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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 1991
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 1991
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 1991
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 1991
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 1991
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 1991
Selecting the target year
Characterization and Some Cultural Conditions of a Pullulanase Producing Aeromonas caviae No. S-76
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 315~318
- A bacterial strain No. S-76 which produced pullulanase powerfully was isolated frorn soil. The isolated bacterium was 0.4~
in size, gram negative, rods, motile and was identified as Aerornonas caviae by Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology with various characteristics investigated. The highest yield of pullulanase of the strain was obtained by using the following medium: 1% pullulan, soluble starch or corn starch as a carbon sources and 0.5% yeast extract, peptone as nitrogen sources with an initial pH of 9.0. The optimal cutture conditions for production of pullulanase were at
for 2 days.
Isolation of Strains that Produce Ethanol Efficiently from Cellulosic Materials
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 319~324
Three strains able to efficiently produce ethanol from cellulosic hydrolysates were isolated from soil samples by enrichment culture in liquid saccharified wheat bran medium. The profiles of physiological and biochemical properties of two yeasts KM-09 and KM-402 and a bacterium Hg-225 were almost identical from those of Candida sp. and Klebsiella sp., respectively. Strains KM-09 and HG-225 used xylose and cellobiose as fermentable sugars, and HG-225 had a wide range of sugar utilization for ethanol fermentation. The optimal pH and temperature for growth of KM-09, KM-402 and HG-225 were 5.8, 5.6 and 6.8 and 32t,
, respectively. During the ethanol fermentation in saccharified wheat bran by the isolated strains, optimal temperature for ethanol production was more or less higher than those for growth, and addition of 0.2% (w/v)
, into the medium enhanced ethanol productivity. Of the three strains ethanol content of KM-09 was the highest with about 2.3% (v/v), and ethanol production rate of HG-225 was faster than the others and maximum productivity was after 4 days. KM-09 (1.42% v/v) and HG-225 (1.05%, vlv) produced ethanol from 4% (wIv) xylose but growth rate was slower than on glucose. Otherwise KM-402 showed the highest ethanol productivity on glucose, but no ethanol was detected on xylose and cellobiose.
Intergeneric Protoplast Fusion beween Candida sp. KM-09 and Saccharumyces cerevisiue
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 325~330
In order to develop yeast strains which can effectively produce ethanol from cellulosic hydrolyzates, protoplast fusion between Candida sp. KM-09-135 and Saccharomyces cweoisiue SM-07 was carried out and obtained the excellent fusant KMS-23. Fusant KMS-23 showed the optimal growth temperature and ethanol productivity at
, and assimilated xylose, cellobiose, maltose and raffinose as fermentative sugars. Cell size of the fusant was about 1.2 times greater than that of KM-09-135 and 1.5 times SM-07. DNA content of fusant was 1.3 times higher than that of SM-07 and similar with KM-09-135. Fusant KMS-23 produced 2.57% (v/v) ethanol from saccharified wheat bran containing 6.44% (w/v) of reducing sugar, which was 1.3 times higher than parent strains under the same conditions.
Saccharification of Natural Cellulosic Materials by the Isolated Pseudomonas sp. LBC-505
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 331~336
In order to utilize natural cellulosic materials as a fermentative substrate, saccharification of a various kind of native cellulosic materials was performed by using cellulase from the isolated strain, Pseudomonas sp. LBC-505 which potently produced cellulase complex and xylanase. Cellulase complex production was repressed by the low concentration of glucose, induced by cellulosic compounds such as CMC, wheat bran and rice straw et al. and showed to be highest on the PY-CMC medium containing 5% (w/v) wheat bran instead of CMC. Optimal temperature for enzyme reactions of CMCase and xylanase was
-glucosidase. Optimal pH for these enzyme reaction was 6.6. Rate of saccharification for natural cellulose was low by the treatment of crude enzyme. Among their substrates, rice straw was the most effective substrate of enzymatic reaction in this work. After treating rice straw with 5% (v/v) HC1 and hydrolysing with crude enzyme, rate of saccharification was 18.4% (w/w) on dry substrate. Sugars of cellulosic hydrolyzate mainly contained glucose, xylose and cellobiose.
Identification of Bacteria Having Antifungal Activity Isolated from Soils and Its Biological Activity
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 337~342
A bacterium producing the antifungal compound KRF-001 isolated from soil was selected and identified as Bacillus subtilis. The antibiotic KRF-001 was active against various fungi. Effecacy of KRF-001 at various concentration for controlling leaf blast of rice in the paddy field was evaluated and compared with recommended rates of kasugamycin, blasticidin- s and tricyclazole. KRF-001 caused no irritation on the skin of rabbits and LD50 for mice was deduced more than 5000 mg/kg which indicates the possibility of low toxicity or no toxicity.
