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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Korean Journal of Microbiology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Microbiological Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 51, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 51, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 51, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 51, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
A review of factors that regulate extracellular enzyme activity in wetland soils
Kim, Haryun ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 51, issue 2, 2015, Pages 97~107
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2015.4087
Wetlands constitute a transitional zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and have unique characteristics such as frequent inundation, inflow of nutrients from terrestrial ecosystems, presence of plants adapted to grow in water, and soil that is occasionally oxygen deficient due to saturation. These characteristics and the presence of vegetation determine physical and chemical properties that affect decomposition rates of organic matter (OM). Decomposition of OM is associated with activities of various extracellular enzymes (EE) produced by bacteria and fungi. Extracellular enzymes convert macromolecules to simple compounds such as labile organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) that can be easily taken up by microbes and plants. Therefore, the enzymatic approach is helpful to understand the decomposition rates of OM and nutrient cycling in wetland soils. This paper reviews the physical and biogeochemical factors that regulate extracellular enzyme activities (EEa) in wetland soils, including those of
-N-acetylglucosaminidase, phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and phenol oxidase that decompose organic matter and release C, N, P, and S nutrients for microbial and plant growths. Effects of pH, water table, and particle size of OM on EEa were not significantly different among sites, whereas the influence of temperature on EEa varied depending on microbial acclimation to extreme temperatures. Addition of C, N, or P affected EEa differently depending on the nutrient state, C:N ratio, limiting factors, and types of enzymes of wetland soils. Substrate quality influenced EEa more significantly than did other factors. Also, drainage of wetland and increased temperature due to global climate change can stimulate phenol oxidase activity, and anthropogenic N deposition can enhance the hydrolytic EEa; these effects increase OM decomposition rates and emissions of
from wetland systems. The researches on the relationship between microbial structures and EE functions, and environmental factors controlling EEa can be helpful to manipulate wetland ecosystems for treating pollutants and to monitor wetland ecosystem services.
Secretion of the iron containing superoxide dismutase of Streptomyces subrutilus P5
Park, Jae-seung ; Kim, Jae-heon ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 51, issue 2, 2015, Pages 108~114
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2015.5019
We tried to analyze the growth time for secretion of the iron containing superoxide dismutase by comparing the intra-and extracellular enzyme activity from Streptomyces subrutilus P5 and analyze possible genetic information for this enzyme secretion. The mycelial dry weights and glucose concentrations in culture filtrates were determined during growth. Glucose was consumed rapidly during logarithmic growth phase and almost exhausted at 24 h of cultivation. While the intracellular activity of iron containing superoxide dismutase was first appeared at three hours, the extracellular activity of this enzyme appeared from 7.5 h of cultivation, early logarithmic growth phase. This early presence of the superoxide dismutase might not be the result of cell lysis but active secretion pathway. There was no information for signal peptide responsible for the enzyme secretion in sodF. However, we found a type three secretion box in the promoter region of sodF that has been known for the genes of type III secreted proteins in other bacteria. This is the first report on the possible existence of type III secretion in Streptomyces.
The development of murine recombinant single-chain variable domain fragment (ScFv) specific to acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) cell line HL60
Kim, Cheol Hong ; Han, Seung Hee ; Kim, Hyeong Min ; Han, Jae Yong ; Lim, Myeong Woon ; Kim, Jin-Kyoo ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 51, issue 2, 2015, Pages 115~125
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2015.5015
A monoclonal antibody AP64 IgM binds to human acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) cell line HL60 and also cross-reacts with the homologous antigen in a rat ANLL cell. This antibody mediated by complement, has leukemia a suppression effect. In this study, we generated a recombinant single-chain variable domain fragment (ScFv) which were derived from
cDNA of AP64 IgM-secreting hybridoma by RT-PCR. The two variable regions were joined with a single 15 amino acid linker
. This recombinant ScFv was expressed as a single polypeptide chain from Escherichia coli BMH 71-18. The recombinant ScFv was purified by applying the periplasmic extract to
-NTA-agarose affinity column and detected with westernblot. The purified recombinant ScFv recognized a surface antigen (about 30 kDa) of HL60 cell line which is the same antigen detected by parental AP64 IgM. But the affinity of ScFv for a surface antigen of HL60 was lower than that of the parental AP64 IgM, which needs to be further improved. Overall, the recombinant ScFv specific to HL60 might be a useful bioreagent for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Reduction of the bacteria from fecal contaminated diapers through washing and heating
Jung, You Min ; Lee, Ho Sun ; Kim, Kyung Shin ; Oh, Han Seol ; Joo, Tak ; Kang, Sung Tae ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 51, issue 2, 2015, Pages 126~132
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2015.5001
Three different methods (simple washing of plastic and pulp sample, washing after direct heating of the diapers, and the heating after washing of plastic and pulp sample) were carried out to decrease total coliforms and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) in the diaper's plastic and pulp. Plastic and pulp samples were obtained from diaper by treatment with 10%
and 4% sea salt water, dilution with 1,000 ml tap water, and draining by using sieves. Three times washing was the most appropriate for the reduction of microorganisms in plastic and pulp. By three times washing, the number of total coliforms in the plastic and pulp samples showed 92.8% and 99.8% of decrease, respectively, and the number of HPC showed 97.3% of decrease in the plastic and 98.5% of decrease in the pulp. The washing after direct heating of the fecal contaminated diapers was not effective because HPC in the plastic and pulp samples were still detected about 2-3 log CFU/g in the plastic and 1-2 log CFU/g in the pulp, respectively, even after heating at
for 12 h. Meanwhile, total coliforms and HPC were completely sterilized at
for 4 h by heating after washing of plastic and pulp samples, suggesting that this method was the most appropriate method for the reduction of microorganisms in plastic and pulp obtained from fecal contaminated diapers.
