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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Microbiology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Microbiological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
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Minority report; Diketopiperazines and Pyocyanin as Quorum Sensing Signals in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Lee, Joon-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 2, 2008, Pages 85~92
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, causing a wide variety of infections including cystic fibrosis, microbial keratitis, and burn wound infections. The cell-to-cell signaling mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS) plays a key role in these infections and the QS systems of P. aeruginosa have been most intensively studied. While many literatures that introduce the QS systems of P. aeruginosa have mostly focused on two major acyl-homo serine lactone (acyl-HSL) QS signals, N-3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC12) and N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4), several new signal molecules have been discovered and suggested for their significant roles in signaling and virulence of P. aeruginosa. One of them is PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone), which is now considered as a well-characterized major signal meolecule of P. aeruginosa. In addition, recent researches have also suggested some more putative signal molecules of P. aeruginosa, which are diketopiperazines (DKPs) and pyocyanin. DKPs are cyclic dipeptides and structurally diverse depending on what amino acids are involved in composition. Some DKPs from the culture supernatant of P. aeruginosa are suggested as new diffusible signal molecules, based on their ability to activate Vibrio fischeri LuxR biosensors that are previously considered specific for acyl-HSLs. Pyocyanin (1-hydroxy-5-methyl-phenazine), one of phenazine derivatives produced by P. aeruginosa is a characteristic blue-green pigment and redox-active compound. This has been recently suggested as a terminal signaling factor to upregulate some QS-controlled genes during stationary phase under the mediation of a transcription factor, SoxR. Here, details about these newly emerging signaling molecules of P. aeruginosa are discussed.
Modulation of Escherichia coli RNase E. Action by RraAS2, a Streptomyces coelicolor Ortholog of RraA
Ahn, Sang-Mi ; Shin, Eun-Kyoung ; Yeom, Ji-Hyun ; Lee, Kang-Seok ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 2, 2008, Pages 93~97
RraA is a recently discovered protein inhibitor that regulates the enzymatic activity of RNase E, which plays a major role in the decay and processing of RNAs in Escherichia coli. It has also been shown to regulate the activity of RNase ES, a functional Streptomyces coelicolor ortholog of RNase E, which has 36% identity to the amino-terminal region of RNase E. There are two open reading frames in S. coelicolor genome that can potentially encode proteins having more than 35.4% similarity to the amino acid sequence of RraA. DNA fragment encoding one of these RraA orthologs, designated as RraAS2 here, was amplified and cloned in to E. coli vector to test whether it has ability to regulate RNase E activity in E. coli cells. Co-expression of RraAS2 partially rescued E. coli cells over-producing RNase E from growth arrest, although not as efficiently as RraA, induced by the increased ribonucleolytic activity in the cells. The copy number of ColEl-type plasmid in these cells was also decreased by 14% compared to that in cells over-producing RNase E only, indicating the ability of RraAS2 to inhibit RNase E action on RNA I. We observed that the expression level of RraAS2 was lower than that of RraA by 4.2 folds under the same culture condition, suggesting that because of inefficient expression of RraAS2 in E. coli cells, co-expression of RraAS2 was not efficiently able to inhibit RNase E activity to the level for proper processing and decay of all RNA species that is required to restore normal cellular growth to the cells over-producing RNase E.
Genetic Analysis of Fission Yeast rsm1 Which is Involved in mRNA Export
Kang, Su-Ky ; Yoon, Jin-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 2, 2008, Pages 98~104
We constructed the null mutants of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe rsml gene that is thought to be involved in mRNA export. Though rsm1 gene is not essential for growth, the null mutant strain constructed by replacing the rsm1-coding region with an
gene showed growth retardation and mRNA export defects compared to wild type strain. We constructed double mutants which harbor rsm1 null allele and mutant allele of genes involved in mRNA export. The mex67 or npp106 null allele, when combined with rsm1 null allele, showed an additive effect on growth retardation and mRNA export defects. On the other hand, the thp1 null allele restored the defects of growth and mRNA export of rsm1 null mutant. These results suggest that rsm1 plays a role in mRNA export from the nucleus.
The Study on Function and Localization of Nup97 in Fission Yeast
Hwang, Duk-Kyung ; Yoon, Jin-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 2, 2008, Pages 105~109
We studied on the function and localization of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Nup97p, which is homologous to nucleoporin Nic96p in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There was no effect on growth and
RNA distribution of cells when nup97 gene was overexpressed. However, the haploid
null mutants confirmed extensive
RNA accumulation in the nucleus, abnormal DNA distribution, and cessation of growth when nup97 expression was repressed. We determined the subcellular localization of Nup97 tagged at the N terminus or the C terminus with GFP. Both fusions complemented growth defect of
null mutants. An integrated version of the nup97-GFP fusion was constructed at the nup97 locus. Nup97-GFP fusions expressed from its own promoter was localized at the nuclear periphery with a punctate appearance. These results suggest that Nup97p in fission yeast is also nucleoporin, which is involved in mRNA export.
