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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 1990
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Oct 1990
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 1990
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 1990
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 1990
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 1990
Selecting the target year
Isolation and Characterization of Prophage cured strain derivatives from Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 215~220
Prophage cured strain derivatives from Luctobacillirs araei YIT 9018 were isolated from thermoinducible mutant of the parent lysogenic strain. Two thermoinducible mutants were isolated from L. casei YIT 9018 strain treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Prophage cured strains were selected after heat induction of thermoinducible strains at
for 30 min in MRT medium containing anti- 4 FSV serum. The prophage cured strains, L. casei HYM 1213 and L. casei HYM 4024, could be used an indicator strain for temperate phage
FSW. The growth, lactic acid producing ability and carbohydrates fermentation of L. casei HYM 1213 were similar to the parent L. cmei YIT 9018 strain, but A. casei HYM 4024 was not. One of the prophage cured strain, L. cmei HYM 1213, could be used industrially .to produce lactic acid beverages because this strah could not induce the virulent phage
FSV. The physiological characterization of L. casei HYM 1213 strain was similar to the parent L. casei YIT 9018 strain.
Bacteriophage-like Particles Induced by Mitomycin C in Bacillus circulans F-2
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 221~226
To detect prophages and bacterioeins, twenty strains of Bacillus circulans were treated with mitomycin C. The resulted lysates were subjected to electron microscopy, and also examined for killing and plaque-forming activities. Fifteen strains showed killing activity on two or more strains of Bacillue circulans. Killing agents were centrifuged in linear 5 to 20% sucrose gradient, and studied with electron microscopy which revealed the presence of particles.They looked morphologically like phage tail of 190 nm long with fiber (FA9, FA5) or without fiber (FA1, FA6), T even phage-like particle with a head of 50 nm in diameter and a tail of 140 nm long (FA7), or T7 phage-like particle with a head of 70 nm in diameter and a tail of 20 nm long (FA17). The killing agent of FA17 showed phage-forming activity on several strains different from killing sensitive strains of Bacillus circulans.
Changes of Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of a Serratia marcescens with Cultivation Time and Temperatures
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 227~232
S. marcescens cultured at
with vigorous shaking was shown to produce red-pigment, prodigiosin, in the senescent phase of growth. Also, it showed many hydrophobic characteristrics, which were tested by the adherence to noncharged surfaces of polystyrene dishes, a typical agent for the binding of hydrophobic cells and molecules. However, when the cell was cultured at
, it no longer produced either red pigment or hydrophobic materials. Therefore, the bacteria cultured at
was completely washed-out from the polystyrene dishes at the copious washing step with tap water, in contrast to the cell cultured at
which was sticked onto the polystyrene dishes very tightly. The lipid compositions extracted from the S. marcescens cultured at
were very different from each other; the phospholipids, glycolipids and unidentified lipids were produced from the cell cultured at
, whereas large amounts of serratamolide, amphipathic compound, were produced from the cell cultured at
. The data suggest that the pronounced cell surface hydrophobicity of the S. marcescens is mediated by a combination of several surface factors that were affected by cultivation time and temperatures.
Mechanism of Cadmium Accumulation into the Cell of Cadmium-Ion Tolerant Yeast
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 233~238
The mechanism of intracellular accumulation of cadmium in a cadmium-ion tolerant yeast, Hansenula ammala B-7, which is an extreme cadmium tolerant strain and has the ability to take up a large amount of cadmium was investigated. The amounts of cadmium taken up by the scalded yeast cells were 2 to 3 times more than the value of the living cells. The living Hansenula anomala B-7 cells adsorbed 74% of cadmium taken up onto the other layer of the cells and 26% of it accumulated inside the cells. But the scalded cells adsorbed 98.3% of cadmium taken up and accumulated 1.7% of it inside the cells. A cadmium uptake and its accumulation were accelerated up to 162.3% and 275.4% by Triton X-100 in the living cells, respectively. Whereas in the scalded cell cadmium uptake was not affected by Triton X-100. Furthermore the cadmium uptake and its accumulation were strongly inhibited by metabolic inhibitors like 2,4-dinitrophenol, sodium azide and potassium cyanide in the living cells, but in the scalded cells cadmium uptake was not affected by metabolic inhibitors. These results suggested that the intracellular accumulation of cadmium by the cadmium-tolerant Hansenula anomala B-7 cells was apparently dependent of biological activity, and also gave evidence of the existance of energy-dependent system.
