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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 1989
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 1989
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 1989
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 1989
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 1989
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 1989
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Interaction between Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces uvarum on Utilization of Galacto-oligosaccharides in Soymilk
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 533~538
The enhanced growth and lactic fermentation of L. acidophilus, when mixed with S. uvarum, was investigated. Spent medium of S. uvarum, at 10%, stimulated the growth and lactic fermentation of L. acidophilus, and also increased the content of monosaccharide while decreased the contents of sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose in soymilk. While single culture of L. acidophilus consumed only the monosaccharides in soymilk, the mixed culture of L. acidophilus and S. uvarum consumed almost all the oligosaccharides as well as the monosaccharides in soymilk. Thus it was assumed that S. uvarum converted the oligosaccharides into monosaccharides so that L. acidophilus can produce more lactic acid and cell mass by using the increased monosaccharides.
Disinfection Effects of Chlorine and Monochloramine on Campylobacter jejuni
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 539~544
Campylobacter jejuni, bacterial agent causing human diarrhea, were studied for their disinfection effects with chlorine and monochloramine. The cells treated with the chemical agents were observed by scanning electron microscopy to know their morphological and structural changes. The proteins and DNA in the chemical-treated cells were also examined by gel electrophoresis for structural changes. When C. jejuni were chlorinated at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l for 15 minutes, the organisms were disinfected by 4 and 6 log, respectively. Those disinfection effects were higher at acidic pH, while lowered at neutral and alkaline values of pH. The effects of monochloramine were lower than those of chlorine at the game concentration for the same period of reaction time. The shapes of C. jejuni cells treated with the agents appeared to be deformed from spiral rod into spherical forms, showing some destruction in surface structure of the cells. Some of the proteins and DNA of the chlorinated cells did not appear in the gel electrophoresis when the chlorination was at concentration of 10 mg/l or higher.
Purification and Characterization of Thermotolerable Alkaline Protease by Alkalophilic Bacillus sp. No. 8-16
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 545~551
Thermostable alkaline protease of alkalophilic Bacillus sp. No. 8-16 has been purified, and the properties of the enzyme investigated. The characteristic point of the organism used is especially good growth in alkaline and thermal condition. The alkaline protease of the strain No. 8-16 was purified from crude enzyme by acetone precipitation, CM-cellulose ion exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-100 and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. Through the series of chromatograpies, the enzyme was purified to homogeneity with specific activity of 37 fold higher than that of the crude broth. Characteristics of the purified enzyme were as follow;
value for the enzyme was 1.3 mg/ml, the alkaline protease showed a maximal activity at 7
and from the pH 6.0 through 12.0, and stable for 1 hr. at 6
. The moleclar weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 33,000 by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The activity of the alkaline protease was inhibited by iodoacetic acid and Ag
, PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride), and activated by
Properties and Kinetics of Glutamate Dehydrogenase of Corynebacterium glutamicum
Park, Mee-Sun ; Park, Soon-Young ; Kim, Sung-Jin ; Min, Kyung-Hee ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 552~555
A 150-fold purified preparation of NADPH-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Corynebacterium glutamicum (1) was used for the determination of kinetic parameters of the substrates, NADPH, NH
-ketoglutarate in the direction of glutamate synthesis. The kinetic constants determined from this study suggest a biosynthetic role for the enzyme, Based on the analysis of the result derived from initial velocity, the reaction mechanism was postulated to be ordered addition with NADPH as a first substrate to bind in the forward direction. Of the several metabolites tested for a possible function in the regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase activity, only malate and citrate were appeared to have an appreciable influence on the enzyme, Potassium chloride showed to be the most effective for the enzyme activity.