Phylogenetic characterization of bacterial populations in different layers of oak forest soil
Han, Song-Ih ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 51, issue 2, 2015, Pages 133~140
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2015.5017
We have examined the correlation between the physicochemical and microbiological environment variables for the different layers of oak forest soil in Mt. Gyeryong, Korea. The result shows that there is a high correlation in the environment variables between the soil parameters of the fermented (F) layer and humus (H) layer. In particular, the pH level in the F layer shows a high correlation with C and N, while the various organic acids of the H layer turns out to be closely correlated with soil bacteria density. As we evaluated phylogenetic characteristics of bacterial populations by DGGE analysis with DNA extracted. Total of 175 bands including 43 bands from litter (L) layer, 42 bands from F layer, 43 bands from H layer and 47 bands from rhizosphere (A) layer were selected as the major DGGE band of oak forest soil. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, 175 DGGE bands were classified into 32 orders in 7 phylum. The heat map was analyzed in order to compare the quantity of the base sequences of each order and based on the clustering of the different layers of oak forest soil, the result confirms that the F layer and H layer belong to a different cluster from that of L layer and A layer. Furthermore, it also showed that approximately 50% of the total microbial population in different layers is
-proteobacteria, which indicates that they belong to the dominant system group. In particular, Rhizobiales, Burkholderiales and Actinobacteriales were observed in all the seasons and layers of oak forest soil, which confirms that they are the indigenous soil bacterial community in oak forest soil.
Isolation and identification of β-glucosidase producing halophilic Roseivivax roseus
Cho, Geon-Yeong ; Han, Song-Ih ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 51, issue 2, 2015, Pages 141~147
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2015.5024
Four halophilic bacteria were isolated from a salt water tank of more than 25% above salinity used for production of salt. HJS1 and HJS6 strains were identified as having
-glucosidase producing capabilities at high salinity.
-Glucosidase produced from these bacterial strains showed the best activity at 56-79 U/ml in NaCl (0-5%), showing the highest
-glucosidase activity at NaCl 3%. A salt tolerant
-glucosidase can maintain at least 75% activity of the enzyme in 0-20% NaCl concentration. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains HJS1 and HJS6 shows 99.8% similarity with Roseivivax roseus
. Those sequences were registered as AB971835 and AB971836 in the NCBI GenBank. DNA-DNA hybridization test revealed that both strains showed 90.1 to 90.3% hybridization values with R. roseus
, which was the closest phylogenetic neighbor. Major Cellular fatty acids of strains HJS1 and HJS6 were
and the major quinone was Q-10. Their fatty acid composition and quinone were very similar to Roseivivax roseus
. Meanwhile, Roseivivax roseus
did not produce any
-glucosidase. Based on the molecular and chemotaxonomic properties, strains HJS1 and HJS6 were identified as members of Roseivivax roseus.
Molecular diversity of endobacterial communities in edible part of King oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) based on 16S rRNA
Lee, Choung Kyu ; Haque, Md. Azizul ; Choi, Byoung Rock ; Lee, Hee Yul ; Hwang, Chung Eun ; Ahn, Min Ju ; Cho, Kye Man ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 51, issue 2, 2015, Pages 148~155
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2015.4086
The diversity of endobacteria in the edible part (cap and stipe) king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) was investigated using 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The bacterial 16S rRNA libraries were constructed from the body cap (BC) and the body stipe (BS) of the king oyster mushroom. The twenty sequenced BC clones were divided into four groups and the largest group was affiliated with the Firmicutes (40% of clones). While, the twenty sequenced BS clones could be divided into six groups and the largest group was affiliated with the Actinobacteria (40% of clones). The predominant bacterial family from both the cap and stipe of the mushroom was corresponded with the Gram positive bacteria (62.5%).
