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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Korean Journal of Microbiology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Microbiological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 45, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 45, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 45, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 45, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
Selecting the target year
Deciphering Functions of Uncultured Microorganisms
Kim, Jeong-Myeong ; Song, Sae-Mi ; Jeon, Che-Ok ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~9
Microbes within complex communities show quite different physiology from pure cultured microbes. However, historically the study of microbes has focused on single species in pure culture and most of microbes are unculturable in our labs, so understanding of complex communities lags behind understanding of pure cultured cells. Methodologies including stable isotope probing (SIP), a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microautoradiography (MAR), isotope micrarray, and metagenomics have given insights into the uncultivated majority to link phylogenetic and functional information. Here, we review some of the most recent literatures, with an emphasis on methodological improvements to the sensitivity and utilities of these methods to link phylogeny and function in complex microbial communities.
Comparison of the
-Dependent General Stress Response between Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes
Shin, Ji-Hyun ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 10~16
A diverse range of stresses such as heat, cold, salt, ethanol, oxygen starvation or nutrient starvation induces same stress-responsive proteins. This general stress response enhances bacterial survival significantly. In Bacillus subtilis and closely related Gram-positive bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, the general stress response is controlled by the alternative transcription factor
. The activity of
is regulated post-translationally by a signal transduction network that has been extensively studied in B. subtilis, and serve as a model for L. monocytogenes. The proposed model of L. monocytogenes signal transduction network is similar to that of B. subtilis, but the energy stress pathway is missing. More than 150 general stress proteins belong to
regulon of B. subtilis and L. monocytogenes. In both bacteria,
function is primarily important for resistance to diverse stresses. In addition,
function contributes to the control of important virulence genes in food-borne pathogen L. monocytogenes. Therefore, understanding of the general stress response is important not only for bacterial physiology, but also for pathogenicity.
Methane Production and T-RFLP Patterns of Methanogenic Bacteria Dependent on Agricultural Methods
Kim, Hun-Soo ; Cho, Ju-Sik ; Park, Kyeong-Ryang ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 17~25
We studied soil components, methane production, the number of methanogens, and T-RFLP patterns dependent on agricultural methods with the change of seasons. There is no regular increase or decrease tendency of the most soil components followed by sampling period. And the water content in soil was higher in October than May. Also a lot of methanogens existed in soil, and acetotrophs were relatively of smaller number than hydogenotrophs and formate utilizing methanogens using MPN (most probable number) enumeration. In the experiment using the formate, it was used from the first week, and only a minute amount was detecte after four weeks. However in the acetate, it was increased until the third week, and after that was consumed. And there was higher methane production for all soil samples which administered with the hydrogen spike. The activity of methanogens was higher in the organic and low-agrichemical agricultural method samples, and the organic agricultural method had high methanogen activity among the other samples. A result of T-RFLP pattern of mcrA gene digested with Sau96I, methanogen community have a little relation with agricultural methods and seasons. This results also agreed to no critical difference the soil components dependent on agricultural methods, but some analytical data have a positive relationship with a agricultural methods. Therefor we could concluded that the comparison study of community for soil bacteria sufficiently could be useful for the microbiological indicator.
Analysis of Prokaryote Communities in Korean Traditional Fermented Food, Jeotgal, Using Culture-Dependent Method and Isolation of a Novel Strain
Kim, Min-Soo ; Park, Eun-Jin ; Jung, Mi-Ja ; Roh, Seong-Woon ; Bae, Jin-Woo ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 26~31
This study was aimed at the analysis of prokaryote communities in Korean traditional fermented food, jeotgal, and isolation of a novel strain from jeotgal by using culture-dependent and molecular biological approaches. Seventeen kinds of jeotgal were selected on the basis of its origins and sources. The samples were inoculated on 12 kinds of media. 308 isolates were selected randomly by morphological features, and its 16S rRNA gene sequences was amplified by PCR technique with bacteria and archaea specific primers (8F, 21F, and 1492R). The 16S rRNA gene sequences were compared with those in EzTaxon and GenBank databases. DNA-DNA hybridization was performed to identify a novel strain. As a result, the majority of the isolates were lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc, Weisella, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Carnobacterium, Marinilactibacillus), Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium and Kocuria in 17 kinds of jeotgal. The strains belonging to Salinicoccus, Halomonas, Cobetia, Lentibacillus, Paracoccus, and Psychrobacter were isolated as minor ones. Fourteen novel species were identified based on phylogenetic analysis.