SCP Production from Mandarin Orange Peel Press Liquor
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 556~562
The bioconversion of mandarin orange peel press liquor to single cell protein (SCP) by two yeast strains, F-60, and C-7, which were isolated from mandarin orange peel was carried out and compared with that of using Candida utilis IFO 0598. Experiments were directed toward the high yield of biomass and high protein in cultures of the strains mentioned above. Candida utilis IFO 0598, F-60 and C-7 strains were cultivated at 3
, pH 5.2 for 3 days in shaking flasks. The effects of some nutrients on cell growth were studied. Cell mass and protein content per cell mass were increased by addition of urea 1%, KH
0.1% and MgSO
0.05%, When the F-60 strain cultured under the optimal conditions, cell mass, growth yield and protein content were 41.2g/l, 53.9%, 59.7%, respectively. Cell mass was also increased up to 15% by modifying the fermentation condition on the bench type 20l jar fermentor. Crude fat content (10.3%) of dried C-7 cell was higher than those of C. utilis and F-60, 4.9% and 5.6% respectively. Total protein content of the F-60 strain was 59.7% per dry weight. And we compared their amino acid compositions with that of FAO provisional pattern. In the case of the F-60 strains, amino acid contents such as lysine, leucine and isoleucine were much higher than those of methionine, cystine and tryptophan.
Studios on the Glutamic Acid Production by an Alkalophilic Bacterium
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 563~567
An alkalophilic bacterium isolated from compost was selected, identified and tested for the production of glutamic acid from ammonium fumarate. The bacterium was closely related to Bacillus brevis. The conditions for glutamic acid production were pH 8.0, 2% fumaric acid, and 0.8% nutrient broth. The mechanism of glutamic acid formation in this strain was postulated as following scheme. (1) Ammonium fumarate longrightarrow Aspartic acid (2) Aspartic acid ＋
-Ketoglutaric acid longrightarrow Glutamic acid + Oxaloacetic acid.
Influence of Medium Composition on the Production of
-Linolenic Acid by Mucor sp. KCTC 8405P
Kang, Hun-Seung ; Shin, Hyun-Kyung ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 568~573
As a way to determine the optimal culture conditions for the production of
-linolenic acid by Mucor sp. KCTC 8405P, the influence of different carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH, and C/N ratio of medium was investigated. Glucose was found to be the best carbon source in terms of lipid content and
-linolenic acid yield. Ammonium sulfate and organic nitrogen sources such as urea and peptone resulted in relatively increased lipid and
-linolenic acid production. The highest accumulation of lipid was obtained at a C/N ratio of 56.6 using glucose and (NH
as carbon and nitrogen source, respectively. It was found that the lipid content increased significantly with increasing initial pH of medium up to pH 9.0. The influence of mixed carbon source on the
-linolenic acid yield was also investigated. High accumulation of lipids, 315 mg/100 ml medium, and 13-14% of
-linolenic acid content in the cellular lipid were obtained in a shaking culture containing 3% of glucose and 2% sodium acetate as carbon source and 0.1% of (NH
as nitrogen source at pH 8.0.
Cloning and Expression of
-Xylosidase Gene from Alkali-tolerant Bacillus sp. YA-14 in Escherichia coli
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 574~579
Chromosomal DNA fragments of Bacillus sp. YA-14, isolated from soil as a potent
-xylosidase producing bacterium, were ligated to a vector plasmid pBR322 and used to transfer Escherichia coli HB101 cells. The recombinant plasmid pYXL22 was found to enable the transformants to produce
-xylosidase. pYXL22 was found to contain the 7.0 kb HindIII DNA fragment originated from the Bacillus sp. YA-14 chromosomal DNA by Southern hybridization. The optimum temperature for the reaction of
-xylosidase produced by E. coli HB101 (pYXL22) was appeared at 3
. The enzyme was maintained stably up to 4
when stored 1hr at 4
-xylosidase was repressed completely by 0.4% (w/v) glucose concentration in E. coli HB101 (pYXL22). The optimum concentration of xylose for the
-xylosidase production in Bacillus sp. YA-14 was 0.2% (w/v).
Characteristics and Action Pattern of Polygalacturonase from Penicillium sp.CB-20
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 580~586
Penicillium sp. CB-20 was selected for strong polygalacturonase activity among various strains of molds found in soil. The optimum pH for the enzyme activity was 5.0 and optimum temperature was 4
. The enzyme was relatively stable in acidic condition and unstable by heat treatment. The activation energy, Km and V
for the polygalacturonase were 2.499 Kcal/mol, 2.13
mol/l, and 104.17
mol/min. The activity of polygalacturonase was inhibited by Ag
. The enzyme can be inactivated by the treatment ethylenediamintetra acetic acid, 2,4-dinitrophenol and
. The results indicate the possible involvement of histidine, chelate and terminal amino group as active site. The enzyme was endo-type polygalacturonase.
