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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 1991
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 1991
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 1991
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 1991
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 1991
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 1991
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Purification and Properties of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactococcus sp. 1112-1
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 209~214
Purification of the bacteriocin from Lactococcus sp. 1112-1 was achieved by successive column chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-25 and Sephadex G-50, starting from cell disruption broth. 16.2% of the initial activity was recovered after this purification step and it was shown 123-fold increase in purification. Purified bacteriocin was shown a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This substance was rather stable at heat treatment and alkaline pH relatively. The residual antimicrobial activity was 38% when the bacteriocin was treated by heat at
for 60 min. And 23% of the activity remained at pH 8.0 after standing for 48 hr. The amino acid composition of purified bacteriocin was made up 26 residues.
Distinctive Characteristics of an Autonomous Replication Sequence of Cephalosporium acremoniurn in Yeast
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 215~221
An autonomous replication sequence (ARS) derived from Cephalosporium acremonium ATCC 20339 was cloned in Sarchuromyces cerevisiae SHY 3 using YIp5 as a cloning vector. A new recombinant plasmid, designated pCY-2, which contained a 3.7 kb BamHI fragment of C. acrenzonium DNA showed the highest stability among the 40 recombinant plasmids composed of the YIp5 2nd ARS of C. ucremoniztm. Also, Southern hybridization and transformation of E, cull with DNA purified from yeast transformants verified that pCY-2 autonomously replicates in yeasts. Transformation efficiency and plasmid stability of pCY-2 in yeast were higher than those ol YRp 7 containing ARS which originated from yeast. Detailed studies by subcloning revealed that two ARSs existed within 2.6 kb of the insert, which is a novel discovery. However, it was concluded that these two ARSs were ligated during the gene manipulation in vitro.
Marker-Exchange Mutagenesis of Pectate Lyase Gene in Rhizobium fredii
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 222~227
Rhizobium fredii USDA193 is one of the causal organism for root nodule formation in soybean (peking). Previously we cloned the pectate lyase gene (SY1) of R. fredii USDA193. The $pel^-$ mutants (SY1
1) of SY1 were obtained using the in vitro insertional omega mutagenesis of RpelB (of Rhizobium pel) and fill-in reaction of RpelE (of Rhizobium pel) gene respectively, and we constructed two mutants (R, fredii USDA193
and R. fredii USDA193
1) in pectate lyase function by marker-exchange with pe1B::
and R. fredii USDA193 strain (rif). The pectate lyase activity of two pel- mutant of R. fredii USDA193 was determined by spectrophotometric method. However, all pectate lyase activity of these mutants was not lost upon the mutagenesis by marker-exchange. This suggests that other pectate lyase genes may be present on the plasmid or the chromosome of R. fredii. As yet we do not have evidence linking RpelB and RpelE genes of R. fredii directly to the early nodulation process.
Total Synthesis and Expression in E, coli of a Gene Coding for Human Interleukin-2
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 228~234
- A synthetic gene coding for human interleukin-2 (IL-2) was constructed from the oligonucleotides synthesized by an automatic DNA synthesizer. The nucleotide sequence of the synthetic gene was chosen considering the preferred codons of E. coEi by not changing the amino acid sequence of IL-2 polypeptide. The synthetic gene was expressed in E. coli by placing the gene under the control of the
PL promoter. IL-2 was produced in the E. coli cytoplasm in the form of inclusion bodies. The recombinant IL-2 showed growth promoting activity on the IL-2 dependent cell line.
New Antibiotics Produced by Streptomyces melanosporofaciens II. Antimicrobial Activities and Isolation, Purification, and Structure Determination of the Active Compound
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 235~241
- A phthalic acid derivative and basic macrolide antibiotics, with antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi, respectively, were found to be produced by a strain 88-GT-161 identified as being a variety of Streptomyces melanosporofaciens. This paper describes an isolation procedure of the active compounds produced by this strain, their in vitro and in vivo (pot test) antimicrobial activites, and structure determination of one of the compounds, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a phthalic acid derivative antibiotic. This compounds, upon cornparision with authentic bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, dioctyl phthalate, revealed a difference in antimicrobial activity even though physico-chemical properties of these two compounds seemed indentical. This is the first report that dioctyl phthalate is biosynthetically produced by a Streptomyces sp. and shows antimicrobial activity.
