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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Microbiology
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Journal DOI :
The Microbiological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 46, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 46, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 46, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 46, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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DNA-Independent ATPase Activity of Deinococcus radiodurans RecA Protein Is Activated by High Salt
Kim, Jong-Il ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 313~318
Deinococcus radiodurans RecA protein, when bound to DNA, exhibits a DNA-dependent ATPase. In the absence of DNA, the rate of RecA protein-promoted ATP hydrolysis drops 1,000-fold under the physiological concentrations of salt. This DNA-independent activity can be stimulated to levels approximating those observed with DNA by adding high concentrations (approximately 1.6 M) of a wide variety of salts. This effect was characterized by varying salt concentration and comparing the effects of different ion types. The higher concentrations of salt stimulated the ATP hydrolysis by RecA protein in the absence of DNA. At 1.6 M chloride, the observed stimulation showed the following cation trend
and the following anion sequence was observed:
at 1.6 M
. The catalytic properties of the salt-stimulated ATP hydrolysis reaction was optimal between pH 7.0 and 8.0, which was similar to the double stran nded DNA-dependent ATPase activities of Deinococcus radiodurans RecA protein. In the absence of DNA the active species for ATP hydrolysis by RecA protein was shown to be an aggregate of three RecA protein molecules.
A Comparison of the Methane Production and the Community Structure for Methanogens in Rice Paddy and Dry Field Farming Soils
Kim, Myo-Sun ; Kim, Joo-Hwan ; Park, Kyeong-Ryang ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 319~325
The purpose of this study is to investigate the soil compositions, methane production, the number of methanogens, and the community structure of methanogens in rice paddy soils and dry field farming soils in the summer and autumn seasons. As a result of the analysis of soil compositions, any regular tendency to increase or decrease has not been found in most soil samples due to the change of seasons. It has also been found that more methanogens exist in the rice paddy soil that utilize organic farming practices and emptiness farming practices than in the dry field farming soil. The fewer numbers of methanogens utilizing the acetate have been found than those of the methanogens utilizing the hydrogen or the formate. In an experiment of methane production, the methanes increased for two weeks when the acetate was added, but they continued to increase for seven weeks more when the formate and the hydrogen were added. In the phylogenetic analysis using the mcrA gene, the methanogens had diverse clusters in the rice paddy soil, whereas the methanogens were concentrated only in a few clusters in the dry field farming soil.
Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Integrons of Nontyphoid Salmonella Isolates from Infants in Seoul
Jin, Young-Hee ; Kim, Jin-Ah ; Jung, Ji-Hun ; Jeon, Soo-Jin ; Lee, Jae-Kyoo ; Oh, Young-Hee ; Han, Ki-Young ; Lee, Young-Ki ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 326~333
A total of 105 nontyphoid Salmonella isolated from infants in Seoul from 2003 to 2009 was investigated for their serotype, antimicrobial resistance, characterization of integron, and the patterns of Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Eighteen serotypes were detected in 105 isolates, and the two most common serotypes were S. Enteritidis (47.6%) and Montevideo (15.2%). Among the Salmonella serovars, a high level of antimicrobial resistance was found to ampicilin (60%), tetracycline (46.7%), streptomycin (35.2%) and nalidixic acid (28.6%). In the multi-drug resistance patterns, the predominant patterns were only nalidixic acid (15.7%), ampicillin-ampicillin/sulbactam-tetracycline (14.5%), and ampicillin-streptomycin-chloramphenicol-tetracycline (10.8%). PCR and DNA sequencing analysis revealed the presence of class 1 integron in 20 isolates (19%). Of the class 1 integron positive isolates 20% harboured the integron-associated gene cassettes : aadA2, blaP1, dfr17-aadA5, dfrA12-aadA2, and aadA7. PFGE was carried out to examine the genetic relatedness among S. Enteritidis isolates. Except for three strains, fifty strains were divided by three pulsotypes.
Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria in the Oral Cavity of Smokers or Non-Smokers
Jeong, Hyun-Ja ; Kim, Su-Jung ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 334~340
It is well known that smoking as well as drinking is a factor of stomatopathy, however there are few investigations about comparison of oral flora between smokers and non-smokers. In this study, we isolated the oral flora of 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers and cultured them on blood agar plates. The isolated pathogenic microorganisms were tested for antibiotic susceptibility and resistance using the Kirby-Bauer antibiotic testing method. Each colony was stained using the Gram staining method and was identified by an automatic identifier, known as the VITEK system. We isolated 41 colonies from smokers' oral cavity, and they were sorted as 63% of Gram-positive cocci, 29% of Gram-negative cocci, 3% of Gram-positive bacilli, and 5% of Gram-negative bacilli by gram staining, whereas 38 colonies were isolated from non-smoters' oral cavity, and their proportions were 55% of Gram-positive cocci, 26% of Gram-negative cocci, 3% of Gram-positive bacilli, and 16% of Gram-negative bacilli. The VITEK system revealed specific distribution of bacteria species that Streptococcus mutans (6/41), Gemella morillorum (6/41), Streptococcus oralis (2/41), Streptococcus pneumoniae (1/41), Staphylococcus aureus (3/41), Streptococcus anginosus (1/41), Streptococcus intermedius (1/41), Streptococcus uberis (1/41), and Streptococcus sanguinis (1/41) in smokers oral cavity whereas Streptococcus sanguinis (8/38), Staphylococcus aureus (1/38), Staphylococcus auricularis (1/38), Streptococcus uberis (1/38), Streptococcus intermedius (1/38), Streptococcus mutans (1/38), and Streptococcus oralis (1/38) in those of non-smokers'. Three cases of Staphylococcus aureus from smokers produced Beta-lactamase and were identified methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However one case of Staphylococcus aureus from non-smoker did not produce Beta-lactamase and was sensitive to methicillin. In conclusion, the distribution of oral flora was different between smokers' and non-smokers' oral cavity, especially Gemella morillorum and MRSA were predominantly found in smoker's oral cavity. These results are useful in the treatment and prevention of patients with stomatopathy caused by smoking.
Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococci sp. Isolated from Bovine Milk
Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Ko, Mun-Joo ; Kim, Ka-Hee ; Lee, Seung-Hoon ; Choi, Sung-Sook ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 341~345
The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Staphylococcal isolates from bovine milk samples were assessed. From January 2009 to October 2009, a total 287 bovine milk samples were randomly collected from 15 stock raising farms located in northern area of Kyunggi province and cultured for the presence of Staphylococci spp. A total 79 staphylococcal isolates were recovered from the milk samples. The predominant isolates were S. aureus (43.03%) and S. chromogenes (24.05%). Antimicrobial resistance patterns of 79 Staphylococcal isolates against ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, oxacillin, teicoplanin, tetracyclin, and vancomycin were tested. Staphylococcal isolates revealed the highest resistance to ampicillin (56.96%) and oxacillin (39.23%). Of 31 oxacillin resistance strains, 8 strains carry mecA gene which is responsible for methicillin resistance.
Characterization of the Biosurfactant-Producing Bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. HK-3 Isolated from the Crude-Oil Contaminated Areas
Cho, Su-Hee ; Oh, Kye-Heon ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 346~351
The purpose of this work was to investigate the characteristics of a biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from crude-oil contaminated soils. During the incubation of strain HK-3 with 1% crude-oil, bacterial growth pattern, the amount of biosurfactant production, and pH changes were monitored. In order to examine the effect of supplemented carbons on the production of biosurfactant, cultivation of HK-3 cells in BH media with different carbons (e.g. glucose, dextrose, mannitol, citrate, or acetate) revealed that the production of biosurfactant reached the maximal level at the 72 h incubation with mannitol, which the area of clear zone was measured to approximately 7.64
. Identification test using the BIOLOG system, morphology study based on scanning electron microscopy and the 16S rRNA sequence-based phylogenetic analysis assigned strain HK-3 to a Pseudoalteromonas species, designated as Pseudoalteromonas sp. HK-3 which was registered in GenBank as [FJ477041].
Analysis of Bacterial Community Composition in Wastewater Treatment Bioreactors Using 16S rRNA Gene-Based Pyrosequencing
Kim, Taek-Seung ; Kim, Han-Shin ; Kwon, Soon-Dong ; Park, Hee-Deung ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 352~358
Bacterial community composition in activated sludge wastewater treatment bioreactors were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing for the four different wastewater treatment processes. Sequences within the orders Rhodocyclales, Burkholderiales, Sphingobacteriales, Myxococcales, Xanthomonadales, Acidobacteria group 4, Anaerolineales, Methylococcales, Nitrospirales, and Planctomycetales constituted 54-68% of total sequences retrieved in the activated sludge samples, which demonstrated that a few taxa constituted majority of the activated sludge bacterial community. The relative ratio of the order members was different for each treatment process, which was assumed to be affected by different operational and environmental conditions of each treatment process. In addition, activated sludge had very diverse bacterial species (Chao1 richness estimate: 1,374-2,902 operational taxonomic units), and the diversity was mainly originated from rare species. Particularly, the bacterial diversity was higher in membrane bioreactor than conventional treatment processes, and the long solids retention time of the operational strategy of the membrane bioreactor appeared to be appropriate for sustaining diverse slow growing bacteria. This study investigating bacterial communities in different activated sludge processes using a high-throughput pyrosequencing technology would be helpful for understanding microbial ecology in activated sludge and for improving wastewater treatment in the future.
