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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Sep 1983
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Mar 1983
Volume 11, Issue 4 - 00 1983
Volume 11, Issue 2 - 00 1983
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The Inactivation Effects of UV Light on Bacteriophage f2
Kim, Chi-Kyung ; Quae Chae ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 155~161
The effects of ultraviolet light on bacteriophage f2 were investigated to determine the inactivation kinetics and its mechanism. The 260nm light showed a little higher inactivation rate than the one of 300 nm. In this work, our main concern was whether structural and/or conformational changes in the protein capsid could occur by UV irradiation. The inactivation for the first 20 minutes irradiation was rapid with a loss of about 4 logs and followed by a slower rate during the next 40 minutes with no survival noted in the samples irradiated for 90 minutes or longer. The structural change of the protein capsid was examined by optical spectroscopic techniques and electron microscopy. The absorption spectra of the UV irradiated phages showed no detectable differences in terms of the spectral shape and intensity from the control phage. However, the fluorescence emission spectroscopic data, i.e. 1) fluorescence quenching of tryptophan residues upon irradiation of 300 nm light, 2) enhancement of fluorescence emission of ANS (8-aniline-1-naphthalene sulfonate) bound to the intact phages compared to the one in the UV-treated phages, and 3) decrease of energy transfer efficiency from tryptophan to ANS in the UV-treated samples, presented remarkable differences between the intact and UV-treated phages. Such a structural alteration was also observed by electron microscopy The UV-treated phages appeared to be broken and empty capsids. Therefore, the inactivation of the bacteriophage f2 by UV irradiation is thought to be attributed to the structural change in the protein capsid as well as damage in the viral RNA by UV irradiation.
Transformation of Bacillus Subtilis by Streptomyces bobili R-Plasmid DNA
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 163~168
The penicillin resistant plasmid DNA was prepared from Streptomyces bobili YS-40, producing penicillinase, by the phenol extraction method and introduced into Bocillus subtilis IAM 12118 by the transformation procedure of Mahler method. The optimal pH and temperature on the transformation was 7.0, 3
respectively. Above 20 minutes contact of plasmid DNA and recipient cell was shown the high transformation frequency. The transformant of penicillin resistance was proportionally increased as increase of the DNA concentration. The addition of lysine in transformation system increased the transformation frequency about 6-fold and the addition of the chloramphenicol did not affect the transformation frequency.
A Study on the Denitrification in the Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 169~174
The study was concerned with the biological denitrification of wastewater using the fluidization of biofilm-coated carbon particles. And the effect of Glucose and biofilm thickness on denitrification was mainly investigated. Experimental results showed that biofilm thickness increased with the growth of bacteria and 14 days after the beginning of operation, the thickness approached 300-310
. It was found that biofilm thickness was directly concerned with the removal efficiency of NO
-N. As the results of experiments to find out the influence of Glucose on denitrification, Glucose, 60% excess from stoichiometric quantity was adequate and sufficient to react the bacteria with NO
Lysine Production by Thialysine Resistant Mutant of Candida utilis ( I ) - Isolation of High Lysine Excreting Mutant of Candida utilis -
Bang, Byung-Ho ; Seu, Jung-Hwn ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 175~180
Thialysine significantly inhibited the growth of wild type strain Gondida utilis NCYC-359. In the absence of thialysine, the culture reached stationary phase after 24hr, however, in the presence of 0.5% thialysine, the culture reached stationary phase after 40hr, respectively. Effect of amino acid or vitamin was investigated on recovery of the growth of wild type strain from thialysine inhibition. Glycine, methionine, arginine and tryptophan recovered growth inhibition by thialyslne to some extent. However, vitamins were inert. Especially, lysine at one eighth concentration of thialysine recovered almost fully the growth inhibition. Thialysine resistant mutants were induced from the parent strain of Condida utilis NCYC-359 by NTG treatment. Colonies of thialysine resistant mutants were obtained on agar minimal medium supplemented with 0.1-0.5% thialysine. The frequency of thialysine resistant mutants induced by the first mutation was the highest at 0.1% The wild strain produced no appreciable lysine extracellularly. However, almost thialysine resistant mutants excreted appreciably. Lysine excretion increased after repeated mutation. Finally, of the thialysine resistant mutants induced by NTG, Condida utilis TRN-4006 was obtained. This strain excreted lysine (400
) into the medium with a concomitant decrease of lysine in the intracellular pool.
