Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Microbiology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Microbiological Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Development of Genetic System for Isolation of SSU rRNA Mutants that Bypass SecM-Mediated Ribosome Stalling
Ha, Hye-Jeong ; Kim, Hong-Man ; Yeom, Ji-Hyun ; Lee, Kang-Seok ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 271~276
Ribosome stalling by nascent sticky peptide has been reported in several organisms across the kingdom. To test whether small subunit (SSU) rRNA is involved in this phenomenon, we developed a genetic system that utilized the specialized ribosome system to isolate SSU rRNA mutants that enable ribosomes to bypass the SecM-derived sticky peptide in protein synthesis. In this system, CAT-SecM mRNA, which encodes CAT protein containing the sticky peptide derived from SecM, is only translated by specialized ribosomes. These ribosomes were shown to transiently stall on CAT-SecM mRNA followed by the synthesis of the sticky peptide. Expression of specialized ribosomes resulted in the decreased steady-state level of CAT-SecM mRNA, which is consistent with a notion that ribosome stalling induces mRNA degradation. Isolation and characterization of SSU rRNA mutations using this genetic system that are sufficient to circumvent ribosome stalling induced by the SecM-derived sticky peptide will provide evidence of SSU rRNA function in mRNA cleavage.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus-l Tat Positively Regulates the Human CD99 Gene via DNA Demethylation
Lee, Eu-Gene ; Kim, Ye-Ri ; Lee, Mi-Kyung ; Lee, Im-Soon ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 277~281
HIV affects many organ systems. Patients with HIV infection have substantially increased risk of developing various cancers, primarily by opportunistic infection with oncogenic viruses due to their immunocompromised status. However, extensive evidence also indicates that the viral protein, Tat itself, may playas a major factor in the development of AIDS-related neoplasms. The molecular mechanism underlying Tat's oncogenic activity may include deregulation of cellular genes. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effect of HIV-l Tat on CD99 as one of the target cellular genes, which is a well-known tumor marker in several cancers. By using established HeLa clones that are stably expressing Tat, we found that CD99 is upregulated by endogenous Tat, whereas STAT3 is down regulated. Upon the screening of genes differentially expressed between Tat-stable cells and the control cells by using the gene fishing technique, DEG, we detected 3 genes which expression is affected by the presence of Tat. Furthermore, the methylation specific PCR analysis of the stably Tat expressing cell lines revealed that the CD99 promoter is de methylated in the presence of Tat. Taken together, these results open a potential role of CD99 in AIDS-related oncogenesis via epigenetic regulation by HIV-1 Tat.
Angiogenic Effect of Cardiac Ankyrin Repeat Protein Overexpression in Vascular Endo-thelial Cell
Kong, Hoon-Young ; Byun, Jong-Hoe ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 282~288
Tissue ischemia resulting from the constriction or obstruction of blood vessels leads to an illness that may affect many organs including the heart, brain, and legs. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the field of therapeutic angiogenesis and the new approaches are expected to cure those "no-option patients" who are unsuited to conventional therapies. Although single angiogenic growth factor may be successful in inducing angiogenesis, combination of multiple growth factors is increasingly sought these days to augment the therapeutic responses. This trend is proper in light of the fact that blood vessel formation is a complex and multi-step process that requires the actions of many different factors. To meet the growing need for functionally significant blood flow recovery in the ischemic tissues, a novel strategy that can provide concerted actions of multiple factors is required. One way to achieve such a goal is to use a transcription factor that can orchestrate the expression of multiple target genes in the ischemic region and thus induce significant level of angiogenesis. Here, a putative transcription factor, cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), was evaluated in adenoviral vector context for angiogenic activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results indicated significant increase in proliferation, capillary-like structure formation, and induction of vascular endothelial growth factor, a typical angiogenic gene. Taken together, these results suggest that CARP represents itself as a novel target for therapeutic angiogenesis and warrants further investigation.