Isolation and Taxonomical Characterization of Streptomyces sp. JR-24 with Antibacterial Activity of Bacterial Leaf Spot of Pepper (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria)
Han, Song-Ih ; Lee, Hyo-Jin ; Whang, Kyung-Sook ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 359~365
Fifty Actinobacteria strains were isolated from rhizosphere soil of Sasa borealis. In the course of screening for antibacterial activity against bacterial leaf spot of pepper (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria) of isolates, 12 isolates showed strong antibiotic activity. Basis on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, they were belonging to Streptomyces cluster II. Strain JR-24 exhibited strong antibiotic activity against X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 10
/disc. The strain JR-24 was most closely related to Streptomyces galbus
(98.1%), Streptomyces longwoodensis
(98%) and Streptomyces capoamus
(97.8%). When assayed with the API 20NE and 50 CHE kit, it is positive for utilization of L-arabinose, D-fructose, D-glucose, D-galactose and hydrolysis of gelatin, protein, starch. The strains contained iso-
(19.29%) and iso-
(20.35%) as major fatty acids and MK-9 (H4), MK-9 (H6), and MK-9 (H8) as the isoprenoid quinone. Strain JR-24 was suggested new species of genus Streptomyces by nearest neighbors of genotypic relationships and phenotypic characterization. This study was important to microbial resources investigation for environment-friendly agriculture.
A Comparison of Bacterial Diversity Associated with the Sponge Spirastrella abata Depending on RFLP and DGGE
Jeong, Eun-Ji ; Im, Choon-Soo ; Park, Jin-Sook ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 366~374
Culture-dependent RFLP and culture-independent DGGE were employed to investigate the bacterial community associated with the marine sponge Spirastrella abata. A total of 164 bacterial strains associated with the sponge were cultivated using Zobell and Natural sea salt media. PCR amplicons of the 16S rDNA from the bacterial strains were digested with the restriction enzymes HaeIII and MspI, and then assigned into different groups according to their restriction patterns. The 16S rDNA sequences derived from RFLP patterns showed more than 95% similarities compared with known bacterial species, and the isolates belonged to four phyla, Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteriodetes, of which Alphaproteobacteria was dominant. DGGE fingerprinting of 16S rDNAs amplified from the sponge- derived total gDNA showed five major DGGE bands, and their sequences showed more than 96% similarities compared with available sequences. The sequences derived from DGGE bands revealed high similarity with the uncultured bacterial clones. DGGE revealed that bacterial community consisted of four phyla, including Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Spirochetes, and Chloroflexi. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were commonly found in bacteria associated with S. abata by both RFLP and DGGE methods; however, overall bacterial community in the sponge differed depending on the analysis methods.
Resistance to Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant Activities of Some Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria from the Mustard Leaf Kimchi
Lim, Sung-Mee ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 375~382
In present study, five strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus GK20, Lactobacillus brevis GK55, Lactobacillus paracasei GK74, Lactobacillus plantarum GK81, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides GK104 isolated from the mustard leaf kimchi were investigated for resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant activity. L. acidophilus GK20, L. brevis GK55, L. paracasei GK74, and L. plantarum GK81 were resistant to hydrogen peroxide (0.5 mM), showing a survival rate of 50% or more. In particular, L. acidophilus GK20 and L. paracasei GK74 were the most superoxide anions-resistant and L. paracasei GK74 and L. plantarum GK81 were most likely survive hydroxyl radicals. Meanwhile, the intracellular cell-free extract (ICFE) from L. plantarum GK81 exhibited significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging values (
) than the intact cells (IC). The ICFE of L. plantarum GK81 showed the highest superoxide radical scavenging ability and chelating activity for
ions among the 5 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) tested, and IC and ICFE from L. plantarum GK81 demonstrated excellent reducing activity, which was higher than those of BHA and vitamin C as a positive control.
