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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Microbiology
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Journal DOI :
The Microbiological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
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Current Status on Molecular Genetic Study and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Virulence Related Genes in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae
Kang, Hee-Wan ; Park, Young-Jin ; Lee, Byeong-Moo ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~9
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of bacterial blight on rice. In this paper, current status on molecular genetic study of major virulence genes, hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp), productions of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), extracellular enzymes and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), avr genes were reviewed. The IS elements with 611 copies including 133 ORF IS were inserted in various regions of the Xoo genome and in expecially regions franking virulence genes. Whole genome sequence of X. oryzae pv. oryzae KACC10331 were used for defining genetic organization of the virulence genes. Futhermore, the virulence genes in Xoo genome were compared to those of other Xanthomonas species in Blast GenBank data base.
Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals by Laccase Transformant of Phlebia tremellosa
Yeo, Su-Min ; Kim, Myung-Kil ; Choi, Hyoung T. ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 1, 2008, Pages 10~13
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are hard to be degraded in nature, and are also accumulated in diverse organisms. They finally give negative effects to human through the food web. White rot fungi which have lignin-degrading enzymes have high potentials for degradation of recalcitrant compounds, and a white rot fungus, Phlebia tremellosa, isolated in Korea show good degrading activity against the endocrine disrupting phthalates. We have isolated a laccase cDNA which was involved in the degradation of EDCs, and constructed a laccase expression vector to use in the genetic transformation of P. tremellosa. The expression vector was stably integrated into the chromosomal DNAs and showed increased laccase activity in transformants. One of transformants showed not only increased degradation of several EDCs but also faster estrogenic decreasing activities generated by the EDCs.
Real-Time PCR for Quantitative Detection of Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1
Lee, Dong-Hyuck ; Jeong, Hyo-Sun ; Lee, Jung-Hee ; Kim, Tae-Eun ; Lee, Jung-Suk ; Kim, In-Seop ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 1, 2008, Pages 14~21
Bovine blood, cell, tissue, and organ are used as raw materials for manufacturing biopharmaceuticals, tissue engineered products, and cell therapy. Manufacturing processes for the biologicals using bovine materials have the risk of viral contamination. Therefore viral validation is, essential in ensuring the safety of the products. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) is the most common bovine pathogen found in bovine blood, cell, tissue, and organ. In order to establish the validation system for the BHV-1 safety of the products, a real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative detection of BHV-1 in raw materials, manufacturing processes, and final products as well as BHV-1 clearance validation. Specific primers for amplification of BHV-1 DNA was selected, and BHV-1 DNA was quantified by use of SYBR Green I. The sensitivity of the assay was calculated to be
. The real-time PCR method was validated to be reproducible and very specific to BHV-1. The established real-time PCR assay was successfully applied to the validation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell artificially infected with BHV-1. BHV-1 DNA could be quantified in CHO cell as well as culture supernatant. Also the real-time PCR assay could detect
of BHV-1 artificially contaminated in bovine collagen. The overall results indicated that this rapid, specific, sensitive, and robust assay can be reliably used for quantitative detection of BHV-1 contamination during the manufacture of biologics.
Biodegradation of Cutting Oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa KS47
Kim, Lan-Hee ; Lee, Sang-Seob ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 1, 2008, Pages 22~28
Cutting oils are emulsionable fluids widely used in metal working processes. Their composition is mineral oil, water, and additives (fatty acids, surfactants, biocides, etc.) generating a toxic waste after a long use. Cutting oils also affect colour, taste and odour of water, making it undesirable for domestic and industrial uses. In these days, conventional treatment methods as evaporation, membrane separation or chemical separation have major disadvantages since they generate a concentrated stream that is more harmful than the original waste. In this study, our purpose is to reduce cutting oils by using biological treatment. Eighty one strains were isolated from cutting waste oil of industrial waste water sludge under aerobic conditions. Among these strains, KS47, which removed 90.4% cutting oil in 48 hr, was obtained by screening test under aerobic conditions(pH 7,
). KS47 was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa according to morphological, physiological and biochemical properties, 16S rDNA sequence, and fatty acid analysis. P. aeruginosa KS47 could utilize cutting oil as carbon source. In batch test, we obtained optimal degradation conditions(1.5 g/L cell concentration, pH 7, and temperature
). Under the optimal conditions, 1,060 mg/L cutting oil was removed 83.7% (74.1 mg/L/hr).