The Anti-Sticking Effect of Mixture of Trisodium Phosphate and Citric Acid on Oral Streptococcus species
Jung, Choong-Hyun ; Cho, Hyung-Hun ; Choi, Gwang-Ju ; Kang, Seung-Yong ; Yang, Nam-Woong ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 289~292
Trisodium phosphate 12 hydrate and citric acid monohydrate mixture showed the strong anti-sticking effect on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius, which are adhered to glass beads. Each Streptococcus species was shaking-cultured in brain heart infusion broth containing three glass beads. After 18 hr, glass beads were slightly washed into normal saline by three-pin-pointed pincette. Each three glass-beads set was put into reagent -containing tubes, which have 40 mg of bits of weighing paper for gaining brushing effect as similar as brushing one's teeth. The tubes were shaken by vortex mixer for 10 min except non-oral microbe, Streptococcus agalactiae (5 min). The samples were colony-counted by serial agar dilution method. Experiment was repeated three times for each Streptococcus species. The relative ratios of bacterial de-adherence by reagents were calculated in comparison with normal saline control. The de-adherence degree of citric acid-trisodium phosphate-saline mixture (CTS, pH 6.0) against Streptococcus mutans came to an average of 12.5 times compared with normal saline control. Trisodium-saline (TS, pH 8.4) showed the average of 7.5 times, and citric acid-saline (CS, pH 4.6) showed 6.0 times compared to the control group. The bacterial de-adherence degree against Streptococcus salivarius was each 7.2,2.6 and 2.8 times in above reagent sequence in comparison with saline control. CTS and TS showed 2.4 and 3.4 times of anti-sticking effect on Streptococcus mitis respectively, but CS had no anti-sticking effect on this bacterium. CTS, TS and CS showed 0.7, 0.6, and 0.6 times on non-oral microbe, Streptococcus agalactiae, separately compared with saline control. These results show that oral Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus mitis, which are causative of dental caries or subacute endocarditis, may be easily removed from oral cavity by CTS mixture. It is conceivable that our experimental results will enable the development of a new conceptive toothpaste to prevent dental caries or subacute endocarditis after drawing teeth.
A Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for Reliable HCV RNA Detection Method for Plasma-Derived Products
Hong, Seung-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 293~298
HCV is transmitted via various plasma derived products. Current methods to detect hepatitis C virus (HCV) are based on its antibody detection in the donated blood and plasma. Viral contamination can potentially escape such detection during the window period of infection, when no antibody is present or the level of antibody is too low to detect. It is trying to application of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAT) for the direct detection of HCV. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable NAT for the HCV RNA detection from plasma-derived products. The most useful primers was selected for NAT among 5 sets of primers. We have also found that QIAamp viral RNA isolation kit was the most efficient for HCV RNA isolation. The highest sensitivity and specificity was appeared in
annealing temperature and 30 pmol of primers. With a spiking of HCV to albumin, immunoglobulins and coagulation factors, NAT can detect up to 100 IU/ml. Meanwhile, COBAS amplicor HCV 2.0 afforded a lower sensitivity in high concentrated intramuscular immunoglobulins to below 500 IU/ml. Our results suggested that NAT appears to be a highly sensitive and specific method for HCV RNA detection in plasma-derived products.
Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Monocyte Cell Line by Human Cytomegalovirus
Jang, So-Young ; Kim, Mi-Suk ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 299~304
Monocytic cells in myeloid lineage are known for latent site of HCMV Previous studies have suggested that HCMV regulates cell cycle progression in a variety of cells, but studies in monocytic cells are limited. In this study, we attempted to understand cell cycle changes after HCMV infection in the monocytic cell lines. Flow cytometric analyses using propidium iodide revealed that the proportion of G0-G1 phase was increased and the proportion of S phase decreased in HCMV-infected THP-1 cells, but not in HL-60 cells. BrdU-incorporation assay supported that cell proliferation was inhibited in HCMV-infected THP-1 cells by inhibition of de novo DNA synthesis. Western blot analysis revealed that p21, inhibitor of cell cycle progression from G1 phase to S phase, was induced in HCMV-infected THP-1 cells but not in HL-60 cells. Thus, HCMV inhibited cell pro-liferation by arresting the cell cycle at G0-G1 phase through induction of p21 protein in promocytic THP-1 cells.
Molecular Characterization of Clinically Isolated Staphylococcus aureus
Oh, Bo-Young ; Kim, Jung-Hee ; Gong, Young-Woo ; Lee, Jae-Mann ; Go, Jong-Myoung ; Kim, Yong-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 305~310
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most significant pathogens and a causative agents of nosocomial infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), in particular, has become a major clinical and epidemiological problems worldwide. In this study, we analyzed the toxin genes and investigated molecular epidemiological characteristics of S. aureus isolated from stools of diarrheal patients at the hospitals in Incheon. Of the 609 strains from 2,281 specimens, 173 strains retained enterotoxin; 68 isolates (39.30%), 100 isolates (57.80%) were classified to A and C type, respectively. In the antibiotic susceptibility, all of enterotoxin positive isolates were resistant to oxacillin. Eighty eight strains (50.86%) of 173 MRSA isolate possessed tsst gene, but eta and eth genes were not detected at all. In the detection of MRSA associated genes by PCR method, mecA genes were detected in 167 strains (96.53%). From the result of PFGE analysis, we classified tsst-positive MRSA to 10 types and 24 subtypes. Type A, H and F were the major strains comprised of 57.95% (51 strains), 10.22% (9 strains) and 9.09% (8 strains) respectively.