Strain Development for the Over-production of Alkaline Protease from Vibrio metschnikovii by Molecular Evolution
Shin, Yong-Uk ; Lee, Gwa-Soo ; Jo, Jae-Hyung ; Lee, Hyune-Hwan ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 383~388
Alkaline protease-overproducing strains of Vibrio metschnikovii were developed by using the molecular evolution from the classical mutants V. metschnikovii L12-23, N4-8, and KS1. Each vapK (Vibrio alkaline protease K) was obtained from the genomic DNAs of mutants by PCR to carry out the DNA shuffling. The modified vapK-1 obtained by DNA shuffling was used again as a template for the error-prone PCR to make the vapK-2. Both genes were cloned in the plasmid pKF3 to construct the recombinant plasmids which have one or two copies of the modified genes. The recombinant plasmids were back-transformed to V. metschnikovii KS1 to construct recombinant V. metschnikovii that expresses the alkaline protease. About 3.9-fold more protease activity was measured in the strain which has the plasmid containing two copies of vapK-2 when compared to strain KS1. When compared to wild type V. metschnikovii RH530, 43-fold more activity was achieved. Comparison of amino acids among vapK, vapK-1, and vapK-2 revealed that the active sites was highly conserved and not changed. However, many amino acids except the active sites were changed. These results suggested that the changes in amino acids might play an important role in the increase of protease activity by allowing the easy access of substrate to active sites of the protease. The fermentation of alkaline protease from the V. metschnikovii KS1 harboring the plasmid that contains two copies of vapK-1 showed the possibility of this strain to be used as industrial producer.
Production of Microbial Insecticide Using Bacillus thuringiensis BT17 for the Control of Lepidopteran Larvae
Ahn, Kyung-Joon ; Lee, Tae-Geun ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 389~396
Insecticidal crystalline toxin producing Bacillus thuringiensis BT17 strain was isolated and identified as B. thuringiensis serovar colmeri by 16S rRNA analysis. BT17 strain produced crystalline
-endotoxin against to Lepidopteran larvae effectively on the culture broth of soybean meal and skim milk,
and 36 h shaking culture of 280 rpm. The maximum colony forming unit achieved when the culture was continued for 24 h, but the number of crystals increased until 36 h in the 200 L fermentor. Liquid type of biological insecticide product was made, and after 3 months storage in
the number of crystals was increased up to twice than beginning. Biocontrol effect of BT17 insecticide product was better in Plutella xylostella than in Spodoptera exigua, and the toxicity to animals was negligible.
Mannanolytic Enzyme Activity of Paenibacillus woosongensis
Yoon, Ki-Hong ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 397~400
The activities of mannanase,
-galactosidase were detected in culture filtrate of Paenibacillus woosongensis showing mannanolytic activity for locust bean gum. Optimal conditions occurred at pH 5.5 and
for mannanase toward locust bean gum, pH 6.5 and
-mannosidase toward para-nitrophenyl-
-D-mannopyranoside, and pH 6.0-6.5 and
-galactosidase toward para-nitrophenyl-
-D-galactopyranoside in the culture filtrate, respectively. The mannanolytic enzyme of culture filtrate hydrolyzed mannobiose as well as manno-oligosaccharides including mannotriose, mannotetraose, mannopentaose and mannohexaose. It could also hydrolyze
-1,6 linked galacto-oligosaccharides such as melibiose, raffinose and stachyose to liberate galactose residue. From these results, it is assumed that P. woosongensis produces three enzymes required for the complete decomposition of galactomannan.
Effects of spTho1 Deletion and Over-Expression on mRNA Export in Fission Yeast
Cho, Ye-Seul ; Yoon, Jin-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 401~404
Tho1 is a RNA-binding protein that assembles co-transcriptionally onto the nascent mRNA and is thought to be involved in mRNP biogenesis and mature mRNA export to cytoplasm in budding yeast. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a homologue of THO1 (spTho1) was identified based on sequence alignment. A deletion mutant in a diploid strain was constructed by replacing one of spTho1-coding region with an ura4+ gene using one-step gene disruption method. Tetrad analysis showed that the spTho1 was not essential for growth. The spTho1 mutant did not show any defects of bulk mRNA export. However, over-expression of spTho1 from strong nmt1 promoter caused the growth defects and accumulation of poly(A)
RNA in the nucleus. These results suggest that spTho1 is involved in mRNA export from the nucleus to cytoplasm though it is not essential.
Diversity of Myxobacteria in Soil Samples from Asansi and Uponeup in Korea
Chung, Jin-Woo ; Kim, Jin-Woo ; Cho, Kyung-Yun ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 46, issue 4, 2010, Pages 405~408
Diversity of myxobacteria in five soil samples from Asansi and Uponeup in Korea was explored by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers that specifically bind 16S rDNA of myxobacteria. DNA sequence analysis of 76 PCR fragments containing myxobacterial 16S rDNA revealed five putative novel myxobacterial genera whose 16S rDNA sequences shared <95% sequence identity with those of the type strains. This finding indicates the presence of many uncultured and unidentified myxobacterial species in Korean soil.