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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Microbiology
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Journal DOI :
The Microbiological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 48, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 48, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 48, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 48, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Current Cronobacter spp. Researches on Prevalence, Control, and Detection
Song, Kwang-Young ; Chon, Jung-Whan ; Kim, Hyun-Sook ; Seo, Kun-Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 229~239
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.051
Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii), a Gram-negative bacillus, is a rare cause of meningitis and central nervous system infections. In England, the first case infected by this organism occurred in 1958. By July 2008, approximately 120 documented cases of Cronobacter spp. infection and at least 27 deaths have been identified from all around the world in the published literature and in reports submitted by public health sectors. In 2007, it was proposed by European organizations that the original taxonomy of E. sakazakii would be revised, to consist of five new species moved to a new genus, and identified as "Cronobacter". E. sakazakii has thus now been reclassified as 6 separate species in the new genus, Cronobacter, gen. nov., within the Enterobacteriaceae family. The new species are presently Cronobacter sakazakii, C. turicensis, C. malonaticus, C. muytjensii, and C. dublinensis; the sixth species is identified simply as genomospecies I, as currently including only two representative strains. The objectives of this review are to provide insight on (1) the classification and taxonomy of Cronobacter spp., (2) its clinical etiology and pathogenicity, (3) prequency of Cronobacter spp. in different categories of ready-to-eat food other than infant formula, (4) methods for detecting, isolating and typing Cronobacter spp., and (5) recent research trends for detecting Cronobacter spp.
Genotypic Investigation of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Clinical Isolates in Korea, 2010
Kim, Min Ji ; Cha, Min Kyeong ; Lee, Do Kyung ; Kang, Ju Yeon ; Park, Jae Eun ; Kim, Young Hee ; Park, Il Ho ; Shin, Hea Soon ; Ha, Nam Joo ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 240~245
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.050
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium that causes serious infection, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Also, P. aeruginosa possessing carbapenem-resistant metallo-
-lactamases (MBL) has been reported with increasing frequency in Korea. We therefore analyzed the level of multidrug-resistant clinical P. aeruginosa isolated from a secondary hospital in Korea in 2010. A total of 92 isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from Sahmyook Medical Center in 2010. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined by analysis of the minimum inhibitory concentration test; the inhibitor-potentiated disk diffusion (IPD) test was performed for MBL detection. RAPD-PCR was used for genotyping to rapidly characterize P. aeruginosa strains isolated from clinical patients. The percentages of non-susceptible isolates were as follows: 40.2% to ceftazidime, 58.7% to meropenem, 56.5% to gentamicin, 46.7% to tobramycin, 62.0% to ciprofloxacin and 97.8% to chloramphenicol. The 29 multidrug-resistant strains were screened by the IPD test: of the 21 PCR-positive isolates, 19 were IPM-1 producers and 2 were VIM-2 producers. Among the 19 IMP-1-producing P. aeruginosa isolates, 16 isolates showed similar patterns, and three different banding patterns were observed. The proportion of IMP-1-producing multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa from clinical isolates steadily increased in this secondary hospital in Korea in 2010. This study provides information about the antimicrobial-resistant patterns and genotype of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated from clinical isolates in Korea, 2010.
Molecular Diversity of Rhizobacteria in Ginseng Soil and Their Plant Benefiting Attributes
Hong, Eun Hye ; Lee, Sun Hee ; Vendan, Regupathy Thamizh ; Rhee, Young Ha ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 246~253
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.047
The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular diversity of rhizobacteria associated with ginseng of varying age levels and their plant benefiting attributes. A total of 143 different isolates belonging to 15 different bacterial genera were recovered. Although variation was found in the rhizobacterial community due to age of the plant, majority of bacteria belong to Firmicutes (58%). In which, Bacillus was found to be the predominant genus irrespective of age of the ginseng. To assess the plant benefiting attributes, 30 representative isolates were selected. The results indicated that some of the isolates could exhibit multiple plant growth promoting traits like secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes, production of indole-3-acetic acid, synthesis of siderophores, solubilization of phosphates and soil pathogens inhibition. It can be suggested that strains of B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, and B. licheniformis were positive for all the above traits, which have potential to be used as plant growth promoting inoculants to improve ginseng crop in the future.