The Characteristics of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) Degradation by Pseudomonas putida BJ10
Choi, Myung-Hoon ; Kim, Jai-Soo ; Lee, Sang-Seob ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 311~316
In this study, biological PCE degradation by using a BTEX degrading bacterium, named BJ10, under aerobic conditions in the presence of toluene was examined. According to morphological, physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA sequencing and fatty acid analysis, BJ10 was classified as Pseudomonas putida. As a result of biological PCE degradation at low PCE concentrations (5 mg/L), PCE removal efficiency by P. putida BJ10 was 52.8% for 10 days, and PCE removal rate was 5.9 nmol/hr (toluene concentration 50 mg/L, initial cell density 1.0 g (wet weight)/L, temperature 30, pH 7 and DO
. At high PCE concentration (100 mg/L), PCE removal efficiency by P. putida BJ10 was 20.3% for 10 days, and PCE removal rate was 46.0 nmol/hr under the same conditions. The effects of various toluene concentration (5, 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/L) on PCE degradation were examined under the same incubation conditions. The highest PCE removal efficiency of PCE was 57.0% in the initial PCE concentration of 10 mg/L in the presence of 200 mg/L toluene for 10 days. Furthermore, the additional injection of 5.5 mg/L PCE (total 7.6 mg/L) made 63.0% degradation for 8 days in the presence of 50 mg/L toluene under the same conditions. Its removal rate was 13.5 nmol/hr, which was better than the initial removal rate (8.1 nmol/hr).
Effect of Quartz Porphyry on Growth of Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) and Soil Bacterial Community Structures
Koh, Sung-Cheol ; Choi, Jung-Hye ; Kim, Byung-Hyuk ; Kim, Sang-Eun ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 317~325
Recently there are difficulties in management of golf courses because of an ever increasing demand for golf as a leisure sports. Hence natural minerals as an amendment could be applied to improve and manage the physicochemical properties of the golf course soils in an environment-friendly way. In this study, quartz porphyry, which has been shown to be a good soil amendment for crop production, was tested for its effect on physicochemical properties of the golf course soil, growth of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) and changes of soil microbial communities in the soil. In general, amendment of 20% quartz porphyry into the soil turned out to be most effective in enhancing a proper growth of the grass leaves and roots. DGGE profile data showed that eubacterial species richness was also the highest at this level of the mineral treatment in which Actinobacteria and
-Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla. This appeared to be attributed to a low level of soluble organic matter content and decreased concentration of cations such as
Isolation and Characterization of a Paenibacillus incheonensis YK5 with Antimicrobial Activity aginst MRSA
Yoon, Young-Jun ; Kim, Hye-Yoong ; Lee, Tae-Soo ; Kim, Jung-Wan ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 326~332
Various bacteria were isolated from Korean soil samples based on their capability inhibiting the growth of MRSA strains. Among them, strain YK5 with the highest activity was a Gram positive sporulative bacillus with motility. It did not produce indole and no acid was formed from mannitol by the bacterium. The 16S rRNA sequence of the strain showed
homology with those of Paenibacillus spp.. The bacterial isolate shared the highest homology with that of P. elgii (98%), but was named as Paenibacillus incheonensis YK5 due to differences in physiological properties. Butanol extract of the P. incheonensis YK5 culture grown in SST medium at
for 96 hr showed a broad antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (MRSA and Streptococcus pneumoniae) and negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) pathogenic bacteria and fungi (Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton). The antimicrobial activity in the crude extract was stable in a broad range of temperature and pH,
, respectively. Therefore, the antimicrobial activity of P. incheonesis YK5 had potential as a novel antibiotics for pathogens including MRSA.