Community Analysis of Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria in Lab-Scale Wastewater Treatment System
Jeong, Soon-Jae ; Lee, Sang-Ill ; Lee, Dong-Hun ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 1, 2008, Pages 29~36
Nitrogen is one of the major pollutants that should be removed by wastewater treatment systems. Biological nitrogen removal (BNR) is a key technology in advanced wastewater treatment systems operated by bacterial populations. Nitrification is the first step of microbiological processes in BNR system. Ammonia is oxidized to nitrite by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and then nitrite is subsequently oxidized to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). The diversity of NOB in nitrification reactors of 3 BNR systems, Edited biological aerated filter system, Nutrient removal laboratory system, and the Rumination type sequencing batch reactor system, was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Cluster analysis of T-RF profiles showed that communities of Nitrobacter group in each system were different depending upon the process of systems. However, the clusters of Nitrospira group were divided by the habitat of aqueous and solid samples.
Optimization of Bisphenol A Biodegradation by Trametes versicolor
Kang, Ae-Ri ; Choi, Hyoung-Tae ; Song, Hong-Gyu ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 1, 2008, Pages 37~42
Optimal conditions for the biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) were examined for the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor isolated in Korea. T. versicolor degraded 100% of 50 mg/L bisphenol A during 12 hr in yeast extract-malt extract-glucose (YMG) medium. When BPA was added to the 5-day preincubated fungal culture in YMG medium, all BPA was removed in 2 hr. T. versicolor could efficiently degrade BPA at
, pH 6 in YMG medium. T. versicolor could more easily remove BPA of
than that of higher concentrations (
) in YMG medium. T. versicolor degraded 100% of 50 mg/L BPA for 36 h in a minimal medium, which is lower degradation rate than that in YMG medium. Optimal conditions for BPA biodegradation in the minimal medium were similar to those in YMG medium. When BPA (50 mg/L) was added into domestic wastewater, it could be completely removed by T. versicolor. During the biodegradation of BPA by T. versicolor in YMG medium, its estrogenic activity decreased.
Production of Standard Sample for Quality Control of Total Coliform
Kim, Ju-Young ; Seo, Eun-Young ; Kim, Mi-Ree ; Jeon, Nam-Hui ; Chung, Hyen-Mi ; Kim, Myeong-Woon ; Ahn, Tea-Seok ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 1, 2008, Pages 43~48
Standard sample for quality control of total coliform measurement was procured by addition of nalidixic acid and cephalexin as bacteriostatic agents to Escherichia coli cultured broth. After making the standard sample, the number of E. coli was measured by fluorescence microscopic count method and plate count method by 12 hr interval. The numbers of E. coli remained unchanged for at least for 48 hr at room temperature which ranged from 3.5 to
and from 1.0 to
by direct fluorescence microscopic count method and plate count method, respectively. This result suggests that microbial standard sample with bacteriostatic agents of nalidixic acid and cephalexin is usable for quantitative quality control.
Quantification of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Seawaters Using Real-Time PCR and Correlation Analyses between WSSV and Environmental Parameters
Song, Jae-Ho ; Choo, Yoe-Jin ; Cho, Jang-Cheon ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 1, 2008, Pages 49~55
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is one of the most virulent viral agents in the penaeid shrimp culture industry. In this study, WSSV in a Fenneropenaeus chinensis shrimp farm and an adjacent seawater were concentrated using a membrane filtration and quantified using the quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) method with newly designed primers and Taqman probe. Sensitivity of primers and probe was proven by WSSV standard curve assay in QRT-PCR. In order to demonstrate the relationship between WSSV and environmental parameters, physicochemical and biological parameters of the farm and influent seawaters were monitored from June to September, 2007. The abundance of WSSV ranged 3,814-121,546 copies per 1 liter of seawater, which was correlated with fecal enterococci (
, p=0.02), chlorophyll
, p=0.03) and
, p=0.07). Subsequently, it is concluded that the QRT-PCR method using Taqman probe established in this study was efficient to clarify the quantification of WSSV in seawaters. Statistical analyses of environmental parameters obtained in this study also showed that the abundance of WSSV was correlated with several biological parameters rather than physicochemical parameters.
Isolation and Taxonomical Characterization of Strain KM1-15 with Antibiotic Activity from Pine Mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) Basal Soil
Kim, Yun-Ji ; Whang, Kyung-Sook ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 1, 2008, Pages 56~62
Two hundred and sixty-eight bacterial strains were isolated from pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) basal soil. In the course of screening for antifungal activity against seven plant pathogenic fungi (Alternaria panax, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosprioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytopthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, Rizoctonia solani) of isolates, strain KM1-15 showed strong antibiotic activity against Alternaria panax and Colletotrichum gloeosprioides. In determining its relationship on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence, KM1-15 strain was most closely related to Bacillus
(AY904033) (99.62%). When assayed with the API 50CHE Kit, unlike Bacillus koguryoae, it is positive for utilization of L-arabinose, cellobiose, inulin, and D-turanose. Results of cellular fatty acid analysis showed that major cellular fatty acids were 15:0 anteiso (35.78%) and 17:0 anteiso (17.97%). In particular, hydroxyl fatty acids such as 13:0 iso 3-OH, 14:0 iso 3-OH, 15:0 iso 3-OH, and 17:0 iso 3-OH were only restricted to strain KM1-15. DNA G+C content was 43.7 mol% and quinone system was MK-7 (100%) in strain KM1-15.