The Induction of Steroid
-dehydrogenase from Arthrobacter simplex IAM 1660
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 242~247
- Since steroid
-dehydrogenase synthesis has been known to be inducible, the mechanism of the enzyme induction of Arthrobacter simplex IAM 1660 was investigated. Among various steroids tested for inducers, hydrocortisone was the most effective inducer when hydrocortisone was used as a substrate for steroid
-dehydrogenase synthesis was effectively induced by progesterone, prednisolone and androstenedione, while the enzyme was less induced by cholesterol and not by phytosterols. The results suggest that the presence of 3-keto group and short side chain of steroids are the favorable factors for the induction of the
-dehydrogenase synthesis. The enzyme was induced at the highest level when hydrocortisone was added at early log phase to the concentration of 0.01% of the culture and the culture was grown for 15 hours.
Immunological Studies on Mutation Process and Substrate Induction of Trichoderma viride Cellulase
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 248~252
- Mutation process and substrate induction of 7i-ichoderma viride cellobiohydrolase were investigated by immunological techniques. Since mutants of Trichodemza uiride such as QM9123, QM9414, TKO41 and MCG77 produced immunologically same cellobiohydrolase, it may be that the mutation be occurred in the reguratory gene rather than in the structural gene of cellobiohydrolase. a-Cellulose and Solka Floc were found to be the best inducer for the production of cellobiohydrolase in Trichodemza viride culture compared to low molecular weight inducer such as carboxylmethyl cellulose and cellobiose.
Purification and Properties of Aspergillus 3cuum exoinulinase
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 253~258
- An exoinulinase (EC 220.127.116.11) was purified from a commercial inulinase preparation from Aspergillus ficuum using ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50 and DEAESepharose 6B and HPLC gel filtration on a Protein Pak 125 column. Native exoinulinase had a molecular weight of 83, 000
1, 000 and was glycoprotein. Optimal pHs of the enzyme were ranged from 4.4 to 4.7. About ninety five percent of the whole activity was maintained even after incubation of 8 hours at
.The enzyme was a typical non-specific P-fructofuranosidase, of which I/S ratio appears to be 0.35.
Purification and Characterization of Glutamine synthetase of Klebsiella pneumoniae
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 259~264
Glutamine synthetase (GS) of Kkbsiellu pmumonzae was purified and identified it's properties. It was determined to be composed of 12 identical subunits and it's molecular weight was about 600,000. It's optimum pH and temperature were identified as pH 7.0 and
respectively, and also there was no considerable variation of activity between pH 5 and 8. When GS was incubated at
for 10 min, it's activity was decreased to half of maximum activity. It was observed that K. pneumoniae has adenylylation-deadenylylation system which regulates activity of GS according to the quality and quantity of nitrogen source like GS of E. coli Also it's GS was very similar to that of E. coli. in structure deduced from the immunodiffuslon experiment using anti-E. coli GS antibody.
Optimization for Alcohol Fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus using Jerusalem Artichoke Powder
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 265~271
In order to produce alcohol for the alternative energy from dried powder of Jerusalem artichoke was investigated with Kluyveromyces marxianus UCD(FST)55-82, which was reported to assimilate inulin. The optimal condition for the production of ethanol by K. marxianus was elucidated to be incubation temperature of
, initial pH 5.44, agitation of 100 rpm, 1,000 ml of medium in a 2.5l-vessel, anaerobic state, and inoculation of 2.5%(v/v). Addition of antifoam A concentrate(si1icon polymer) of 0.01% and urea of 0.1% increased the concentration of ethanol effectively. The optimized condition showed ethanol concentration of 6.8%(v/v) in Jerusalem artichoke liquid medium, production yield of 91.91% and productivity of 2.71 g/l/hr during the first day and 0.71g ethanol/l/hr during four days of incubation.
The Effect of Media Feeding Rate on the Production of Monoclonal Antibody Production in the Fed-batch Culture of Hybridoma
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 272~280
The effect of media feeding rate on cell growth and monoclonal antibody production in the fed-batch culture ot hybridoma A4W was studied. In the batch culture, the highest specific antibody production rate was observed at the begining of the culture period but its value tended to decrease rapidly with the culture time. The final antibody concentration and volumetric productivity was 65
/ml and 13 mg Mab/l/day, respectively. In the fed-batch culture, the specific antibody production rate,
rebounded sharply within a few hours after the media feeding was started and it remained high until the end of culture if the media feeding was continued. The final antibody concentration was 220
/ml and the volumetric productivity was 45.1 mg/l/day. Further increase in final antibody concentration was achieved by applying a modified media of which component was fortified with glucose and glutamine, hence the final antibody concentration in this case was 270
/ml and the volumetric productivity was 51.8 mg/lday, which is as four tinlcs as high cuixparinf! to that of batch culture.
