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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Microbiology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Microbiological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
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Serotype Distribution of Human Respiratory Adenovirus Isolated in Gyeonggi Province
Lee, Hyun-Kyung ; Lee, Myung-Jin ; Mun, Su-Kyoung ; Kim, Woon-Ho ; Cho, Han-Gil ; Yoon, Mi-Hye ; Lee, Jong-Bok ; Cheong, Hyang-Min ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 3, 2012, Pages 175~179
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.018
Adenoviruses are an important cause of respiratory tract infections, particularly in infants, young children, and immuno-compromised patients. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of adenoviruses isolated from outpatients with acute respiratory illness in Gyeonggi province of South Korea during 2009-2011. Adenoviruses were detected in 102 of 1,622 (6.3%) specimens by using PCR or real-time PCR with viral specific primers. 76 isolates were obtained from 102 specimens using the A549 cells. Serotypic distributions of isolated adenovirus were analyzed by sequencing of hexon gene. Six different serotypes were identified, which included adenovirus serotypes 1-6. Adenovirus 3 (n=40, 52.6%) was the predominant serotype. The predominant types of adenovirus every year were serotypes 1 and 3 in 2009, serotype 3 in 2010, and serotype 5 in 2011, respectively. Adenoviruses 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 were isolated sporadically throughout the study period. Adenovirus 3 was present both during outbreaks and in sporadic cases. These results indicate that adenovirus 3 played major causative agent of adenovirus outbreaks in Gyeonggi province of South Korea during 2009-2011. Continuous surveillance for specific serotypes of adenovirus that can cause outbreaks is important.
Analysis of Amino Acid Residues Affecting the Activity of QscR, a Quorum Sensing Receptor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Park, Su-Jin ; Kim, Soo-Kyoung ; Lee, Joon-Hee ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 3, 2012, Pages 180~186
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.040
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is an ubiquitous and opportunistic human pathogen, which expresses many virulence factors through quorum sensing (QS) regulation. QscR, one of the QS signal receptors of P. aeruginosa, has unique features that make it possible to distinguish QscR from other QS receptors. In the present study, we focused on amino acid residues responsible for such a broad signal specificity of QscR. Thus we constructed mutant QscRs:
threonine residues with isoleucine, methionine, and isoleucine, respectively by site-directed mutagenesis. When we examined the activity of these mutant QscRs,
failed to respond to N-3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL), but
remained the ability to respond to 3OC12-HSL despite much reduction of the sensitivity. When we treated a variety of acyl-HSLs with different structure,
showed better responsiveness to N-decanoyl HSL (C10-HSL) or N-dodecanoyl HSL (C12-HSL) that has no oxo-moiety at
carbon of acyl group than to 3OC12-HSL, and
showed no responsiveness to any acyl-HSLs tested here. In addition,
were inhibited by 5f, a QscR inhibitor as similarly as wild type QscR was. These results suggest that while the
arginine is crucial in both activity and acyl-HSL binding of QscR, the
threonines are important in the activity, but they are little responsible for the discrimination of acyl-HSLs or competitive inhibitor.
Heavy Metal Detection and Removal in Artificial Wastewater Using Two-Component System Based Recombinant Bacteria
Ravikumar, Sambandam ; Hong, Soon-Ho ; Yoo, Ik-Keun ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 3, 2012, Pages 187~191
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.039
Two-component system (TCS)-based bacterial zinc and copper biosensors, in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) is expressed under the control of zraP and cusC promoter in ZraS/R and CusS/R TCS, were evaluated in artificial wastewater. Bacterial biosensors developed in this study efficiently expressed GFP by the recognition of
in artificial wastewater. Secondly, TCS-based zinc and copper removing bacteria with the peptide displayed on cell surface were examined in artificial wastewater. Zinc and copper removing bacteria expressed the peptide as a fusion protein such as OmpC-ZBP (zinc binding peptide) and OmpC-CBP (copper binding peptide) on the cell surface when sensing exogenous
through ZraS/R and CusS/R TCS. The recombinant cell expressing metal-adsorbing peptide could efficiently remove copper and zinc (15 and 18 mg/g dry cell weight, respectively) in artificial wastewater. Therefore, it was demonstrated that the TCS-based recombinant cell for the recognition or removal of heavy metal functions well in artificial wastewater environment.
Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Microbial Diversity Analysis of Microalgal Mini Raceway Open Pond
Kang, Zion ; Kim, Byung-Hyuk ; Shin, Sang-Yoon ; Oh, Hee-Mock ; Kim, Hee-Sik ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 3, 2012, Pages 192~199
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.036
Microalgal biotechnology has gained prominence because of the ability of microalgae to produce value-added products including biodiesel through photosynthesis. However, carbon and nutrient source is often a limiting factor for microalgal growth leading to higher input costs for sufficient biomass production. Use of municipal wastewater as a low cost alternative to grow microalgae as well as to treat the same has been demonstrated in this study using mini raceway open ponds. Municipal wastewater was collected after primary treatment and microalgae indigenous in the wastewater were encouraged to grow in open raceways under optimum conditions. The mean removal efficiencies of TN, TP, COD-
-N after 6 days of retention time was 80.18%, 63.56%, 76.34%, and 96.74% respectively. The 18S rRNA gene analysis of the community revealed the presence of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus as the dominant microalgae. In addition, 16S rRNA gene analysis demonstrated that Rhodobacter, Luteimonas, Porphyrobacter, Agrobacterium, and Thauera were present along with the microalgae. From these results, it is concluded that microalgae could be used to effectively treat municipal wastewater without aerobic treatment, which incurs additional energy costs. In addition, municipal wastewater shall also serve as an excellent carbon and nitrogen source for microalgal growth. Moreover, the microalgal biomass shall be utilized for commercial purposes.
Biosynthesis of Copolyesters Consisting of 3-Hydroxyvalerate and Medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoates by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa P-5 Strain
Woo, Sang-Hee ; Kim, Jae-Hee ; Ni, Yu-Yang ; Rhee, Young-Ha ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 3, 2012, Pages 200~206
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.031
A bacterial strain capable of synthesizing polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with an unusual pattern of monomer units was isolated from activated sludge using the enrichment culture technique. The organism, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa P-5, produced polyesters consisting of 3-hydroxyvalerate and medium-chain-length (MCL) 3-hydroxyalkanoate monomer units when
alkanoic acids such as nonanoic acid and heptanoic acid were fed as the sole carbon source. Solvent fractionation experiments using chloroform and hexane revealed that the 3-hydroxyalkanoate monomer units in these polyesters were copolymerized. The molar concentration of 3-hydroxyvalerate in the polyesters produced were significantly elevated up to 26 mol% by adding 1.0 g/L valeric acid as the cosubstrate. These copolyesters were sticky with low degrees of crystallinity. The PHA synthase genes were cloned, and the deduced amino acid sequences were determined. P. aeruginosa P-5 possessed genes encoding MCL-PHA synthases (PhaC1 and PhaC2) but lacked the short-chain-length PHA synthase gene, suggesting that the MCL-PHA synthases from P. aeruginosa P-5 are uniquely active for polymerizing (R)-3-hydroxyvaleryl-CoA as well as MCL (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoAs.
Effects of Cell-free Culture Fluids for the Expression of Putative Acyltransferase in Corynebacterium glutamicum
Kim, Yong-Jae ; Lee, Heung-Shick ; Ha, Un-Hwan ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 3, 2012, Pages 207~211
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.034
Autoinduction is mediated by signaling molecules known as autoinducers (AIs) that are produced, released and detected by bacterium itself. We recently reported that Corynebacterium glutamicum possesses an autoinduction system which secretes autoinducers during the stationary-phase of growth, triggering the expression of acyltransferase gene. However, it is still not clear what may act as autoinducers for the autoinduction in C. glutamicum. In this study, we compared the inducing effects of cell-free culture fluids obtained from a number of microbes including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Vibrio harveyi, and Escherichia coli. Fluids from A. tumefaciens did not increase the expression of acyltransferase, whereas fluids from V. harveyi BB120 (
) did. Interestingly, the expression was increased by the fluids obtained from the early exponential-phase culture of BB120. Furthermore, this induction was not observed by the fluids from autoinducer mutants of V. harveyi MM77 (
) and BB152 (
). Unlike the effect shown by BB152, fluids from E. coli (
) still induced the acyltransferase expression. Taken together, these results suggest that C. glutamicum autoinducers seem to be unidentified molecules which do not belong to AI-1 or AI-2.