Oxidation of Acridine by Laccase of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus SCH-3
Lee, Hyoun-Su ; Han, Man-Deuk ; Yoon, Kyung-Ha ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 2, 2008, Pages 110~115
Acridine was not a substrate for fungal laccase but it was oxidized to acridone in the culture medium of P. cinnabarinus SCH-3. During the cultivation of P. cinnabarinus SCH-3, Laccase was the predominant extracellular phenoloxidase, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) was produced in the early culture. Cinnabarinic acid (CA) was observed to accumulate in the culture medium. When P. cinnabarinus was grown in the culture medium containing acridine, acridine was oxidized to acridone. But when the laccase purified from the culture medium of P. cinnabarinus directly reacted with acridine in sodium tartrate buffer (pH 3.0), The oxidation of acridine did not happen. In contrast, when 3-HAA was added to the buffer that was mixed with laccase and acridine, the acridine was oxidized to acridone. While in vitro studies, the CA was formed from 3-HAA in the presence of purified laccase. The results suggest that the acridine should be oxidized to the acridone through the mediation of 3-HAA by the laccase in the culture medium of P. cinnabarinus SCH-3.
Screening and Partial Purification of Haloperoxidase from Marine Actinomycetes
Cho, Ki-Woong ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 2, 2008, Pages 116~121
In my search of microbial source of novel enzymes, a marine actinomycetes, A1460, producing haloperoxidase was isolated from macroalgae from south sea, Korea and studied for physiological and biochemical properties. The haloperoxidation reaction was followed by the bromination of phenol red in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and potassium bromide. The haloperoxidase was partially purified from the cell extract with
ammonium sulfate precipitation, High-Q anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, hydroxyapetite chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography to a yield of 42% and purification fold of 70. This enzyme showed relatively high heat stability without losing 50% of activity after 1 hr incubation at
. The highest activity was found at
, and the optimal pH was about pH 7, but higher stability was observed at pH 8. Azide and cyanide ion showed strong inhibition at less than 1
level suggesting that the enzyme was Fe ion dependent haloperoxidase.
Antibacterial Synergic Effect and Cellular Responses of Nalidixic Acid-Resistant Salmonella typhimurium Exposed to Tea Polyphenols and Nalidixic Acid
Lim, Ye-Ji ; Cho, Yun-Seok ; Oh, Kye-Heon ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 2, 2008, Pages 122~129
The purpose of this work was to investigate the synergically bactericidal effects and cellular responses of green tea polyphenols (TPPs) and nalidixic acid (NA) on nalidixic acid-resistant (NAR) Salmonella typhimurium. The bactericidal activities of
NA were investigated for S. typhimurium of which initial cell number was approximately adjusted to 107 cell/ml. Complete elimination of NAS-S. typhimurium was achieved within 6 hr of incubation at the concentrations of
NA, whereas only partial bactericidal effect was achieved under the same conditions. However, the combinations of
NA against NAS-S. typhimurium and
nalidixic acid against NAR-S. typhimurium showed complete removal within 5 hr of incubation. The stress shock proteins (SSPs) were induced at different concentrations of TPP o rNA used as stressors against cell culture of S. typhimurium. The proteins were identified as 70-kDa DnaK and 60-kDa GroEL by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. SSPs induced by the stressors were found to increase in proportion to the TPPs or NA. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed the presence of perforations and irregular rod shape with wrinkled surfaces for cells treated with TPPs or NA.
Detection of Microbial Growth in an Automated Culture System
Sung, Hye-Ran ; Kim, Il-Hoi ; Kim, Jee-Youn ; Lee, Chong-Kil ; Chung, Yeon-Bok ; Han, Sang-Bae ; Song, Suk-Gil ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 2, 2008, Pages 130~134
Modern automated culture systems have increased the isolation rate of microorganisms and shortened the time to detection, reducing experimental errors in diagnosis of infecting agents. BacT/ALERT 3D system is based on the colorimetric detection of
produced by the growing microorganisms. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the detection system, sterility test were performed using 6 bacteria. With standard aerobic and anaerobic bottles containing the liquid media, both three aerobic bacteria (P. aeruginosa, M. luteus, B. subtilis) and a facultative bacterium S. aureus were detected up to 1 CFU in 31.44 hr. In addition, growth of anaerobic C. sporogenes was recognized up to 1 CFU in 15.96 hr. The slowly growing bacteria P. acnes was detected up to 10,000 CFU in 129.36 hr. In comparison with conventional culture method, BacT/ALERT 3D automated culture system was more sensitive and saved detection time up to
hr. Therefore, this automated culture system enables to efficiently detect bacteria in clinical samples and biological medicines.
Genetic Distribution of Human Noroviruses Detected from Acute Gastroenteritis Patients in Seoul
Kim, Eun-Jeung ; Park, Sang-Hun ; Song, Mi-Ok ; Kim, Moo-Sang ; Kim, Min-Young ; Cheon, Doo-Sung ; Jeong, Hae-Sook ; Kim, Chul-Joong ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 2, 2008, Pages 135~139
Fecal specimens from acute gastroenteritis in Seoul from 2004 to 2007 were collected and then tested for the presence of norovirus by RT-PCR. 258 noroviruses were subjected to be futher characterized to sequencing analysis. The sequencing analysis showed that thirteen genotypes were detected (GII.1, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.5, GII.6, GII.8, GII.10, GII.l2, GII.13, GII.l5, GII.l6, GII.l7) and predominant genotype was GII.4 (76.7%) in the cases of norovirus detected sporadic acute gastroenteritis in Seoul. By this molecular investigation, genotypic distribution associated with norovirus infections will be used for control and prevention of norovirus related diseases.