Saccharification of Raw Starch in Ethanol Fermentation
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 181~185
The possibility of the ethanol fermentation from raw cassava starch without cooking was investigated. Saccharification yield in the simultaneous saccharification-fermentation (SSF) system was compared with that in saccharification of raw cassava starch, using glucoamylase of Aspergillus shirousmi. Although the saccharification yield of raw cassava starch with 10 folds of the enzyme was 60% compared to cooked cassava starch, higher saccharification could be obtained by SSF This result is maybe due to the elimination of end product inhibition in saccharification of raw starch by glucoamylase. Final ethanol yield from raw cassava starch was about 88% under the condition of 3
, 120 rpm shaking after 3 days in the SSF system.
Purification and Characterization of Xylanase from Bacillus licheniformis,
Park, Yang-Do ; Han, Moon-Hi ; Kim, Jin-Mee ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 187~192
Three kinds of xylanases, X-C, X-I, and X-II, were separated from culture filtrate of an alkalophilic bacteria, Bocillus licheniformis OR-1. Their molecular weights were estimated to be 29, 000, 50, 000, and 34, 000, respectively. They were most active at pH 6.0-6.5, and at temperature of 5
. Mercurc ion and p-chloromercurybenzoate inhibited the xylanase activity of X-C and X-II remarkably, whereas X-I was not affected. Xylanase X-I hydrolyzed barley straw xylan liberating xylose, xylobiose, and arabinose, while X-C and X-II produced only xylobiose and xylotriose.
Studies on Hemicellulase System in Aspersillus niger - Bioconversion of Cellulosic Wastes for the Production of D-xylose -
Moon Hi. Han ; Park, Yang-Do ; Park, Myung-Ok ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 193~199
Systematic bioconversion process for the production of xylose from agricultural wastes such as barley straw and corn cobs was studied. After the pretreatment in 1 % NaOH solution for 24 hours at 3
, enzymatic hydrolysis of barley straw for 48 hours at 3
resulted in the liberation of 15.8% of reducing sugar which is equivalent to 87% of total D-xylose content. Among various agricultural wastes, corn cob as well as barley straw was demonstrated to be potent sources for the production of D-xylose by the process of enzymatic conversion.
Studies on Antioxidants of Microbial Origin
Park, Boo-kil ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 201~204
Antioxidant, tentatively named PA-29B substance was isolated from the fermentation broth of rare Actinomycetes. It was isolated by means of silica gel column chromatography and obtained as colorless plates, mp 155-157
. The structure of PA-29B substance was assigned to be
-phenyl acetamide by
HNMR spectrometer and mass spectrometer.
Studies on the Production of
-Galactosidase by Lactobacillus sporogenes - Characterization of
Kim, Young-Man ; Lee, Jung-Chi ; Chung, Pil-Keun ; Park, Yong-Jin ; Yang, Han-Chul ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 205~210
-galactosidase was prepared from a culture of Lactobacillus sporogenes, a spore-forming lactic acid bacterium. The enzyme functioned optimally at pH 6.8 and at 6
-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) in 0.05M sodium phosphate buffer. The activation energy of the enzymatic hydrolysis of ONPG was about 16,000 cal/mole below
and 11,300 cal/mole above the temperature. It was fairly stable over a pH range from 4.0 to 8.0 losing only less than 30% of its activity after hearting at 6
and pH 6.8 for 3 hours. Metal ions showed no significant effect on the enzyme activity, whereas L-cysteine exerted a slight stimulatory effect at the concentration of 10mM. The km values were 1.48mM for ONPG and 64.5mM for lactose. Hydrolysis of ONPG by the enzyme was product-inhibited by galactose (Ki=13.3mM, competitive inhibition) and by glucose(Ki= 11.4mM, uncompetitive type). The enzyme activity was also noncompetitively inhibited in the presence of lactose (Ki= 17.8mM).
A Study on Nitrogenase - Mediated Evolution of Molecular Hydrogen in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides K-7
Lee, Jeong-Kug ; Moo Bae ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 211~216
Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides K-7 evolves large quantities of molecular hydrogen under anaerobic and light illuminated conditions in the presence of utilizable organic compounds as electron donors. Photoevolution of molecular hydrogen was strictly dependent on light as the activity of nitrogenase in this organism. Both of these were inhibited to the nearly same extent at varying concentrations of ammonium ion which also depressed nitrogenase synthesis. In the reaction mixtures devoid of molybdenum ion which is known as the component of nitrogenase, hydrogen evolution also decreased similarly like nitrogenase activity. Photoevolution of molecular hydrogen appeared to have no relationship with hydrogenase activity and bacteriocholophyll content and it was markedly inhibited under the atmosphere of
. The results strongly indicate that hydrogen evolution by R. sphaeroides K-7 might be catalyzed by nitrogenase. Both hydrogen evolution and nitrogenase activity were largely influenced by the nutritional history of the resting cells. From which we propose that glutamate might play an important role in the regulation of nigrogenase activity in vivo.