Analysis of Microbial Communities in Aquatic Sediment Microbial Fuel Cells Injected with Glucose
Kim, Min ; Ekpeghere, Kalu I. ; Kim, Soo-Hyeon ; Chang, Jae-Soo ; Koh, Sung-Cheol ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 254~261
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.061
The purpose of this research was to optimize electric current production of sediment microbial fuel cells by injecting glucose and to investigate its impact on microbial communities involved. It was shown that injection of proper concentration of glucose could increase electric current generated from sediment microbial fuel cells. When 1,000 mg/L of glucose, as opposed to higher concentrations, was injected, electric current increased up to 3 times. This increase is mainly attributed to the mutual relationship between fermenting bacteria and exoelectrogenic bacteria. Here the organic acids generated by fermenting bacteria could be utilized by exoelectrogenic bacteria, removing feedback inhibition caused by the organic acids. When glucose was injected, the population of Clostridium increased as to ferment injected glucose. Glucose fermentation can have either a positive or negative effect on electric current generation. When exoelectrogenic bacteria may readily utilize the end-product, electric current could increase. However, when the end-product was not readily removed, then detrimental chemical reactions (pH decrease, methane generation, organic acids accumulation) occurred: exoelctrogenic bacteria population declined and non-microbial fuel cell related microorganisms prospered. By injecting a proper concentration of glucose, a mutual relationship between fermenting bacteria, such as Clostridium, and exoelectrogenic bacteria, such as Geobacter, should be fulfilled in order to increase electricity production in mixed cultures of microorganisms collected from the aquatic sediments.
Seasonal Differences of Bacterial Communities Associated with the Marine Sponge, Hymeniacidon sinapium
Jeong, Jong-Bin ; Park, Jin-Sook ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 262~269
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.063
Seasonal differences of the cultivable bacterial communities associated with the marine sponge, Hymeniacidon sinapium, between spring and summer were analyzed through the Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA). For the cultivation of the bacterial isolates, modified Zobell and MA media were used. The 16S rDNA of individual strains were amplified and fragmented by using two restriction enzymes, HaeIII and MspI. As a result, 23 ARDRA types from the spring sponge and 28 types from the summer sponge were obtained. The partial sequencing result of 1 to 3 selected strains from each types showed over 94% similarities with the known species from the public database. The bacterial communities from the sponge, captured on spring, contained 4 phyla: Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. There were 5 phyla observed from the bacterial communities associated with the sponge, captured on summer: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Gammaproteobacteria was predominant group in both spring and summer, accounted for 33.8% of total in spring and 67.4% in summer, showed increase pattern on summer. Because Firmicutes and Actinobacteria participated in 30.2% and 8.3% of the spring sponge while they represented only 6.9% and 0% of the summer sponge, both bacterial groups showed decrease drift on summer. Betaproteobacteria (4.7%) and Bacteroidetes (4.7%) were only observed on the sponge captured on summer. On the sponge, Hymeniacidon sinapium, more diverse bacterial communities were shown on summer than on spring, and even from the same sponge, there were seasonal differences.
Isolation and Characterization of Streptomyces spp. from Soil Showing Broad Spectrum Antibiotic Activity
Park, Sewook ; Bae, Taeok ; Kim, Seung Bum ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 270~274
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.053
Three actinobacterial strains exhibiting broad spectrum antibiotic activities were isolated from soil, and characterized. Through the comparative analysis of 16S rRNA genes, the three isolates could be assigned to the genus Streptomyces, as S. tanashiensis, S. nashivillensis, and S. rubiginosohelvolus were found to be the mostly related species, but the strains formed independent phylogenetic lineage. Each strain exhibited different antimicrobial profile against Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and also fungi Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei. In addition to the antimicrobial profile, the strains also differed in API ZYM test results, which implies that the three strains might produce difference antimicrobial substances.