-Galactosidase from Alkalophilic Bacillus sp. YS-309
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 587~592
A strain of alkalophilic Bacillus sp. YS-309 capable of producing large amount of
-galactosidase has been isolated from soil sample. Intracellular
-galactosidase was purified 6.9 folds by procedures including ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, gel-filtration, DEAE-Sephadex A-50 chromatography with over-all yield of 17.8%. The molecular weight of native enzyme was 205, 000 by HPLC, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the enzyme consisted of 4 identical subunits with a molecular weight of 56, 000.
Production of Endo-Type Inulnse from Streptomyces sp. S56
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 593~599
A strain producing extracellular endo-type inulase was selected from Actinomycetes isolated from soil, and identified as Streptomyces sp. The maximum inulase production was obtained with medium containing inulin 1.0%, yeast extract 1.0%, (NH
0.8%, KCl 0.05%, MgSO
0.001% at 96 hours culture in jar fermentor. The endo-type inulase was considered to be an inducible enzyme produced by inulin only.
Isolation and Characterization of Zymomonas mobilis DNA Fragments Showing Promoter Activity in Escherichia coli
Kim, Eun-Joon ; Yoon, Ki-Hong ; M.Y. Pack ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 600~605
For the purpose of isolation of the Zymomonas mobilis DNA fragments showing promoter activity in Escherichia coli, a promoter screening vector, PCMT215 was constructed by transferring a promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene of pYEJ001 into pMT21 which contains
-lactamase gene and multiple cloning sites. A library of Z, mobilis Sau3AI DNA fragments was constructed in E. coli using the newly constructed pCMT215. Fourteen clones showing resistance to chloramphenicol ranging in concentration from 30 to 750
were selected. From five clones of them, the Z. mobilis DNA fragments expressing CAT gene of the recombinant plasmids were sequenced and then sites of transcriptional initiation were identified. The nucleotide sequences of the cloned DNA shared AT rich regions, poly A's or T's stretches and palindromic regions. The positions of transcriptional initiation for CAT gene occurred at more than one site spaced over by 4 to 190 base pairs on the cloned fragments in E. coli.
Effect of Plasmid Stability on the Glucoamylase Productivity of Saccharomyces diastaticus Harboring Recombinant Plasmid Containing Glucoamylase Gene STA 1
Ahn, Jong-Seog ; Hwang, In-Kyu ; Jeong, Min-Sun ; Mheen, Tae-Ick ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 606~610
For the purpose of improving glucoamylase productivity of Saccharomyces diastaticus, useful yeast in direct ethanol fermentation of starch, the effects of growth rate on the plasmid stability and glucoamylase productivity of S. diastaticus harboring recombinant plasmid pYES 18 containing glucoamylase gene STA 1 were investigated. In a selective medium, the recombinant plasmids were maintained stably at constant level but glucoamylase productivity was very low. On the other hand, in the complex medium containing starch, growth rate of the cell was stimulated by the supplementation of glucose and plasmid stability was improved by growth stimulation. We can conclude that glucoamylase productivity of S. diastaticus harboring the recombinant plasmid was increased as the maintaining of high plasmid stability in the cell.
Effect of Methionine on Cephalosporin C Production in a Fluidized- bed Bioreactor
Kim, Eui-Yong ; Yoo, Young-Je ; Park, Young-Hoon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 611~618
Effects of methionine on cephalosporin C(CPC) production in a fluidized-bed bioreactor were investigated using bioparticles of Cephalosporium acremonium. Since methionine was found to be an important metabolic regulator on the synthesis of cephalosporin C, the effects of its concentration in the cuture broth and feeding mode to the bioreactor were studied. It was observed that the presence of initial methionine was essential for higher cephalosporin C production and there existed an optimal content of methionine. Carbon consumption rate also increased significantly under the presence of methionine. Production of cephalosporin C was most active when methionine was exhausted in the broth; however its additional feeding did not enhance the antibiotic production in the fluidized-bed bioreactor as much as expected. It was therfore considered important to feed an optimal content of methionine at the early operating stage for a higher cephalosporin C production in a fluidized-bed bioreactor. An interesting thing to note was that titre of the antibiotic with reused bioparticles was about 2 times higher in the methionine containing medium than that without methionine. Therefore repeated use of bioparticles, with an optimal content of methionine, was believed to be very useful to enhance to process productivity.