Morphological and Phylogenetic Characteristics of a Nematophagous Fungus, Drechslerella brochopaga Kan-23
Cho, Chun-Hwi ; Kang, Doo-Sun ; Kim, Yoon-Ji ; Whang, Kyung-Sook ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 1, 2008, Pages 63~68
Strain Kan-23 was extracted from nematophagous fungi, which were isolated from the soil sample of oriental melon field. The strain exhibited the slow-growing characteristic forming conidia after prolonged incubation for 30 days. Morphological features of strain Kan-23 were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). It possesses erect conidiophores which contain
side branches, with each branch producing
conidia. The size of conidiophores were between
. Conidia were ellipsoidal with three septa[septum] in each conidium. Strain Kan-23 captured nematodes by means of giant constricting rings, which were observed in the glucose peptone agar medium. ITS region of rDNA sequence was analyzed. On the basis of the high sequence similarity of ITS region (99%), the Kan-23 strain was closely related to Drechslerella brochopaga (U51950). This is the first report on Drechslerella brochopaga as a nematophagous fungus in Korea.
-1,4-Glucanase Activity of Bacillus licheniformis B1 in Chungkookjang
Hwang, Jae-Sung ; Yoo, Hyung-Jae ; Kim, Sung-Jo ; Kim, Han-Bok ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 1, 2008, Pages 69~73
Fermented soybeans contain microorganisms, diverse enzymes, and bioactive compounds. Few studies on cellulase in Chungkookjang exist. Oligosaccharides play diverse roles of bioactivity. Through Congo red test and activity staining, it was confirmed that the enzyme solution contained cellulase. Optimal pH and temperature of the cellulase produced by Bacillus licheniformis B1 were 10 and
, respectively. Through TLC analysis, it was demonstrated that the enzyme solution degraded carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), whose main products contained dimer and trimer oligosaccharides. Cellulase activity of barley-Chungkookjnag fermented by the strain increased, compared with that of Chungkookjang. The cellulase was found to be a
-1,4-glucanase through the analysis of the cloned gene, showing polymorphism at 32 amino acid sites in the coding range of amino acid 10 and 460.
Expression and Optimum Production of Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase Gene of Paenibacillus sp. JB-13 in E. coli
Kim, Hae-Yun ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ; Kim, Hae-Nam ; Min, Bok-Kee ; Baik, Hyung-Suk ; Jun, Hong-Ki ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 1, 2008, Pages 74~79
The purpose of this study is to clone cgt gene from Paenibacillus sp. JB-13 and to overexpress the protein in E. coli. For this purpose, the cgt gene was amplified from Paenibacillus sp. JB-13 genomic DNA by PCR using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The sequence analysis results showed that the cgt gene from Paenibacillus sp. JB-13 has 98% homology with the cgt gene of Bacillus sp. To overexpress the protein, the cgt gene was cloned into pEXP7 expression vector and transformed into E. coli. The production of CGTase by recombinant E. coli was optimized under following conditions: 0.5% glucose, 3.0% polypeptone, 0.3%
, 0.5% NaCl, and 7.0 of initial pH, 2.0% of inoculum,
of culture temperature for 14 hr. And the optimal agitation was found at 0.1 vvm. The synthesis of 2-O-
-D-Glucopyranosyl L-Ascorbic acid (AA-2G) using the CGTase expressed in E. coli was identified as AA-2G by HPLC and HPLC confirmed that treating AA-2G made by cloned CGTase with
-glucosidase substantially produced AA and glucose.
Construction of spDbp5 Null Mutants Defective in mRNA Export
Bae, Jin-Ah ; Cho, Hyun-Jin ; Yoon, Jin-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 1, 2008, Pages 80~84
We constructed the null mutants of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe spDbp5 gene that is homologous to DEAD-box RNA helicase DBP5 in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which plays important roles in mRNA export out of nucleus. A null mutant in an
diploid strain was constructed by replacing the spDbp5-coding region with an
gene using one-step gene disruption method. Tetrad analysis showed that the spDbp5 is essential for vegetative growth. The haploid spDbp5 null mutants harboring pREP81X-spDbp5 plasmid showed extensive
RNA accumulation in the nucleus and decrease in the cytoplasm after repression of spDbp5 expression. These results suggest that spDbp5 is also involved in mRNA export from the nucleus.