Hydrolytic and Metabolic Capacities of Thermophilic Geobacillus Isolated from Litter Deposit of a Lakeshore
Baek, Hyun-Ju ; Zo, Young-Gun ; Ahn, Tae-Seok ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 32~40
To understand contribution of thermophilic microorganisms in decomposition of litter deposits on shore of lakes, we surveyed a lakeshore litter deposit for bacteria growing at
. Ten thermophilic isolates were selected for in-depth characterization, based on their high capacity to degrade high molecular weight organic compounds. Based on phylogenetic analysis on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, all isolates were identified as Geobacillus. The optimal growth temperature and pH of the strains ranged
8.0, respectively. Salinity was inhibitory to the growth of the isolates, showing marked decrease of growth rates at 3% salinity. Based on activities of hydrolytic enzymes and profiles of carbohydrate utilization (determined by API 50 CHB kit), three G. stearothermophilus strains showed patterns clearly distinctive from other isolates. Two G. kaustophilus strains also demonstrated distinctiveness in their metabolic pattern and ecological parameters. However, ecological and metabolic profiles of the other five isolates were more variable and showed some degree of digression from their phylogenetic classification. Therefore, it could be concluded that endospore-forming thermophilic bacteria in lakeshore litter deposits contribute to degradation of organic materials with diverse ecological niches while having successions similar to microbial flora in compost. We propose that the thermophilic isolates and/or their thermo-tolerant enzymes can be applied to industrial processes as appropriate mixtures.
Combined Effects of Bacteriocin of Enterococcus faecalis MJ-213 and Organic Acid on Listeria monocytogenes Inactivation
Lim, Sung-Mee ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 41~47
In this study, the effect of combining oragnic acid and bacteriocin of E. faecalis MJ-213 isolated from Meju against L. monocytogenes KCTC 3569 growth in BHI broth and ground pork was investigated. In combination, the effects of 256 BU/ml bacteriocin and 1.5% acetic acid, citric acid or lactic acid were synergistic and effective than those compounds alone in controlling the viable cell counts of L. moncytogenes. The addition of increasing concentrations of the bacteriocin or organic acids led to a marked decrease in the number of L. monocytogenes. The combining treatment of the bacteriocin (256 BU/ml) and organic acid (1.5%) in ground pork inoculated with L. monocytogenes (5 log CFU/ml) resulted in 1 to 2 log CFU/ml reduction of cell counts during storage at
for 60 h. Also, the bacteriocin of E. faecalis MJ-213 was relatively stable at
for 20 min.
Isolation of Cellulose-Degrading Myxobacteria Sorangium cellulosum
Hyun, Hye-Sook ; Chung, Jin-Woo ; Lee, Han-Bit ; Youn, Jin-Kwon ; Lee, Cha-Yul ; Kim, Do-Hee ; Cho, Kyung-Yun ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 48~53
591 strains of myxobacteria that grew on cellulose as a sole carbon source were isolated from soils collected from various locations in Korea. Morphological characteristics such as the shape of cells, colonies and fruiting bodies and 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates suggested that all the isolates are Sorangium cellulosum. An antifungal assay has indicated that at least 20 strains among the 114 isolates tested produce antifungal substances inhibiting growth of Candida albicans.
Antioxidant and Blood-Pressure Reduction Effects of Fermented Soybean, Chungkookjang
Hwang, Jae-Sung ; Kim, Sung-Jo ; Kim, Han-Bok ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 54~57
Fermented soybean, Chungkookjang has diverse bioactive compounds including antioxidants and peptides. Ethanol extract from Chungkookjang exhibited absorbance of 0.55 at 285 nm, where amino acids and peptides containing phenol are known to exist. Antioxidant activity of Chungkookjang was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. With increasing concentrations of ethanol extracts, their antioxidant activities increased. Blood pressure was determined every two hours after taking raw Chungkookjang which does not contain salts. In 6 h, systolic blood pressure dropped by 14 mmHg, and diastolic one dropped by 8 mmHg, which was statistically significant. Daidzein, antioxidants, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor such as Lys-Pro which are rich in Chungkookjang might contribute to the reduction of blood pressure.
Identification and Cultural Characterization of Lipase Production Bacteria Isolated from Pond Effluent Sedimentary Layer
Kim, Man-Chul ; Jang, Tae-Won ; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy ; Jang, Ik-Soo ; Yeo, In-Kyu ; Jeong, Joon-Bum ; Heo, Moon-Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 58~62
From the course of screening of useful enzyme producing microorganism from marine sedimentary layer, we isolated 2 lipase producing strains and their lipase producing activities were tested. 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that they were Gram-positive bacteria grouped on Janibacter sp. An excellent lipase producing strain, Janibacter sp. LI-68 and J. sp. LI-80 identified by 16S rDNA analysis and biochemical methods (BIOLOG), was further studied its lipase producing characteristics. The optimum initial pH, temperature and the optimum cultral time for the enzyme production on MA medium were 8,
and 96 h, respectively.
Produced by Aureobasidium pullulans IMS-822
Lee, Seog-June ; Ahn, Keug-Hyun ; Park, Chan-Sun ; Yoon, Byung-Dae ; Kim, Min-Soo ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 63~68
The exo-polysaccharide producing microorganism, Aureobasidium pullulans IMS-822, was isolated and identified from soil. The viscosity-average molecular weight of exo-polysaccharide was calculated as
by Mark-Houwink equation. The sugar component of exo-polysaccharide was determined as glucose by HPLC analysis. The IR spectra indicated that the exo-polysaccharide has an absorption peak at 890
of D-glucan. The
NMR signal at
86.62 ppm arose from the substituted C-3 of glucose. The signal at
72.11 ppm was assigned to C-6 of branched
residues. Viscosity and Congo red reaction indicated that
produced by A. pullulans IMS-822 has a highly ordered hydrogen-bond dependent conformation in aqueous solution, which collapses in strong alkaline solution.