Temperature Effects and Optimization for Ethanol Fermentation
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 619~623
The effects of temperature on yeast growth and ethanol production were investigated in batch cultures. The maximum specific growth rate of yeast was obtained at 36
and the maximum specific production rate of ethanol was obtained at 33
. A mathematical model was employed to describe the temperature effects in ethanol fermentation and the parameters in the model were expressed as a function of temperature. Optimum temperature control strategy, from the simulation result, consists of starting the fermentation at high temperature and lowering the temperature as the fermentation proceeds.
Citric Acid Production by Succharomycopsis lipolytica in Air-lift and Membrane Recycle Bioreactors
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 624~628
A study on the citric acid production using Saccharomycopsis lipolytica (NRRL Y7576) was carried out in shake-flasks, air-lift and membrane recycle bioreactors. The cells entrapped in Ca-alginate beads were used in shake-flasks and air-lift reactor. Repeated batch fermentation in shake-flasks was successfully performed for 34 days and resulted in a yield of 54%. Increased yield (63%) was obtained in the air-lift reactor operation using nitrogen deficient medium (NDM). In the membrane recycle bioreactor operation, the maximal dry cell mass concentration was 39 g/1 at a dilution rate of 0.02 h
and the yield with NDM was higher than that with growth medium. In addition, the yield and volumetric productivity with pure oxygen supply were greatly improved compared with those with air supply.
Characteristics of the Bioreactors of Hydrogen-producing Immobilized Cells (III) -Hydrogen Production in a Nozzle Loop Reactor-
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 629~633
In the continuous reactor, the hydrogen production rate and residual glucose concentration were increased with increase of input glucose concentration, dilution rate, and recycle rate. The maximum production rate was 91 mL/Lㆍh at dilution rate 0.4/h, input glucose concentration 5.4g/L, and recycle rate 70/h in this experimental range.
Listeriosis and Listeria monocytogenes
Bahk, Jae-Rim ; Elmer H. Marth ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 634~644
Listeria monocytogenes, one of five species in the genus Listeria and the only one currently believed to be pathogenic for humans, is a small gram-positive, nonsporeforming, aerobic, motile and hemolytic rod-shaped bacterium. The bacterium is widespread in the environment, having been isolated from soil, dust, animal feed, water, sewage, almost every type of animal that has been cultured, and asymptomatic humans. L. monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a disease which most often affects humans with a compromised immune system. Included are pregnant woman, infants and adults suffering from such diseases as cancer, cirrhosis of liver or AIDS or are being treated with drugs such as corticosteroids. Listeriosis is manifested by such syndromes as pregnancy infections, granulomatosis infantiseptica, sepsis, meningoencephalitis, and focal infections. Infections, can be treated successfully with penicillin, ampicillin, or erythromycin. However, a mortality rate of about 30％ has occurred in outbreaks of listeriosis. Food-associated outbreaks of listeriosis have been attributed to coleslaw (Canada, 1981), pasteurized milk (U.S., 1983), and soft cheese (U.S., 1985). Presence of L. monocytogenes in various dairy foods has prompted recall of such products from the U.S. market-place. L. monocytogenes also has been found in raw meats and seafood.
Fish Fermentation Technology
Lee Cherl-Ho ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 17, issue 6, 1989, Pages 645~654
The historical background of fish fermentation in Asia and other regions of the world is reviewed. The classification of fermented fish products in different regions is attempted with respect to the technology involved. The fermented fish products are largely divided into three groups; (1) high-salt, (2) low-salt, and (3) non-salt fermented. High-salt fermented products contain over 20％ of salt and are represented by fish sauce, cured fish and fish paste. Low-salt fermented products contain 6-18％ salt and are subdivided into lactic fermented products with added carbohydrate and acid pickling associated with low temperature. Non-salt fermented products are represented by the solid state bonito fermentation and some alkaline fermentation of flat fishes. The local names of the products in different regions are compared and classified accordingly. The microbial and biochemical changes during fish fermentation are considered in relation to the quality of the products, and their wholesomeness is reviewed.