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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 1989
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 1989
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 1989
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 1989
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 1989
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 1989
Selecting the target year
Isolation of Oligosporogenous (Spo-Cry+)Mutant Containing Relatively tow Hemolytic Activity in
-Endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensig subsp, israelensis
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 273~276
The isolate SPO 3, an oligosporogenous and crystalliferous mutant, which was isolated from Bacillus thuringiensig subsp, israelensis by heat treatment at 42
for 24 hit. The
-endotoxin of the mutant had a relatively low hemolytic activity on human red blood cells; the
-endotoxin of the mutant had 25 times less hemolytic activity compared to that of wild strain. The loss of 28 KDa hemolytic protein subunit in
-endotoxin of the mutant was confirmed by means of double immunodiffusiori, immunoelectrophoresis, and SDS-PAGE.
Mass Transfer Effects in Xanthan Gum Fermentation
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 277~282
Xanthan gum is a biopolymer produced by Xanthomonas campestris. In xanthan gum fermentation, the fermentation broth changes to highly viscous non-Newtonian fluid as xanthan gum concentration increases. Maximum xanthan gum concentration is limited by high viscosity of the broth since mass transfers of nutrient and oxygen are inhibited. Int this study the mass transfer effects were investigated in batch and fed-batch fermentations at various agitation speeds and by separate oxygen transfer experiments. Xanthan gum production rate was observed to be largely dependent on oxygen transfer coefficient; while cell growth rate was not affected highly by this factor,
Subcloning and Enhanced Expression of the
-Xylosidase Gene Cloned from Alkalophilic Bacillus sp. K-17
Sung, Nack-Kie ; Ko, Hack-Ryong ; Kho, Yung-Hee ; Chun, Hyo-Kon ; Chung, Young-Chul ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 283~288
To reduce the size of 5.0kb HindIII fragment containing
-xylosidase gene, the 5.0kb insert of pAX278 which was previously cloned was reduced by various deletions and thus 1.4kb EcoRI-Xbal fragment was subcloned into pUC19, and the recombinant plasmid was named pAK208. The
-xylosidase acnivity of E. coli harboring pAK208 was higher about 1.3times than that of pAX278. For the improvement of
-xylosidase activity, we cloned and expressed the
-xylosidase gene in E. coli using vector pKK223-3 containing a potent tac-promoter, and enzyme activity of the transformant harboring pKHR212 was increased about 3.3 and 1.8 times than that of E. coli(pAX278) and Bacillus sp. K-17, respectively. To obtain better expression of
-xylosidase gene, the whole 5.0kb HineIII fragment was recloned into pC194, and the Bacillus sp. K-17 transformant harbor-ing the recombinant plasmid pCX174 showed higher activity than that of the E. coli (pAX278) and Bacillus sp. K-17, respectively. The characteristics of enzyme purified from transformants were consistent with those front alkalophilic Bacillus sp, K-17.
Production of Xylanase by Bacillus stearothermophilus
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 289~294
A bacterial strain capable of producing high level of extracellular xylanase was isolated from soil. The characteristics of the isolated strain No.236 were identified to be Bacillus stearothermophilus. The maximal xylanase production was observed in the medium containing 0.75% xylan, 0.35% yeast extract, 1.06%
and 0.05% CaCO
with initial pH of 6.5 when the strain was cultured at 5
for 28 hrs with reciprocal shaking. Hydrolysis of xylan by the xylanase revealed that xylose was the only product of the reaction. This suggested that the enzyme produced by Bacillus stearothermophilus No. 236 was an exe-acting xylanase.
Expression of the Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Protein Gene in Pseudomonas Isolated from Rhizosphere Soil of Korean Crops
Tag, Koo-Bon ; Shin, Byung-Sik ; Park, Seung-Hwan ; Park, Ho-Yong ; Kim, Jeong-Il ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 295~300
Screening of Pseudomonas strains that can be used as hosts for expression of crystal protein gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-73 was carried out. From rhizosphere soil of 7 kinds or crops as fluorescent Pseudomonas strains were isolated. A hybrie plasmid, pKTC1, composed of the broad host range vector pKT230 and the crystal protein gene was constructed and used for transformation of the 35 Pseudomonas strains. As the result, the crystal protein gene could be introduced into 4 isolates. Several methods including bioassay and immunochemical detection indicated that the crystall protein gene was expressed in the Pseudomonus isolates.
Cloning and Expression of the Structural Gene for Alcohol Dehydrogenase of Zymomonas mobilis in Escherichia coli
Yoon, Ki-Hong ; Shin, Byung-Sik ; M.Y Pack ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 301~306
A genomic library of Zymomonas mobilis DNA was constructed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pUC9 Allyl alcohol was used to screen a genomic clone expressing alcohol dehydrogenase. The plasmids isolated from two clones, which were sensitive to allyl alcohol, were found to be related and to share a common 2.6 kb fragment encoding alcohol dehydrogenase II identified as one of two isozymes in Z. mobilis by staining for alcohol dehydrogenase activity on polyacrylamide gel and spectrophotometric analysis of several substrate oxidations.