Phylogenetic Analysis of Bacterial Diversity in the Marine Sponge, Asteropus simplex, Collected from Jeju Island
Jeong, In-Hye ; Park, Jin-Sook ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 275~283
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.064
Culture-dependent RFLP and culture-independent DGGE were employed to investigate the bacterial community associated with the marine sponge Asteropus simplex collected from Jeju Island. A total of 120 bacterial strains associated with the sponge were cultivated using modified Zobell and MA media. PCR amplicons of the 16S rDNA from the bacterial strains were digested with the restriction enzymes HaeIII and MspI, and then assigned into different groups according to their restriction patterns. The 16S rDNA sequences derived from RFLP patterns showed more than 94% similarities compared with known bacterial species, and the isolates belonged to five phyla, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, of which Gammaproteobacteria was dominant. DGGE fingerprinting of 16S rDNAs amplified from the sponge-derived total gDNA showed 12 DGGE bands, and their sequences showed more than 90% similarities compared with available sequences. The sequences derived from DGGE bands revealed high similarity with the uncultured bacterial clones. DGGE revealed that bacterial community consisted of seven phyla, including Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteira, Chloroflexi, and Nitrospira. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were commonly found in bacteria associated with A. simplex by both RFLP and DGGE methods, however, overall bacterial community in the sponge differed depending on the analysis methods. Sponge showed more various bacterial community structures in culture-independent method than in culture-dependent method.
Characteristics and Virulence Assay of Entomopathogenic Fungus Nomuraea rileyi for the Microbial Control of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Lee, Won Woo ; Shin, Tae Young ; Ko, Seung Hyun ; Choi, Jae Bang ; Bae, Sung Min ; Woo, Soo Dong ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 284~292
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.044
To date, chemical control remains the most common way to reduce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) populations. However, this insect has become more tolerant or resistant to many chemical insecticides and the insect larvae usually hide inside hollow, tube-like leaves of host plant so they were difficult to kill by spraying insecticides. The use of viral and bacterial insecticide to solve these problems has not been successful because of their novel feeding habit. To overcome these problems, in this study, the biological characteristics and virulence of an entomopathogenic fungus isolated from the cadaver of larvae beet armyworm were investigated. Isolated entomopathogenic fungus was identified as Nomeraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson by morphological examinations and genetic identification using sequences of the ITS,
-tubulin gene and EF1-
regions. This fungus was named as N. rileyi SDSe. Virulence tests against 3rd larvae of beet armyworm were conducted with various conidial suspensions from
conidia/ml of N. rileyi SDSe in laboratory conditions. Mortality rate of beet armyworm showed from 20 to 54% and the virulence increased with increasing conidial concentrations. Although N. rileyi SDSe showed low mortality rate against beet armyworm, it is expected that N. rileyi SDSe will be used effectively in the integrated pest management programs against the beet armyworm.
Characterization of a Chitinase Gene and Screening of Cold Active Chitinase from Polar Microorganisms
Park, Yu Kyung ; Kim, Jung Eun ; Lee, Hyoungseok ; Kim, Ji Hyun ; Park, Ha Ju ; Kim, Dockyu ; Park, Mira ; Yim, Joung Han ; Kim, Il-Chan ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 293~297
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.030
Of the 169 strains of microorganisms stored in Polar and Alpine Microbial Collection of Korea Polar Research Institute, 27 strains were selected for their chitinase activity on ZoBell plates supplemented with 0.4% colloidal chitin. Among them, PAMC 21693 strain have shown the highest chitinolytic enzyme activity toward pNP-
at low temperature and the highest growth rate at
. We cloned a full-length chitinase gene of 2,857 bp which contains an open reading frame of 2,169 bp encoding 872-amino acid polypeptide. Recombinant chitinase protein was expressed in E. coli and its molecular weight was confirmed 96 kDa. In this paper, we suggest the potential use of cold-active chitinase from polar microorganisms in the field of biotechnology.