Evaluation of the anti-Helicobacter pylori and cytotoxic properties of the antimicrobial substances from Lactobacillus acidophilus BK13 and Lactobacillus paracasei BK57
Lim, Eun-Seo ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 51, issue 2, 2015, Pages 156~168
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2015.5023
The objective of this study is to investigate the anti-Helicobacter pylori and anti-cancer activities of the live cells (LC), cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS), and bacteriocin solution (BS) obtained from Lactobacillus acidophilus BK13 and Lactobacillus paracasei BK57 strains. After incubation for 30 h in MRS broth, the concentration of lactic acid produced by L. paracasei BK57 (
) was higher than in MRS broth using L. acidophilus BK13 (
). Maximum bacteriocin activity (128 AU/ml) of BK13 strain was observed after 30 h of cultivation at
, however its magnitude was significantly lower than that of BK57 strain (256 AU/ml). The LC of L. acidophilus BK13 and L. paracasei BK57 were able to inhibit the growth of H. pylori ATCC 43504 at different incubation times, depending on the initial inoculum of the LAB. These CFCS and BS obtained from BK13 and BK57 strains dramatically inhibited the growth, adhesive ability, and enzymatic activity of H. pylori. Meanwhile, the anti-cancer effect of the lactic acid from L. acidophilus BK13 and L. paracasei BK57 strains on AGS cells had significant differences with the control group. Therefore, these antagonistic substances-producing strains are potentially useful as new potential antimicrobial agents for the management and prevention of H. pylori infections.
Isolation of indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum for malolactic fermentation
Heo, Jun ; Lee, Chan-Mi ; Park, Moon Kook ; Jeong, Do-Youn ; Uhm, Tai-Boong ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 51, issue 2, 2015, Pages 169~176
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2015.5022
The malolactic fermentation (MLF), which is widely used in winemaking, is the conversion of malic acid to lactic acid conducted by the malolactic enzyme (Mle) of lactic acid bacteria. In order to select the strains with MLF among 54 lactic acid bacteria isolated from the traditionally fermented foods, we designed a primer set that specifically targets the conserved regions of the mle gene and then selected four strains that harbor the mle gene of Lactobacillus plantarum. All strains were identified as L. plantarum by analyzing the 16S rRNA sequences, biochemical properties, and the PCR products of the recA gene. From comparison of the mle gene sequences consisting of 1,644 bp, the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of strain JBE60 correspond to 96.7% and 99.5% with those of other three strains, respectively. The strain JBE60 showed the highest resistant against 10% (v/v) ethanol among the strains. The strains lowered the concentration of malic acid to average 43%. Considering the ethanol resistance and conversion of malic acid, the strain JBE60 is considered as a potential starter for the malolactic fermentation.
Isolation and characterization of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TK3 inhibiting causative bacteria of atrophic rhinitis and fowl typhoid
Jung, Taeck-Kyung ; Song, Hong-Gyu ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 51, issue 2, 2015, Pages 177~180
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2015.5007
For prevention of atrophic rhinitis of swine by Bordetella bronchiseptica and fowl typhoid by Salmonella gallinarum, bacterial strains showing antimicrobial activity against those pathogenic bacteria were isolated from various samples collected at animal farms. Among 372 bacterial isolates strain TK3 showed the highest antibacterial activity against both pathogens, and was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. B. amyloliquefaciens TK3 could inhibit growth of both pathogens by secretion of antibacterial compounds such as siderophore, rhamnolipid and antimicrobial peptide. Production radius of siderophore on Chrome azurol S agar plate by strain TK3 was 0.53 cm after 14 days of incubation, and concentration of siderophore in King's B medium was 1.06 mmol/ml. It also secreted 82.4 mg/L of rhamnolipid, and antimicrobial peptide that completely inhibited growth of both pathogens at concentration of
in LB medium.
Effects of Tho2, a component of THO complex, on growth and mRNA export in fission yeast
Koh, Eun-Jin ; Yoon, Jin Ho ;
The Korean Journal of Microbiology, volume 51, issue 2, 2015, Pages 181~185
DOI : 10.7845/kjm.2015.5020
Tho2/THOC2 is a subunit of the THO complex that plays important roles in mRNP biogenesis connecting transcription with mRNA maturation and export. A fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, ortholog of Tho2/THOC2 was identified from the genome database. Tetrad analysis showed that the S. pombe tho2 is essential for growth. Repression or overexpression of the tho2 gene caused growth defect with elongated cells, abnormal DNA distribution, and accumulation of
RNA in the nucleus. And the functional GFP-Tho2 protein is localized mainly in the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that Tho2 interacted with Tex1, another subunit of THO complex. These results suggest that S. pombe Tho2 is also involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and is a component of THO complex.