Secretion of Cytokine Stimulating Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-l Expression from THP-l Cells Infected with Human Cytomegalovirus
Kim, Mi-Suk ; Yi, Hyun-Ah ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 2, 2008, Pages 140~146
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) stimulates the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-l) on the surface of monocytic THP-1 cells. Stimulation of ICAM-l did not require HCMV gene expression since UV-inactivated HCMV (UV-HCMV) was able to induce ICAM-l expression. ICAM-l expression was also stimulated in uninfected THP-l cells which were fed with culture supernatant of HCMV-infected THP-l cells. Co-culture experiment using trans-well insert supported that HCMV-infected THP-l cells secreted some cytokine(s) stimulating ICAM-l expression. The stimulation of ICAM-l by HCMV-infected cell culture supernatant appears to involve
pathway. Culture supernatant from THP-l cells infected with UV-HCMV, whose gene expression was abrogated, failed to stimulate ICAM-l expression on naive THP-l cells. Thus, HCMV gene expression seems to be required in secretion of cytokine(s) stimulating ICAM-l expression.
Comparative Analysis of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase (dsr) Gene from Sediment of Lake Sihwa, Korea and Lake Aha, China
Kim, In-Seon ; Kim, Ok-Sun ; Jeon, Sun-Ok ; Witzel, Karl-Paul ; Ahn, Tae-Seok ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 2, 2008, Pages 147~155
The diversity of sulfate reducing bacteria was investigated in different depths of sediments in Lake Sihwa, Korea and Lake Aha, China by PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone libraries targeting dissimilatory sulfite redectase (dsr) gene. In the analysis of DGGE band patterns, the community compositions of dsr gene in the sediments of both lakes were significantly different whereas bands in all depths of each environment revealed similar patterns. Bands from Lake Sihwa were produced much more than those from Lake Aha, demonstrating a higher diversity of dsr gene in Lake Sihwa. Total 68 clones containing dsr gene were obtained to analyze their sequences. Sequences from the sediment of Lake Sihwa were affiliated to Deltaproteobacteria, the Gram-positive thermophilic sulfate reducers belonging to the genus Desulforomaculum and archaeal thermophilic SRB belonging to the genus Archaeoglobus, whereas sequences from the sediments of Lake Aha were related to genus Desulfotomaculum. Clones retrieved from sediment of Lake Sihwa revealed a higher numbers than those of Lake Aha, demonstrating a higher diversity of dsr gene in Lake Sihwa. Most of clones (59%) were distantly related to the known cultivated SRB with
of similarity, which were clustered only the sequences from the environments showed less than 90% similarity. These habitat specific sequences suggested that the clustered dsr sequences represent species or groups of species that were indigenous to these environments. This study showed that these lakes have a specific bacterial communities having dsr gene distinct from those in other environments such as soil and marine ecosystems around the world.
Biodegradation of Kerosene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa K14
Kim, Jee-Young ; Lee, Sang-Seob ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 2, 2008, Pages 156~163
In this study, we isolated 32 strains of kerosene degrading bacteria from oil contaminated soil by enrichment culture. Isolates were screened for kerosene degradation efficiencies and K14 were selected which had the highest removal efficiency for 1,000 mg/L of kerosene. K14 were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by morphological, biochemical test and 16S rDNA analysis. The optimal culture condition were determined as initial inoculated cell concentration, 1.0 g/L; substrate concentration, 1,000 mg/L; temperature
; pH 7. When we enforced batch test in this condition, K14 degraded 72% of kerosene with 1,000 mg/L during 72 hr. And, at low concentration (200 mg/L), K14 degraded 95.8% of kerosene during 48 hr. As a result, kerosene biodegradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa K14 could be useful for clean up of groundwater and soil contaminated with crude oil.
RCA-mer: A Web-Based Program Searching for Primer Candidates
Cho, Young-Hoon ; Park, Kie-Jung ; Lee, Dae-Sang ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 2, 2008, Pages 164~167
Recently, rolling circle amplification (RCA) technique has been widely focused in the field of gene amplification just like PCR method. We have developed RCA-mer, which is a web-based program searching for primer candidates from a given sequence. It can be applied to find primer lists in DNA amplification experiment based on RCA method. The RCA-mer compares 8-mer primer lists with user's input sequence such as vector, mitochondria, and microbial genome sequence. After calculating 8-mers existences in a given sequence, it displays matched and no-matched primer lists with their GC-contents. In addition to it, RCA-mer can search the existence of 8-mer primer lists in two sequences whether they are co-existed or not. Users can apply candidate primer lists to their researches which use RCA techniques.