Effect of Cadmium on Protein Synthesis of Cadmium-Ion Tolerant Hansenula anomala B-7
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 239~243
In this study the authors investigated the distribution of cadmium accumulated in cadmium-iun tolerant Hansenula anomala B-7 cells and also the effect of cadmium on protein synthesis. 84.9% of the cadmium accumulated was distributed in the soluble fraction (cytosol, etc.). The intracellular protein content was decreased by cadmium (1,000
/ml), but the content of soluble protein preeipitated by ammonium sulfate (30-75% saturation) was increased compared with the content of it obtained from the cells grown without cadmium. Furthermore, in the cells grown with 1,000
/ml of cadmium t h higher molecular weight soluble protein was increased compared with the cells grown without caa, mium, but the lower molecular weight soluble protein was decreased. These results suggested that the protein synthesis was inhibited by cadmium, but synthesis of higher molecular weight soluble protein was remarkably stimulated by cadmium.
Production and Characterization of Raw Starch Hydrolyzing Enzyme from Bacteria
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 244~250
A bacterium capable of hydrotyzing raw starch was isolated from soil, which was identified as a strain of Bacillue. The effects of culture conditions and medium compositions on the enzyme production were investigated. Among tested carbon sources, soluble starch and wheat starch were most effective for the production of the enzyme, and the level of concentration for the optimal enzyme production was 0.5%. For nitrogen sources, polypeptone was best for the enzyme production, with the level of 0.5%. The enzyme was maximally produced by cultivating the organism at medium of initial pH 6.5, and temperature of
. The enzyme was partially purified by Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration and DEAESephacel ion-exchange chromatography. The optimal pH and temperature for the enzyme reaction were 6.5 and
, respectively. The enzyme most stable at pH 8.0, and temperature up to
. In kinetic studies, the k, values for corn, wheat, rice and potato starch were 1.7, 1.4,2.5 and 1.090, respectively.
Studies on the Development and the Characteristics of the Powerful Raw Starch Digesting Enzyme
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 251~259
Asp. usumii IAM 2185 was selected as a strain producing the powerful raw starch digesting glucoamylase. The optimum initial pH, the optimum temperature and the optimum cultural time for the enzyme production on wheat bran medium were pH 6-8,25-
and 72 hrs, respectively. The addition of ammonium nitrate and albumin on wheat bran medium, respectively, increase slightly the enzyme production. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, CM-cellulose and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 34.3 U/mg protein and the yield of enzyme activity was 10.3%. The purified enzyme showed a single band on polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis and its molecular weight was estimated to be 67,000 by SDS polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point for the purified enzyme was pR 3.7. The optimum temperature and optimum pH were
and pH 3.0 and the purified enzyme was stable in the pH range of 1.0-11.0. The purified enzyme was stable below
and its thermostability was greatly increased by the addition of
. The purified enzyme showed a high hydrolysis rate on various raw starches such as corn, rice, yam, arrow root, sweet potato and glutinous rice.
Mechanism of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Raw Corn Starch by Purified Glucoamylase of
-Amylase in an Agitated Bead Reaction System
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 260~267
The mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis of raw corn starch by the purified glucoamylase and a - amylase in an agitated bead reaction system was studied by investigating the changes of sugar profiles produced by each enzyme, the granular structure of raw corn starch, the amount of enzyme adsorption on residual starch, and the amylose content in residual raw starch. The sugar profiles produced by the action of exo-type glucoamylase or endo-type
-amylase in an agitated bead system were not recognizably differed with those produced in reaction system without bead. Without enzyme the intergenic microcrystalline structure of starch granule was not changed by the simple mechanical impact of solid media, but it was cleaved. However, starch granule was fragment into large number of small particles by the synergistic action of enzyme and attrition-milling media, identified to be the major saccharification enhancing mechanism along with the increased amount of enzyme adsorption. The amylose content decreased more readily in an agitated bead reaction system, especially by
Characterization of Alcohol Dehydrogenase Encoded by Zymomonas mobilis Gene Cloned in Escherichia coli
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 268~272
The structural gene (zadhII) encoding an alcohol dehydrogenase II from Zyrnornonas mobilis was cloned into Escherichia coli in our laboratory (Yoon et al., 1989. Kor. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.). From E. coli (pADS93) carrying the zadhII gene, the Z mobilis alcochol dehydrogenase II (ZADH-II) was purified by sonication,
, fractionation, and chromatography. The ZADH-I1 enzyme produced by Z. mobilis cell was also purified to compare to the enzyme produced by E. coli (pADS93). The purified enzyme from cell extract of E. coli (pADS93) was identified to be a tetramer being composed of four identical subunits having molecular weight of 40, 000 dalton like that of Z. mobilis. The pH optimum for the reaction oxidizing ethanol to acetaldehyde was 10.0 while the optimum for the reverse reaction was 7.5-8.5. The apparent
values for ethanol and NAD + were
, respectively. In addition, it was found that the
value for acetaldehyde was very lower than that for ethanol.