Biological Activity of Acetoxycycloheximide and Its Producing Microoganism
Kim, Si-Kwan ; Kim, Chang-Han ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 307~312
Strain No.77-AG-567 showed antifungal activity against Pyricularia oryzas and Sphaerotheca fuliginea. In the process of purification of active component this strain was found to produce blasticidin S together with another antibiotic. This compound was identified as being acetoxycyc-heximide, also referred to as E-73, by UV and
H NMR spectral data. Identification of this strain led us to conclude that strain No.77-AG-567 is most probably be Streptomyces atratus. It showed different characteristics from S. atbutus, so far known to produce both blasticidin S and acetoxycycloheximide. Particularly worthy of note was the difference in spore surface. In addition, acetoxycycloheximide has been known to have activity only against yeast and tumor cells but we found that it also has activity against Pyricularia oryzae and Sphasrotheca fuliginea.
Comparative Studies of Invertase Isozymes Produced by Rhodotorula glutinis K-24
Lee, Tae-Ho ; Kim, Chul ; Lee, Sang-Ok ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 313~320
Rhodotorula glutinis K-24 was found to produce internal, cell wall bound, and external invertase. Internal invertase was purified by column chromatographies on DEAE-Sephadex A-50, Sp-sephadex C-50, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and isoelectric focusing. Cell wall bound invertase was partially purified by the following procedures; column chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. Optimum pH and temperature for enzymatic activities of internal and cell wall bound invertase were pH 3.0 and 6
, respectively. Both enzymes were inhibited by HgC1
, and sodium dodecylsulfate. The molecular weights of internal and cell wall bound invertases were estimated to be 310,000 and 61,000, respectively. Other physicochemical properties of the both enzymes were similar.
Isolation and Characterization of Naturally Occuring Bacteria Carried TOL Plasmid
Nam, Cho-Byung ; Cho, In-Sun ; Rhee, Young-Ha ; Ryu, Jae-Keun ; Min, Kyung-Hee ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 321~326
Eighty two bacterial strains have been isolated from five different soil and sewage samples by selective enrichment culture on m-toluate minimal medium. Two of these were identified as Pseudomonas capacia, one as P. putida, one as Yersinia intermedia, and one as Flavobaeterium odoratum. P. cepacia SUB37 appeared to carry plasmid superficially similar to TOL plasmid previously described in p. putida mt-2 and other two plasmids from Flavobacterium odorutum and Y. intermedia larger than that of p. putida mt-2. p. cepacia SUB37 was sensitive to streptomycin but resistant to rifampicin. P. cepacia SUB37 carrying plasmid metabolizes the hydrocarbons to benzoate and toluates via the corresponding alcohols and aldehydes. By the curing experiment, it appears that P. cepacia SUB37 carries TOL plasmid encoding for the enzymes responsible for the catabolism of toluene and xylene via benzoate and the toluates and then by meta pathway in the process of degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. p. cepacia SUB37 degraded m-toluate rapidly to be very low level when it was fully grown.
Production of Purplish-red Pigment in Mixed Culture of Streptomyces propurpuratus ATCC 21630 and Bacillus sp. R-89
Ho, Ryu-Beung ; Park, Bub-Gyu ; Chi, Young-Eh ; Lee, Ju-Hwa ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 327~333
The purplish-red pigment was formed on agar plate by superimposed streaking of Streptomyces propurpuratus ATCC 21630 and strain R-89, The strain No.89 was ascribable to the genus Bacillus and designated as Bacillus sp. R-89. Both strain did not produced such pigment when cultivated independently. For hyperpigment production, we selected the mutant S.P-6 from Streptomyces propurpuratus ATCC 21630 by MNNG (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine) treatment. Maximum purplish-red pigment 1420 mg/
were produced, when the mutant of R-16 and Bacillus sp. R-89 were mixed cultured at 3
for 72 hr.