Optimization of Tyrosinase Production using Neurospora crassa
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 281~289
Neurospora crassa (KCTC 6079) produces tyrosinase (EC 18.104.22.168) during sexual differentiation under derepressed conditions in the presence of inducers such as amino acid analogues, antimetabolites or protein synthesis inhibitors. The selection of inducer concentration and induction time as well as inducer type are critical for the optimization of the enzyme production. The best inducer was found to be cycloheximide. Since cycloheximide was toxic to the cells, an optimal inducer concentration and an optimal induction time were determined to maximize the enzyme production from batch cultures. Mathematical models for the cell growth and the enzyme production were proposed and used for process optimization. By optimizing the induction conditions, maximum tyrosinase productivity was increased significantly.
Direct Conversion of Raw Starch to Maltose in an Agitated Bead Enzyme Reactor using Fungal
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 290~295
Direct conversion of raw starch without liquefaction to maltose using maltose-forming fungal a-amylase (Fungamyl) was carried out in an agitated bead enzyme reactor (bioattritor). The reaction rate in bioattritor was comparable with conventional method which utilized liquefied soluble starch. Moreover the extent of maltose formation increased substantially compared with conventional method; from 150 g / I of raw starch, around 95 g/l of maltose was formed and 72% of maltose content in sugar mixture was achieved. Especially, pH influenced greatly not only on total sugar formation from raw starch in bioattritor but also on maltose content in sugar mixture. The optimal pH for maltose formation from raw starch was shifted into the weak alkaline pH, the optimal pH of 8.0~9.0 in bioattritor contrast to pH of 5.0~5.5 for liquefied starch. The maltose formation and content were also affected by the amounts of Fungamyl added and raw starch concentration. Consumption of maltose-forming Fungamyl can be substantially reduced by supplementary addition of starch liquefying a-amylase (Termamyl).
Isolation of Glucose Isomerase-Producing Microorganism, Streptomyces luteogriseus and Determination of Fermentation Conditions
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 296~302
Glucose isomerase producer, which produces 488 U/ml of glucose isomerase activity in 500 ml flask scale, was isolated among 666 isolates of Actinomycetes from pine forest soil samples. The isolate was identified as Streptomyces luteogriseus through the studies about morphology (spiral aerial mycelia), cell wall type (Type I), spore chains (spiral form), pigment formation (gray melanine pigment) & metabolism (sugar utilization etc). The optimum conditions of fermentation were determined in 500 ml flask scale. The enzyme production was reached maximum after 4 days at pH 6.0~8.0 and 27~
in the medium containing 1.5~3.0% of xylose; 0.5-0.8% of glucose; 0.1% of
; 0.05% of
; 7.5% of corn steep liquor.
Purification of hemolysin in mosquitocidal delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis 73E10-2
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 303~307
The hemolyic polypeptide in delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thun'ngiensis subsp. darmstadiensis 73ElO-2 was purified by Sephadex G-IOO gel filtration and DEAE-cellulose ion exchange column chromatography. The purity of hemolysin was confirmed by ouchterlony test and SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of the purified hemolysin was approximately 64 KDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified hemolysin has not mosquitocidal activity against larvae of Aedes agypti, but hemolytic activity on red blood cells of rat. There is no serological relationship between delta-endotoxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and the purified hemolysin from the . strain 73ElO-2.
Stability on Chemical Treatment of Niosquitocidal delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis 73E10-2
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 308~312
The delta-endotoxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. damstadienszs 73E10-2 was resistant to high concentration of salt (4M NaBr), organic solvents (50% acetone), denaturants (4 M urea), and neutral detergents (10% triton X-100). In contrast, the toxin was inactivated by treating with charged detergents as well as guanidine hydrochloride or carbon tetra-chloride. The delta-endotoxin is not a sulfhydryl activated toxin, but modification of the lysine side chains eliminated toxicity against mosquito larvae.
Purification of Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase by Affinity Chromatography
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 3, 1991, Pages 313~314
- The cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) of a mutant of Bacillus stearothermophilus was purified in one step by affinity chromatography. The recovery was 95%. The specific activity of the CGTase increased from 26.2 U/mg protein to 485.5 U/mg protein. The purified CGTase was almost homogeneous by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The one-step purification proved to be feasible with the mutant in contrast to the parent strain, which required pre-purification step of ammonium sulfate precipitation.