Production and Characterization of Thermostable Protease from Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Korean Traditional Soybean Paste
Bae, Young Eun ; Yoon, Ki-Hong ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 298~304
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.048
Among 63 Bacillus strains grown at
from sixteen samples of homemade Korean soybean paste, one strain was selected for producing the thermostable protease. The isolate has been identified as Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of its 16S rDNA sequence, morphology and biochemical properties. Culture filtrate of the isolate showed maximal protease activity at the reaction condition of
and pH 11. The culture filtrate retained more than 87% of initial protease activity after incubation for 30 min at
without substrate. In order to develop the medium composition, effects of ingredients including nitrogen sources, carbon sources, metal ions and phosphate were examined for protease production of the isolate. Lactose and soytone peptone were the most effective carbon and nitrogen source for the enzyme production. After the late logarithmic growth phase the isolate began to produce the protease, and the maximum protease productivity was reached to 550 unit/ml in the optimized medium consisting of lactose (3%), soytone peptone (1.5%),
(0.03%) at 28 h of incubation.
Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of Volatile Organic Compounds Generated During the Drying Process of Chamaecyparis obtuse
Seo, Young-Jun ; Lee, Jae-Won ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 305~308
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.028
In this study, we evaluated antifungal and antioxidant activities of condensed liquid of volatile organic compounds generated during the drying process of Chamaecyparis obtuse. Condensed liquid of volatile organic compounds were extracted with hexane and ethyl acetate, respectively. The extracts were used for antifungal activity at range from 100 to 500 mg/L Antifungal activity of extracts increased as the extracts concentration increased, the activity against tested dermatophytes was high at 500 mg/L. Among extract solvents, antifungal activity was higher at hexane extract than the ethyl acetate. Especially, the antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum was higher than other tested dermatophytes. Antioxidant activity was 90% above 25 mg/L regardless of the extractive solvents, while the hexane extract showed high antioxidant activity below 25 mg/L. Major compounds of hexane extract were torreyol, alpha-cadinol, and tau-cadinol. However, major compounds of ethyl acetate extract were alpha-amorphene, alpha-cadinol, and gamma-cadinene.
Rapid Detection of Lactobacillus Genus Inhabiting in Vagina of 20's Healthy Women Using Multiplex PCR
Oh, Cho-Rong ; Cho, Hong-Bum ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 309~313
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.046
The purpose of this study is to simultaneously detect and identify specific genus of Lactobacillus distributed in vagina of healthy women in their twenties by using multiplex primer. Vaginal fluid samples were taken from 166 women who were healthy and did not have vaginosis symptoms caused by bacterial infection. Six species of lactic acid bacteria belong to Lactobacillus genus that are known to inhabit in healthy vagina were selected to make a species-specific multiplex primer. Multiplex primer I was specified to selectively detect L. iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and multiplex primer II was specified to selectively detect L. acidophilus, L. jensenii, L. fermentum. L. crispatus (77%) was most frequently detected, and L. acidophilus (57%) and L. jensenii (57%) were relatively higher than others. Although the proportion of L. iners (59%) was a little higher than those of L. acidophilus and L. jensenii, this should be further validated in healthy women's vagina to be sure since they often appear in women having bacterial vaginosis and/or during the antibiotic therapy. Conclusively, the multiplex PCR technique using the species-specific primer could a useful tool to predict variation of vaginal health condition and process of recovery from vaginal disease.