Molecular Cloning of Bacillus stearothermophilus cdd Gene Encoding Thermostable Cytidine/Deoxycytidine Deaminase
Soo, Chang-Jong ; Song, Bang-Ho ; Kim, Jong-Guk ; Hong, Soon-Duck ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 334~342
The Bacillus stearothermophilus cdd gene encoding cytidine deaminase (cytidine/2'-deoxycytidine aminohydrolase; EC 22.214.171.124) was isolated through shot gun cloning by oomplementation of an E. coli cdd mutation. Primarily 3.0 kbp of the exogenote was cloned into the Pstl site of pBR322 (pJSC101). By subsequent deletion and subcloning from the insert of pJSC101 with cdd
and tetracycline resistancy, about 1.35 kbp of the EcoRI
fragment containing the cdd gene was isolated as pJSC201. The minicell experiment revealed a molecular mass of 33,000 dalton for polypeptide from the cloned DNA fragment complementing the cdd gene. From the lacZ fusion of 550 bp fragment of the EcoRI
/AuaI as a putative promoter region, the transcription direction of the cdd gene on pJSC201 is from EcoRI towards the PstI sites, When the cdd gene was expressed in B. subtilis ED4O (cdd
) by transformation with the E. coli-B. subtilis shuttle vector, the gene expression occured more efficiently than in E. coli and the gene appears to be stably maintained in B. subtitis as well as in E. coli.
Enhanced Production of Shikonin by Using Polyurethane-entrapped Lithospermum erythrorhizon Cells
Taek, Seo-Weon ; Liu, Jang-Ryol ; Park, Young-Hoon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 343~348
Production of shikonin derivatives by Lithospermum erythrorhizon cells by using polyurethane foam was invesliigated. Shikonin derivatives were effectively adsorbed mostly by phase distribution to polyurethane matrices and their production increased significantly compared to the suspension culture. The enhanced production of shikonin was probably due to more facilitated cell to cell con-tact and lowered intracellular shikonin concentration, both of which are known to be favorable for plant secondary metabolite production. In order to improve the process productivity, tell culture was conducted under various culture conditions: Of them, Schenk and Hildebrandt medium containing indole-3-acetic acid (1.75mg/ι) and kinetin (0.1mg/ι) was considered most appropriate for shikonin production. Production of shikonin increased about 4.5 times in the Schenk and Hildebrandt medium containing indole-3-acetic acid (1.15mg/ι) and kinetin (0.1mg/ι) when compared to the same medium containing p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.0mg/ι) and kinetin (0.1mg/ι). When poly-urethane was used as the support material, a single-stage system was more preferred to the conventional two-stage culture system in terms of shikonin productivity.
Evaluation of Operational Conditions and Power Consumption of a Bioattritor for Enzymatic Saccharification of Uncooked Starch
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 349~357
Uncooked starch can be effectively saccharified in an enzyme reaction system containing attrition-milling media. To develope the high efficiency bioattritor, an agitated bead type bioreactor was constructed, and its effectiveness was evaluated. The optimal operation condition of bioattritor was found to be 300 g glass bead/L, 200 rpm, standard type impeller for 220 g/L of uncooked corn starch. The torque under the various operational conditions were also measured. The interrelation-ship between energy consumption for agitation of attrition-milling media and enhanced extent of saccharification of uncooked starch was evaluated, Power consumption was measured to be around 1.53 watt/L under the optimal operation condition. The attrition coupled enzyme reaction system is identified to tie a very excellent energy saying process for saccharification of uncooked starch, and seems to have a bright prospect of industrial application.
Purification and Properties of Alkaline Protease from Streptomyce sp. YSA-130
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 358~364
A crystalline alkaline pretense- producing Streptomyce sp. YSA-130 was isolated from soil in alkaline medium(pH 10.5). The optimum culture condition of Streptomyce sp. YSA-130 for the production of alkaline protease was as follows; 2.0% soluble starch, 1.0% soytone, 0.3%
, 0.02% MgSO
, 0.8% Na
, pH 10.5, 3
, and 12 hr. The alkaline pretense from the culture broth of Streptomyce sp. YSA-130 was purified about 24 folds by ammonium sulfate precipitation , dialysis, DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration on Sephadex G-15 and crystallization. Optimum temperature and pH of purified enzyme were 6
, and 11.5. Temperature and pH stability of purified enzyme were 5
, and 5.5-12.0. Calcium ion was effective to stabilize the enzyme at higher temperature. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was approximately 30,000. The purified enzyme was inactivated by diisopropyl flurophosphate(DFP) but not affected by metal ion, EDTA, sulfhydryl reagent and stable detergent.
Thermal Inactivation Kinetics of Tyichoderma viride Cellobiohydrolase Determined by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Residual Enzyme Assay
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 365~369
Thermal inactivation of Tyichoderma viride cellobiohydrolase was investigated by immunoassay and residual enzyme assay such as carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and filter paper degradation activity (FPase). Arrhenius plots of cellobiohydrolase were appeared as straight line. The Z-values of cellobiohydrolase calculated by CMCase, FPase and immunoassay were 5.2
, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters obtained from FPase were better agreement with those of immunoassay than CMCase assay.