Antimicrobial Effect of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Kim, Saeng-Gon ; Kim, Min-Jung ; Jin, Dong-Chun ; Park, Soon-Nang ; Cho, Eu-Gene ; Freire, Marcelo Oliveira ; Jang, Sook-Jin ; Park, Young-Jin ; Kook, Joong-Ki ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 3, 2012, Pages 212~215
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.029
The antimicrobial activity of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA), both triterpenoid compounds, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is controversial. We examined the antimicrobial effects of UA and OA against 19 strains of MRSA isolated from Koreans by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC). The data showed that the methicillin-sensitive strain S. aureus KCTC
was more resistant to UA and OA than that of the MRSA strains. The MBC values of UA and OA against MRSA had broad ranges; 4 to 32
and 16 to >256
, respectively. It was difficult to understand the different antimicrobial activities of UA and OA among the MRSA strains, because UA and OA antimicrobial mechanisms are unknown. These results indicate that the antimicrobial effects of UA and OA against MRSA are dependent on resistance to UA and OA in each strain.
Fermentation of Black-soybean Chungkookjang Using Bacillus licheniformis B1
Hwang, Jae-Sung ; Kim, Jae-Young ; Sung, Dae-Il ; Yi, Yong-Sub ; Kim, Han-Bok ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 3, 2012, Pages 216~219
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.033
Chungkookjang, fermented soybean, is high in microorganism, enzymes, daidzein, and peptides. Using yellow, black, Seoritae, small-black soybeans and Bacillus licheniformis B1, each Chungkookjang (YC, BC, SC, SBC) was prepared, and their fermentation patterns were compared. Changes of pH and browning material formation were taken as an indicative of fermentation. YC had a high pH increase at an early stage of fermentation, and a low change at a late stage. BC, SC, and SBC showed different patterns with a low pH increase at an early stage and a high pH increase at a late stage. Formation rate of browning material was fastest in YC and slow in the rest of BC, SC, and SMC. SC showed the highest value of browning material formation 1 d after fermentation. Anthocyanin in black soybeans seems to suppress the growth of bacteria at an early stage of fermentation. When anti-inflammatory daidzein contents were analyzed by HPLC, BC, SC, SBC showed higher values than YC. It was demonstrated that black soybeans can be fermented with B. licheniformis B1.
Isolation of Biogenic Amines-Degrading Strains of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens from Traditionally Fermented Soybean Products
Kim, Yong-Sang ; Cho, Sung-Ho ; Jeong, Do-Yeon ; Uhm, Tai-Boong ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 3, 2012, Pages 220~224
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.042
In order to reduce harmful biogenic amines in the traditionally fermented soybean products, five isolates with biogenic amines-degrading property were obtained from 83 traditionally fermented soybean products. The strains were found to reduce biogenic amines including histamine, tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine by 27 to 92% in the cooked soybean containing 5.3% of each biogenic amine over 10 days of incubation. The morphological and biochemical tests and the phylogenetic relationships based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the five isolates were most closely related to Bacillus subtilis or B. amyloliquefaciens. The use of selected strains would be a potential control measure in manufacturing traditionally fermented soybean products that are difficult to control biogenic amine levels.
Decolorization of a Dye by Immobilized Lignin Degrading Enzymes Generated from Transformants of Merulius tremellosus Fr.
Min, Dong-Suk ; Ryu, Sun-Hwa ; Kim, Myung-Kil ; Choi, Hyoung-T. ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 3, 2012, Pages 225~227
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.041
Lignin degrading enzymes from white rot fungi show broad substrate specificities, and therefore they can degrade variety of recalcitrant compounds. We have used three different protocols for the generation of immobilized laccase and manganese peroxidase crude enzymes from the genetically transformed strains of Merulius tremellosus Fr. These immobilized enzymes were used in the decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), and they showed about 75% decolorization rates during the 48 h reactions. Although the decolorization efficiency decreased by 10-15% after a repeated use of the immobilized enzymes, these can be reused in various degrading reactions.