Production Condition and Characterization of Extracellular Protease from Micrococcus sp. HJ-19
Cha, In-Tae ; Oh, Yong-Sik ; Cho, Woon-Dong ; Lim, Chae-Sung ; Lee, Je-Kwan ; Lee, Oh-Seuk ; Roh, Dong-Hyun ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 69~73
Proteases are degradative enzymes which hydrolyze a peptide bond between amino acids and they are abundantly applied to commercial field. In order to investigate optimal medium compositions of carbon and nitrogen source for enzyme production, modified STY medium containing 0.15% yeast extract were used as basal medium. When galactose was used as carbon source, enzyme activity showed 1.3 higher than that of glucose. For nitrogen source addition of casamino acids to basal medium in place of tryptone showed lowest activity, whereas addition of malt extract showed maximal activity. The optimum temperature and pH of extracellular protease were found to be
an pH 8.5.
Microbiological Water Quality of Water Purifiers at Elementary Schools in Gunsan Area
Seo, Lan-Ju ; Park, Suhk-Hwan ; Lee, Geon-Hyoung ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 74~81
In this research, we investigated the actual conditions of water purification systems at ten elementary schools located in Gunsan, Korea from July to December, 2007. The results were as follows; The population densities of heterotrophic bacteria in water purifiers ranged from 0 to
CFU/ml and those of tap water were in the range from 0 to
CFU/ml during investigation periods. Ninety percentage of purified water samples in July and September, 87.2% in October and November, and 93.7% in December turned out not to be suitable for drinking. The seasonal variation of the population densities of heterotrophic bacteria from purified waters was not notable. The total coliform, Salmonella and Shigella were not detected in purified water and tap water during investigation periods. Forty-five species of bacteria were isolated from water purifiers. The identified bacterial genera were Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, Caulobacter, Novosphingobium, Bosea, Brevundimonas, Aminobacter, Ralstonia, Mitsuaria, Variovorax, Acidovorax, Massilia, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Brevibacillus, Microbacterium, Lapillicoccus, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Janibacter, Flavobacterium, Chryseobacterium, and Hymenobacter: Among the isolates, opportunistic pathogens such as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Flavobacterium johnsoniae, and Acinetobacter johnsonii were also found.
Biodegradation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals by Genetic Transformants of Phlebia tremellosa Using Manganese Peroxidase Gene from Trametes versicolor
Kum, Hyun-Woo ; Kim, Myung-Kil ; Choi, Hyoung-T. ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 82~85
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) disturb animal hormonal system even at very low concentrations, and finally give harmful effects to human through the food web. A white rot fungus Phlebia tremellosa isolated in Korea, was reported to have good degrading activity against the endocrine disrupting phthalates. However, this fungus has very low manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity under various culture conditions while laccase and lignin peroxidase activities were high. We have isolated an MnP cDNA from Trametes versicolor which was involved in the degradation of EDCs, and constructed an MnP expression vector to use in the genetic transformation of P. tremellosa in order to get higher MnP producing strains. Many transformants had integrated expression vector in their chromosomal DNAs, and showed increased MnP activity. One of two transformants showed increased degradation of 4 EDCs (70
88%) than the wild type (30
45% degradation rates), and showed twice better removal of estrogenic activities generated by the EDCs than the wild type.
Identification and Distribution of the Pathogenic Microorganisms Isolated from Edible Ice in North Area of Daegu, Korea
Kim, Su-Jung ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 45, issue 1, 2009, Pages 86~90
The definition of edible ice is frozen water for the use of food manufacturing, processing, or cooking, as well as for the direct eating. It has been reported that in the process of ice manufacturing and its selling, edible ice is contaminated with some microorganisms, which causes food poisoning and gastroenteritis. It was shown that besides in the edible ice, germ growth caused by various reasons occurred in the mineral water, tap water, water filtering system, and water purifier. With public awareness, in order to examine the sanitary conditions of edible ice in the Northern area of Daegu metropolitan city, 15 places were randomly selected. As a result, 14 places were found to be contaminated with microorganisms. After incubating on the Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) agar plate, 80% of Gram-negative bacilli, 17% of Gram-positive cocci, and 3% of Gram-negative cocci were cultured. Enterobacter cloacae, Chryseomonas luteola, Pantoea spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus or Providencia rettgeri were detected. Gram-positive cocci cultured in BHI agar plate from 5 specimens were identified as Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus xylosus, which is well known bacteria causing strong food poisoning. This present paper raises questions on the importance and awareness of sanitary conditions of edible ice and the identification of pathogenic microorganisms living in the edible ice in relation to their distribution. The examination of sanitary conditions of edible ice in other areas in Daegu seems to be also needed to find out if there are similar cases.