Studies on the Production of Gibberellic acid
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 217~222
By the treatment of Gibberella fujkuroi I-892 with mutagen such as UV light and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, a mutant G. fujkuroi G-471 was selected as the highest producer of gibberellic acid among 800 mutant strains. It showed 30% increase of production yield compared with that of the parent strain. At optimum medium composition (saccharose 1.0%, ammonium tartarate 50mM, malt extract 1.0% KH
0.0002%, trace element sol.0.002% (v/v), the yield of submerged culture increased by 30% after 7 days culture at 24
). In submerged culture, the initial pH showed much effects on the increase of gibberellic acid production. The highest yield of the production was attained with pH adjustment to 4.0 at the initial stage of fermention.
Basic Studies on the Development of a Microbial Pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 223~231
The productions of beta-exotoxin from sixteen Bacillus thuringiensis strains were examined by Micrococus flava primarily, and then measured by spectrophotometer during culturing in Conner and Hansen mineral salts medium at 28
. Also the toxic effects of the toxin to mice were checked. The growth of Bacillus thuringiensis K2 and BTK2-T1, -T13, -T33 and -T40 got into stationary phase at 6 hour culture and then maintained it up to 48 hours without severe fluctuation. The production of beta-exotoxin from the strains, BTK2, BTK2-T1, -T13, -T17 and -T33 appeared at 6 hour culture and the amounts of the toxin were about 40
at 6 hour culture, approximately 70
at 12 hours, approximately 85
from 24 hours to 48 hours. At 48 hour-culture, BTK2 produced 80
of beta-exotoxin (5.5
, BTK2-T13 produced 84
), BTK2-T17 produced 87
), and BTK2-T33 produced 84
). All other serotypes also produced beta-exotoxin. At 48 hour culture, BTK-37 produced 88
), BTK-35 produced 81
), and the rest of them produced less than 70
. To check the toxicity of beta-exotoxin and B. thuringiensis, the cultured media with microorganisms were inoculated to mice by per os, intraperiloneal, subcutaneous and intracerebral injection, and nasal cavity inoculation for 30 days. However, the toxin did not kill all of the treated mice.
Growth Patterns of Temperature-sensitive Mutants of Bacillus Thuringiensis
Lee, Hyung-Hoan ; Lee, Hoon-Ku ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 233~239
Bacillus thuringiensis was mutagenized with UV light irradiation and nitrosoguanidine. Twenty-four tem perature-sensitive ts mutants were isolated at 42
and classified into two groups by growth on nutrient agar at 42
. First is the lethal group, which did not grow at the nonpermissive temperature, the second is the reduced group whose growth was restricted from one-half to one-fourth, Thirteen ts mutants belong to the lethal group and eleven ts mutants belong to the reduced group. Auxotrophic mutant, A-N28 required five amino acids as growth factors, A-N65 also five amino acids, A-N92 seven, A-N115 four and A-N156 three. Bacillus thuringiensis wild type is resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, and cephalothin. The ts-Ul7l, A-N92 and A-Nl15 are sensitive to the three antibiotics. The ts -U601, -U603, -U604 and -Ul71 did not grow at the permissive temperature after temperature-shifting from 42
. Four auxotrophic mutants (A-N38, A-N65, A-N92 and A-Nl15) did not form spores in their cells.
Studies on the Fermentation of Lupin Seed (II) - Preparation of traditional Korean fermented been Sauce and Paste -
Oh, Sung-Hoon ; Lee, Cherl-Ho ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 11, issue 3, 1983, Pages 241~248
Lupin seed was used to make Meju, the fermentation starter for Korean soybean sauce and paste in substitution for soybean and the fermentation characteristics were compared with those of soybean. Mejus were prepared by in-oculating Asp. oryzae on the cooked whole beans. The dried Mejus were used for making fermented bean sauce and paste by mixing with brine and subsequent ripening for 4 weeks. In general the protease activity and amylase activity-during ripening were higher in lupin seed Meju than those of soybean Meju. The increase in protease activity correlated to the increase in
-amino nitrogen content of the fermented paste and sauce. The development of dark-brown color of the sauce during ripening faster with lupin seed Meju compared to soybean Meju. In sensory evaluation the flavor score of lupin seed sauce and paste was slightly lower than that of soybean products but the overall quality of fermented lupin seed sauce was acceptable.