pseudomonas was the most predominant group.
Transformation is Mechanism of Gene Transfer in Soil
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 210~218
The survival and transfer of chromosomal genes coding for the synthesis of amino acids (threonine, tryptophan, histidine, leucine, methionine) and of plasmid-borne genes coding for resistance to antibiotics (chloramphenicol, kanamycin, erythromycin) by transformation in sterile and nonsterile soil (the soil was amended to 12% vol/vol with the clay mineral, montmorillonite) was studied. In pure culture, the numbers of vegetative cells of the Bacillus subtilis strains decreased by 1 to 1.5 orders of magnitude within one week, but spores of each strain showed lesser decreases. In sterile soil, the populations of vegetative cells and spores decreased by 1.5 to 3 orders of magnitude within 2 to 4 days and then showed little additional decreased. The transformation frequencies (number of transformants/numbers of donors and recipients) of individual amino acid-genes invitro ranged from
, of two amino acid-genes from
, and of the antibiotic-resistance genes from
. In sterile soil, the frequencies of transfer of individual amino acid-genes ranged from
and of the antibiotic-resistance genes from
. The transfer of two amino acid-genes in sterile soil was detected at a frequency of
, but only in three instances. The transformation frequencies of antibiotic-resistance genes in nonsterile soil were essentially similar to those in sterile soil. However, to detect transformants in nonsterile soil, higher concentrations of antibiotics were needed, as the result of the large numbers of indigenous soil bacteria resistant to the concentration of antibiotics used in the sterile soil and in vitro studies. The results of these studies show that genes can be transferred by transformation in soil and that this mechanism of transfer must be considered in risk assessment of the release of genetically engineered microorganisms to the environment.
Conjugal transfer and fate of the genetically engineered
gene in freshwater environments
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 219~228
A kanamycin resistance(
) gene was studied for its transfer in natural freshwater environments by using the natural bacterial isolate(M1) of DK1 and the DKC601 strain,
plasmid of which was genetically engineered from the NI strain. The transfer frequency ofthe
gene and rearrangement of the
plasmid were compared between the gnetically engineered microorganism(GEM) and the NI parental strain by conjugation with the same recipient strain. The transfer frequency of the
gene was about
in both the GEM and NI strains at 5 to
, but the frequency of the NI was about 10 times higher than that of the GEM at 20 to
plasmid in the transconjugants obtained by conjugation of the NI with the MY1 strain as a ricipient showed alot of rearrangement, but the
plasmid transferred from the GEM was stable without alteration of its size. When the MT2 strain was used as a recipient, however, such a rearrangement of the
plamid was observed in the transconjugants obtained from the GEM as well as the NI strain. In those transconjugants obtained from different mating pairs and water environments, the plasmid were appeared to decrease in their number as the period of conjugation time was prolonged, but only the
plasmid transferred from the GEM kept having its size of 52kb. Therefore, the
gene was transferred at the same rate from the GEM and NI strains in natural freshwater environment, but the gene of the GEM strain was more stable than the NIduring conjugation and the
plasmid was rearranged by changing the recipient strain for conjugation in any water environments.
Microbial Extracellular Enzyme Detection on Agar Plates by Means of Fluorogenic Methylumbelliferyl-Substrates
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 229~235
A rapid and sensitive method to detect the extracellular enzymatic activity of bacteria colonies grown on agar plates is described. Selective agar media supplemented with protein, starch, chitin, Tween-80, etc. are conventionally used to detect biochemical properties of bacteria. It has been experimentally demonstrated with bacteria pure cultures that fluorogenic Methylumbelliferyl (MUF)-substrates are excellent substrate analogues for normally occurring polymers. Based on MUF-substrate hydrolysis the new method provides reliable qualitative estimates of extracellular enzymatic properties of bacteria within minutes using pure cultures as well as agar p;ates prepared for colony counts. Extracellular enzyme activities of heterotrophic bacteria from freshwater ecosystems and marine sediment using this method are discussed.
Development of Versatile Strains of Pseudomonas Degrading Various Persistent Aromatic Hydrocarbons
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 236~242
To develop the new strains of microorganisms having the degradative ability for various aromatic hydrocarbons, the hybrid plasmid pKG2 having the 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D) degradative genes, the hybrid plasmid pKG3 containg the naphthalene degradative genes and TOL plasmid were introduced into Pseudomonas putida KUD 12 and P. putida KUP 10 by transformation or conjugation which originally have the degradative ability of the synthetic surfactants and phthalate esters, respectively. From P. putida KUD12, the new strains of P. putida KUD101(pKG2), KUD102(pKG3), KUD103(TOL), and KUD202(pKG3, TOL) were obtained, and KUD106(pKG2), KUD107(pKG3), KUD108(TOL) were originated from the P.putida KUP10. The degradative abilities in P. putida KUD101, KUD102 and KUD107 were similar with those of the original strains. The P. putida KUD103, KUD106 and KUD202 had a little lower and P. putida KUD108 had a better degradative abilitie than those of the original ones. In the case of mixed cultures, the mixed culture of KUD107 and KUD108 had a better degradative abilities than those of the other mixed cultures.