-Hydroxybutyrate Produced by Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophic Bacterium from Methanol
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 273~279
-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production, a pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacterium (PPFM) P-10 was newly isolated from soils through methanol-enrichment culture. The optimal medium composition for cell growth was 1.0% (vlv) of methanol as carbon source and l.Og/l of ,TEX>$NH_4Cl$, equivalent to C/N ratio of 13.2 at pH 7.0 and
. To investigate the optimal condition for YHB accumulation, two-stage culture technique was adopted; first stage for cell growth and second stage for accumulation of PHB providing unbalanced growth conditions. The optimal PHB accumulation was 1.0% (vIv) of methanol and 0.26gll of
, C/N of 50.8 at pH 6.0. To overcome methanol inhibition on cell growth, intermittent feeding fed-batch culture technique was employed, and the cell concentration as high as 14gll with 40% of PHB was achieved. The purified PHB was identified using IR and
as homopolymer of 8hydroxybutyric acid. The absorption spectrum of extracted pink colored microbial pigment was alsa investigated.
Enhancement of Biotransformation Yield in 11
-Hydroxylation of Progesterone by Continuous Addition of the Substrate
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 280~285
Biotransformation of progesterone to 11
-hydroxyprogesterone by growing cells of Rhizopus nigricans was investigated. As the concentration of progesterone increased, the specific growth rate of R. nigricans decreased linearly, and consequently the conversion yield lowered. The hyphae of the microorganism were observed to become thicker, shorter, and more densely branched at high concentrations of progesterone. In order to improve the process productivity, biotransformation was conducted with continuous addition of progesterone. When the substrate was added continuously at a rate of 0.86 g/hr for 30 hrs, overall conversion yield reached upto 56% while a single addition of the same amount of progesterone yielded about 40% eonversion. When additional feeding of glucose was carried out upon its depletion, an improved br'oconversion yield upto 68% was obtained.
Purification and Characterization of Antibiotics KG-1167A & KG-1167B Produced by Clostridium sp.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 286~291
The antibiotics KG-1167A and KG-1167B were isolated from the fermentation broth of the bacterial strain KH-1167, identified as Cloetridium sp. The individual antibiotics, KG-1167A & KG-1167B were separated and purified by solvent extraction followed by silica gel column chromatography. These antibiotics showed antibacterial activities against broad spectrum of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The physico-chemical properties and UV spectra suggest that they possess aromatic moiety in their structures.
The Optimum Culture Conditions for the Production of Antibiotics KG-1167A & KG-1167B Produced by Clostridium sp.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 292~295
The bacterial strain KH-1167, identified as Ctoetridiunt sp. was found to produce the antibiotics KG-1167A & KG-1167B which showed a broad spectrum antibacterial activity. The highest antibiotics production was obtained in fermentation medium containing glucose, casamino acid and salt complex solution. Optimum culture condition for the maximum production of the antibiotics was also determined. Antibiotic productivity of the Clostridium sp. KH-1167 was increased to about 450% compared to that in the medium used for the primary isolation procedure.
Genetic Analysis of Recombinants by Interspecific Protoplast Fusion of Coryneform Bacteria and Their L-glutamate & L-glutamine Production
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 296~300
For interspecific portoplast fusion, Brevibacterium flauum lOAHR (Rifr axg his) and Corynebacterium glutamicum 11TS (
trp) were induced by UV and NTG treatment. The protoplast fusion frequency between E. flavum XOAHR and C. glutamicum llTS was
with the lysozyme treatment (300 P
ml) for 18 hrs. Genotypes of recombinants were analized as FMM (
), FA (Rift
arg), FH (
his), FT (
trp), FAH (
arg trp), FAT (
arg trp), and FAHT (
arg his trp). FAH 1 produced 12 fold of glutamate production compared to parental type, E. flauum 10AHR. In glutamine productivity, it produced 2.6 fold to parental type, C. glutamicum 11TS. Production of glutamate or glutamine by recombinants was involved in the specific activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and glutamine synthetase (GS), respectively.