Purification and Characterization of Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase Excreted from Newly Isolated Alkalophilic Bacillus circulans
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 370~378
An Alkalophilic Bacillus circulans that can produce significant amount of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) was newly isolated from soil. The culture filtrate was successively purified by (
precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography, and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The enzymatic properties, including molecular weight, optimal pH and temperature, stability, and kinetic parameters, were determined. The cyclodextrin synthesis reaction catalized by the purified CGTase was also studied. The sweet potato and corn starch were found to be the most suitable substrates with 60% conversion to cyclodextrin. The highest conversion was achieved at the CGTase concentration of 900-1,100 units/g of soluble starch. The purified CGTase could also catalize the transglycosylation on stevioside.
Transformation of Glutamic Acid to Glutamine by E. coli Glutamine Synthetase
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 379~384
Glutamine production from glutamate was carried out using glutamine synthetase from E. coli K-12 pgln 6 and baker's yeast, which supplies ATP into the reaction system through alcohol fermentation, simultaneously. With whole cells of E. coli K-12 pgln 6 as an enzyme source of glutamine synthetase, 11.8 g/ι of glutamine produced after 18-h incubation (60％ yield based on a substrate, glutamate). Using the partially purified glutamine synthetase, 19.8 git of glutamine was produced after 5-h incubation. This amount of glutamine was correspond to 90％ yield, based on substrate, glutamate.
Purification and Properties of Glucose Isomerase of Alkalophilic Bacillus sp.
Lee, Eun-Sook ; Kim, Hyang-Ja ; Yang, Cha-Bum ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 385~391
D-Glucose isomerase (D-xylose ketol isomerase, EC 126.96.36.199) was purified from the Alkalophilic Bacillus sp. No. 1911 by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography followed by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration chromatography. Molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 11, 000 by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the enzyme consisted of four identical or similar subunits with a molecular weight of 43, 000. The enzyme was the most active at pH 7.5 and
, and stable up to 7
at pH 7.5 and in the range of pH 6-9 at 6
by 30 min incubation in the presence of Co
Optimization of Growth Medium and Poly-
-hydroxybutyric Acid Production from Methanol in Methylobacterium organophilum
Choi, Joon-H ; Kim, Jung H. ; M. Daniel ; J.M. Lebeault ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 392~396
Methylobacterium organophilum, a facultative methylotroph was cultivated on a methanol as a sole carbon and energy source. The cell growth was affected by the various components of minimal synthetic medium and the medium composition was optimized with 0.5% (v/v) methanol at pH 6.8 and at 3
. The maximum specific growth rate of M. organophilum was achieved to 0.26 hr
in the optimized medium which has following composition: Methanol, 0.5% (v/v):(NH
. 45g/l and trace elements (CaCl
per liter). By the limitation of nitrogen and deficiency of Mn
, the cell growth was significantly repressed. Methanol greatly repressed the cell growth and the complete inhibition was observed at concentration above 4% (v/v). In order to overcome the methanol inhibition and to prevent the methanol limitation, intermittent feeding of methanol was conducted by a D.O.-stat technique. PHB production by M. organophilum was stimulated by deficiency of nutrients such as NH
, or PO
in the medium. The maximum PHB content was obtained as 58% of dry cell weight under deficiency of potassium ion in the optimized synthetic medium.
New Extracellular Biopolymer Produced by Methylobacterium organophilum from Methanol
Park, Joon H. ; Lee, Un T. ; Kim, Jung H. ; Joon S. Rhee ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 397~402
A new extracellular biopolymer was produced by Methylobacterium organophilum from methanol as a sole carbon and energy source. The purified biopolymer was found to have a high molecular weight of about 4-5
dalton and contained 66% (w/w) of carbohydrate but no polyhydro xybutyrate. Other organic constituents were consisted of protein, pyruvic acid, uronic acid, and acetic acid, whereas content of inorganic ash was 22%. Based on the chemical analysis of the biopolymer by TLC method, the polymer was consisted of glucose, galactose, and mannose with an approximate molar ratio of 2:3:2. The biopolymer solution showed a characteristics of pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The viscosity of the 1%-biopolymer solution was found to be 18,000 cp at a shear rate, 1 sec
, which was almost 10 times higher than that of a commercial xanthan gum.
Production of Rapid-Fermented Kimchi with Starter
Choi, Shin-Yang ; Lee, Shin-Ho ; Koo, Young-Jo ; Shin, Dong-Hwa ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 4, 1989, Pages 403~406
To establish tile standard condition of uniformed Kimchi product, we introduced the concept of starter and studied the preparation of rapid-fermented Kimchi. Of the strains isolated from Kimchi, Kakdugi and infant's feces, M7 strain grew effectively on aseptic Chinese cabbage juice and on salted Chinese cabbage, the growth of M7 was decreased severely. Inoculated with M7 in salted Chinese cabbage, appropriate range of pH and lactic acid content were reached at 8-13 hrs and 12 hrs after addition of spices, respectively. The result of sensory evaluation was not significant at 5% level.