Application of the genetically engineered strains of pseudomonas degrading various persistent aromatic hydrocarbons to wastewater
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 243~248
Genetically engineered strains of Pseudomonas, which could degrade the various aromatic hydrocarbons, were acclimated to the synthetic wastewater with increasing substrate concentration. All of the tested strains except KUD101 showed 70-90% of the COD removal efficiencies. Acclimated strains, Pseudomonas putida KUD106, KUD107 and KUD108 were inoculated into the ordinary activated sludge and these sludges were used in the dyeing or alkylbenzene wastewater treatment system. In the case of the wastewater containing alkylbenzene compounds, COD removal efficiency was 12-14% higher than that of the ordinary activated sludge, while it was not effective for dyeing wastewater. On the other hand, the floc formation of the activated sludge inoculated with genetically engineered strains was more rapid in both wastewaters tested than that of the activated sludge by the ordinary natural strains.
Physio-biochemical changes correlated with cadmium adaptation and detoxification mechanism in klebsiella aerogenes
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 249~257
In the course of operating the accommodative and detoxifying mechanism against cadmium, its physio-biochemical changes were observed in Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 10031. Changes of enzyme activity concerned phosphate metabolism, changes of phospholipid composition and in view of energy metabolism the changes of the nucleotide pool were examined. Activities of both alkaline and acid phosphatase were derepressed 4-10 folds under cadmium added cultures. Moreover, production of phospholipid such as lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC), phosphatidyl serine (PS) and phosphatidyl ethanolamone (PE) was increased and uridylate nucleotide pool was increased under Cd-surplus culture. These results i.e. overproduction of phosphatase catalyzing phosphate residue, increase of the production of PE and PS which have a close affinity with cadmium, and indrease of uridylate nucleotide pool used as a carrier of polysaccharide synthesis like bacterial capsule exhibited cellular responses for active defence against Cd-pressure. It was postulated that these phenomena should play another assistant roles in Cd-detoxifing mechanism.
Purification and characteristics of cadmium-binding protein from hansenula anomala
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 258~263
A cadmium-binding protein was purified the cell-free extract of extreme cadmium tolerant Hansenula anomala B-7. The molecular weight was determined to be approximately 33, 000 and was composed two kinds of subunits having a molecular weight of 18, 000 and 14, 000, respectively. The extinction coefficient of the cadmium-binding protein was calculated to be 19.58. The amount of cadmium in the cadmium-binding protein was
of protein. A total of 14 amino acids were detected in the cadmium-binding protein, including aspartic acid, glycine and alanine that were present in a high quantity, but proline, valine and methionine were not found. The purified cadmium-binding protein contained a high quantity of cysteine and cadmium, and therefore this protein showed clearly the characteristics of metallothionein.
The fermentation kinetics of protease inhibitor production by streptomyces fradiae
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 264~267
The objectives of the current studies were to establish the optimal conditions for the production of extracellular protease inhibitor in a strain of Streptomyces fradiae. As results, it was found that cell specific growth rate was very critical for the production of protease inhibitor and the optimum specific growth rate was found to be 0.05 h
. Dissolved oxygen tension and pH were also important to regulate the inhibitor production. The inhibitory mode of the purified inhibitor to .alpha.-chymotrypsin was found to be competitive (K
M). One mole of inhibitor could bind two moles of .alpha.-chymotrypsin and the complex has very low dissociation constant.t.
Effects of Acidic Fermentation Products and Culture pH on the Maintenance Energy of Clostridium acetobutylicum
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 268~273
In order to elucidate the acid tolerance mechanism of Clostridium acetobutylicum against organic acid, the maintenance energy with added butyrate at different pH was determined. Maintenance coeffecient in acidogenic chemostat was higher at pH 6.5 than at pH 5.5 showing that this organism is an acidophile. The addition of butyrate at pH 5.5 and different dilution rate caused linear decrease of the cell concentration though
did not decrease with increasing undissociated organic acid.
decreased by increasing the concentration of undissociated organic acid at pH 5.0 by the addition of butyrate. From these results it is hypothesized that the ATP conaumption for pH stat of acidophile C. acetobutylicum is increased at the circumstance with over 30mM of undissociated organic acid.cid.
Localization of phenoloxidases in coprinus congregatus grown on a low-temperature-liquifying medium
;Ross, Ian K.;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 274~277
The hyphal tip phenoloxidases of Coprinus congregatus were localized by the protoplast-concanavalin A method. Protoplast were generated from cultures grown on a solid medium which was solidified with a new gelling agent, Pluronid Polyol F127, instead of agar. the enzymes were associated with the cell membrane which might work as a transducer in the light recepter complex.
Diffusion of Progesterone in Polyacrylamide Gel
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 28, issue 3, 1990, Pages 278~282
Diffusion and partition of progesterone into the polyacrylamide gel was examined. Diffusion coefficient of progesterone decreased down to an asymptotic value as the concentration of the organic solvents in the diffusing medium increased. However the partition coefficient diminished steadily. Crosslinking density in the gel didn't affected the diffusion coefficient considerably but lowered the partition coefficient due to the contraction of pore volume of the gel. Progesterone showed higher diffusion coefficient as well as partition coefficient in the polyurethane than in the polyacrylamide gel, which seems to be ascribed to the difference in hydrophobicity, pore volume and pore size of the polymer matrix.