Immunological Characteristics of Mosquitocidal Delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. darmstadiensis 73E10-2
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 301~304
In the mosquitocidal delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp, isruelensis and B. thuringiensis subsp. darmstudiensis 73E10-2, were contained an immunologically homologous protein. The homologous protein was confirmed from Ouchterlony test, irnmuno-electrophoresis, and enzyme linked immunoassay by polyclonal antibodies against the delta-endotoxins of both strains.
Molecular Cloning of the Gene Coding for 3-Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase of Kluyveromyces fragilis
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 305~308
In order to clone the gene coding for 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase of Muyveromyces fragilis, a shuttle plasmid vector pHNll4 was used. It can serve as a cloning vector in Saccharomyces cerevisiae DBY746 for other Sau3AI-cleaved DNA segment of Kluyveromyces fragilis. Two cloned fragments which complement the leu2 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and E, coli were obtained. Their length was 4.4 kb an 3.5 kb, and their orientation was opposite each other. From the fact that the two recombinant plasmids were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and E, coli, probably the two inserts had the promoter of Ktuyveromyces fi-agilis and that of Kluyveromyces fiagilis was efficiently assosiated with RNA polymerase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and E. coli. According to the result of Southern hybridization, we thought that the cloned fragment has low homology with 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase coding region of E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
NaCl-dependent Amylase Gene From Badillus circulans F-2 Its Nucleotide Sequence
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 309~316
The sequence of a 1795 bp restriction fragment containing the B. circulans F-2 gene for NaC1- dependent
-amylase (CI-amylase) is reported. The probable coding region of the gene is 1005 base pairs (335 amino acida) long. The NaC1-dependent
-amylase (el-amy) sequence shows an open reading frame (ORF) with the translated molecular weight of about 38, 006, which correspond to a molecular weight of about 35, 000 (Mi). The gene is preceded by the sequence resembling promoter for the vegetative B, subtitis RNA polymerases. These are followed by the sequences resembling a B. subtilis ribosome binding site 5 nucleotides before the first codon of the gene. Homologous regions with other amylases were found. The N-terminal sequences of the mature proteins expressed in E. eoli were identical to the N-terminal sequences which are anaIysed.
Transfer of Plasmid pAM
of Streptococcus faecalis DS 5 to Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 317~321
The broad-host plasmid PAM
of Streptococcus faecalis DS 5 which codes for erythromycin resistance and lactose utilization was transferred into L. casei M-3 (lac-mutant) by conjugation, but was not transferred by protoplast fusion and protoplast transformation. For conjugal transfer of plasmid PAM
the method of membrane filter mating was more efficient than that of agar surface mating. The rate of acid production of transconjugant C-1, C-3 was similar to L. casei YIT 9018. The proteolytic activity of transconjugant C-3 was increased 20% higher than that of wild type. Plasmid PAM
was detected by a11 of the transconjugants. The transconjugants expressed lactose ulitization and erythromycin resistance.
Preservation of Takju by Pasteurization
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 18, issue 3, 1990, Pages 322~325
During transportation and preservation of Takju, alcohol fermentation has continued to produce
from residual sugar and frequently spoiled owing to bacterial contaminants wich produce organic acids. The authors could preserve Takju for more than 50 days at room temperature by pasteurization without any changes of quality. For the optimal condition of pasteurization, fresh Takju was heated at various temperatures and times. D-Value of the Saccharomyces sp. which isolated from Takju collected at seoul area was 19 see at
. Non-spore forming bacterial contaminants, most of which known to cause acid-spoilage, were decreased when heated at
for 5 min. The optimal pasteurization condition of Takju was at
for 10 min. Spore forming bacterial contaminants, considered to be EuciiLw sp., were not sterilized after pasteurized at the optimal condition. However, the spore-forming bacteria could not increase any more and also not cause increment of acidity during preservation even at room temperature for 50 days. Reducing sugar was increased during storage of Takju after pasteurization. This suggests that the residual glucoamylase in Takju is still active after pasteurizsation and keep sweet taste.