Virus Inactivation during the Manufacture of a Collagen Type I from Bovine Hides
Bae, Jung Eun ; Kim, Chan Kyung ; Kim, Sungpo ; Yang, Eun Kyung ; Kim, In Seop ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 314~318
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.049
Most types of collagen used for biomedical applications, such as cell therapy and tissue engineering, are derived from animal tissues. Therefore, special precautions must be taken during the production of these proteins in order to assure against the possibility of the products transmitting infectious diseases to the recipients. The ability to remove and/or inactivate known and potential viral contaminants during the manufacturing process is an ever-increasingly important parameter in assessing the safety of biomedical products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacies of the 70% ethanol treatment and pepsin treatment at pH 2.0 for the inactivation of bovine viruses during the manufacture of collagen type I from bovine hides. A variety of experimental model viruses for bovine viruses including bovine herpes virus (BHV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPIV-3), and bovine parvovirus (BPV), were chosen for the evaluation of viral inactivation efficacy. BHV, BVDV, BPIV-3, and BPV were effectively inactivated to undetectable levels within 1 h of 70% ethanol treatment for 24 h, with log reduction factors of
, respectively. BHV, BVDV, BPIV-3, and BPV were also effectively inactivated to undetectable levels within 5 days of pepsin treatment for 14 days, with the log reduction factors of
, respectively. The cumulative virus reduction factors of BHV, BVDV, BPIV-3, and BPV were
. These results indicate that the production process for collagen type I from bovine hides has a sufficient virus-reducing capacity to achieve a high margin of virus safety.
Molecular Divergences of 16S rRNA and rpoB Gene in Marine Isolates of the Order Oscillatoriales (Cyanobacteria)
Cheon, Ju-Yong ; Lee, Min-Ah ; Ki, Jang-Seu ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 319~324
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.057
In this study, we investigated molecular divergences and phylogenetic characteristics of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene sequences from the order Oscillatoriales (Cyanobacteria). The rpoB of Oscillatoriales showed higher genetic divergence when compared with those of 16S rRNA (p-distance: rpoB=0.270, 16S=0.109), and these differences were statistically significant (Student t-test, p<0.001). Phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA and rpoB were generally compatible; however, rpoB tree clearly separated the compared Oscillatoriales taxa, with higher phylogenetic resolution. In addition, parsimony analyses showed that rpoB gene evolved 2.40-fold faster than 16S rRNA. These results suggest that the rpoB is a useful gene for the molecular phylogenetics and species discrimination in the order Oscillatoriales.
Growth Inhibition of Plant Pathogenic Fungi by a Chitinase of Coprinellus congregatus
Kang, Yuri ; Choi, Hyoung T. ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 325~327
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.058
Experiments for growth inhibition of two different plant pathogenic fungal species, Alternaria alternata (KCTC26781) and Fusarium graminearum ZO3639 (type culture) and ASR1R1 (isolate from rice), by a chitinase (Chi2) expressed in the autolysing tissue of Coprinellus congregatus were carried out. In liquid media, Chi2 (
) inhibited more than 90% of germination of A. alternata spore, and the growth of each fungal strain was totally inhibited by the addition of Chi2 at the concentrations of
of Chi2 was added twice a day at the hyphal tip zone, both strains of F. graminearum showed growth inhibition as well as decreased hyphal branching.
Marine Prokaryotic Diversity of the Deep Sea Waters at the Depth of 1500 m Off the Coast of the Ulleung Island in the East Sea (Korea)
Kim, Mi-Kyung ; Khang, Yongho ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 48, issue 4, 2012, Pages 328~331
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2012.056
Microbial diversity in the 1500 m depth sea waters off the coast of Ulleung island of the East Sea, Korea, was investigated. Genomic DNAs were extracted directly from the marine microbes filtered through ultramembrane filters. Pyrosequencing of 16S rDNAs of these microbes resulted in 13,029 reads, of which uncultured bacteria consisted of 54.1%, alphaproteobacteria 23.4%, and gammaproteobacteria 22.3%. Other classes such as flavobacteria, actinobacteria, and epsilonproteobacteria were distributed within 0.2% of total reads. Among the cultivable bacteria, it was found that Rhodobacteraceae family of alphaproteobacteria, Alteromonadaceae, Halomonadaceae, and Piscirickettsiaceae families of gammaproteobacteria were mostly distributed in the deep-sea waters.