Identification Based on Computational Analysis of rpoB Sequence of Bacillus anthracis and Closely Related Species
Kim, Kyu-Kwang ; Kim, Han-Bok ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 333~338
Computational analysis of partial rpoB gene sequence (777 bp) was done in this study to identify B. anthracis and its closely related species B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Sequence data including 17 B. anthracis strains, 9 B. cereus strains, and 7 B. thuringiensis strains were obtained by searching databases. Those sequences were aligned and used for other computational analysis. B. anthracis strains were identificated by in silico restriction enzyme digestion. B. cereus and B. thuringiensis were not segregated by this method. Those sequencing and BLAST search were required to distinguish the two. In actual identification tests, B. anthracis strains could be identified by PCR-RFLP, and B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains were distinguished by BLAST search with reliable e-value. In this study fast and accurate method for identifying three Bacillus species, and flow chart of identification were developed.
Effect of Antibiotic Combination Therapy on Metallo-
-Lactamase Producing Imipenem Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Hong, Seung-Bok ; Kim, Hong Chul ; Lee, Jang-Won ; Son, Seung-Yeol ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 339~345
This study was to detect MBL (metallo-
-lactamase) among glucose non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli isolated from clinical specimen and to search antimicrobial combination therapy against MBL producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among fifty one isolates of Gram-negative bacilli with reduced imipenem susceptibility (
), nine isolates have shown positive results in MBL detection test. They were seven Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans and two P. aeruginosa. The results from EDTA-DDST coin-cided with those of PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis which showed the presence of
. The combination of aztreonam (AZT) and piperacillin-tazobactarn (TZP) or AZT and amikacin (AN) screened by one disk synergy test showed no synergistic effect. Triple antibiotic combination therapy with AZT, TZP and AN, however, was shown to be effective and the most synergistic after 8 hrs of exposure. This result strongly suggest that the triple combination therapy of AZT, TZP, and AN could be useful for the treatment of infection caused by MBL producing Gram-negative bacilli.
Development of Human Papillomavirus DNA Array by Using Lateral Flow Membrane Assay
Kim, Ki-Whang ; Lee, Hyung-Ku ; Cho, Hong-Bum ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 346~351
This study develops DNA array which can detect specific sequence of human papilomavirus (HPV) by using lateral flow membrane assay which is usually used for point of care test including pregnant diagnosis. Principle of HPV DNA array is as follow; fixing DNA probe which is peculiar to HPV type 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 45 on a surface of lateral flow membrane and inducing hybridization response between probe and HPV PCR products which is obtained by using biotin-labeled MY09/l1 primers. And then, we can see the result of DNA hybridization that streptavidin labelled colloidal gold is responded with hybrid biotin. Lateral flow membrane array developed in this study confirms major HPV type economically and conveniently compared with existing HPV DNA chip method.
Evaluation of Various Oligotrophic Media for Cultivation of Previously Uncultured Soil Bacteria
Kim, Do-Hyoung ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Cho, Jae-Chang ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 352~357
We evaluated cultivation methods to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated bacteria from soil. Soil bacteria (suspensions) were inoculated onto various oligotrophic media with one of the following additives: 1) soil extract; 2) anthraquinone disulfonate (humic acid analogue); 3) acyl homoserine lactones (quorum-signaling compounds); 4) catalase (for the protection of bacteria from exogenous peroxides). After the relatively long period (60 days) of incubation with elevated concentrations of
(5%, v/v), the media containing catalase showed the highest colony count. We purified 147 randomly selected colonies from the media and the isolates were subjected to the phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates might belong to novel species or novel family, suggesting that the media and incubation conditions used could be useful for the cultivation of as-yet-uncultured bacteria. Especially, bacteria belonging to the phylum Acidobacteria, ubiquitous bacterial taxon known as an uncultured bacterial group (at least difficult to culture from environmental samples), were successfully cultured in this study.
Effect of Extract of Fermented Dropwort on Intestinal Bacteria and Enzymes In Vitro
Lee, Kyung-Ae ; Kim, Moo-Sung ; Cho, Hong-Bum ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 44, issue 4, 2008, Pages 358~361
Effect of extract of fermented dropwort (Oenanthe stolonifera) on growth of intestinal harmful/useful bacteria and enzyme activity were investigated in vitro. The extract showed strong inhibition on harmful microbes including Vibrio and Salmonella, but mild inhibition on Bifidobacterium longum in both agar plate and liquid cultivation. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of B. longum was the highest among tested microbes. Inhibition effect of fermented extract on harmful microbes increased according to fermentation period. Extract of fermented dropwort showed inhibitory effects on activity of microbial
-glucuronidase and tryptophanase. The inhibitory effects were also proportional to fermentation period. As consequence, it is assumed that the uptake of fermented dropwort might be useful for human intestinal health.