Selection of High Tobramycin-Producing Mutants
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 343~347
An improved method for the selection of high tobramycin-producing mutants of Streptomyces tenebrarius ATCC 17920 was investigated. By the use of apramycin-containing media, low nebramycin-producing mutants were eliminated. Strain No. 23, resistant to apramycin and kanamycin B and sensitive to tobramycin, was isolated from soils, identified as Pseudomonas paucimobilis and used as a test organism for overlaying the mutants on agar plate. While inhibition zones were not shown when the parent strains were overlaid with soft agar containing the strain No. 23, clear zones were shown when high tobramycin-producing mutants were overlaid. Using this screening strategy, 58 mutants showing clear zones had been isolated. antibiotic activities of which were incresed to 3~8 fold compared to that of parent strain.
Synthesis and Secretion of the Endo-
-l,4-Glucanase from Bacillus subtilis in Industrial Yeast Strain
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 348~355
DNA segment encoding
-1, 4-glucanase of Bacillus subtilis was fused in frame to mouse
-amylase signal sequence behind the alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme I gene (ADHI) promoter of the yeast expression vector pMS12. To enhance the expression level of the
glucanase gene in yeast, transcription terminator sequence iso-1-cytochrome c gene (CYCI) was inserted into the recombinant plasmid. The transformants harbouring such recombinant plasmids secreted
-glucanase into the culture medium. The expresstion level of the
-glucanase gene was increased about 2-fold caused by inserting the terminator. The amount of the secreted
-glucanase in culture medium was approximately 60% of the total quantity synthesized.
Genetic Transfer of Bacillus pasteurii Urease Gene into Antagonistic Bacillus subtilis YBL-7 against Root Rotting Fungi Fusarium solani
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 356~361
- To investigate the possibility of genetic development for a multi-purpose strain of Bacillus subtilis YBL-7 against Fusat-iurn solani causing root rot of many impotant corps, the plasmid pGU66 inserting urease gene of Bacillus pasteurii had been introduced into Bacillus subtilis YBL-7 by PEG-induced protoplast (PIP) transformation system. Protoplasts of B. subtilis YBL-7 were prepared by treating the cells with lysozyme (200
/ml) in hypertonic buffer (SMMP). The highest transformation frequency was achieved when cells of the strain with lysozyme at
for 90 minutes. Optimal transformation was obtained using polyethylene glycol (MW 4000) at final concentration of 30% (V/V). The transformation frequency was increased proportionally to 1.2
of plasmid DNA. At best condition, the transformation frequency (transformants/ regenerants/
of DNA) for pGU66 was appoximately
. Also, the urease gene was strongly expressed in the transformants of B. subtilis YBL-7 and maintained steadily. The antifungal ability of transformant was very similar to that of B. ssubtilis YBL-7.
Purification, Characterization of Pullulanase Produced by Aerornonas caviae No. S-76 and Synthesis of Maltosyl-
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 362~367
The crude enzyme solution obtained by shaking culture of Aeromonas caviae No. S-76 isolated from soil as pullulanase producing bacterium was purified by 50 folds with 21% yield by salting out with ammonium sulfate and column chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-150. The purified pullulanase had a molecular weight of 118, 000 approximately by SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis and pI of 4.3 by isoelectric focusing. And optimum reaction temperature and pH for puHulanase were
and 8.0, respectively. The purified enzyme was relatively stable at pH 6.0~9.0 and below
. This enzyme synthesized maltosyl-
-cyclodextrin from mixture of
-cyclodextrin and maltose.
Effect of Various Additives and Solvents on Thermostability of Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase from Bacillus stearothermophilus
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 368~371
The influence of ethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol and sucrose on the thermostability of Bacilus stearothermophzlus cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) was investigated. Glycerol, sorbitol and sucrose had effect on thermostability of the CGTase. The effects appeared to be strongly dependent on concentration of additives. The thermostability of CGTase also was assayed in organic solvents such as n-butanol, l, &dioxane, n-octane. The therrnostability of CGTase increased in l, 4-dioxane and n-octane. Particularly, in n-octane, the CGTase retained the 81% of the initial activity after incubation at
for 90 min.
Densitometric TLC Assay of Aminoglycoside-3'-Phosphotransferase (APH(3')) Produced by E. coli ATCC 21990
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 372~379
A rapid and simple quantitative assay method for aminoglycoside-3'- phosphotransferase (APH(3')) derived from E. coli ATCC 21990 was developed using the thin layer chromatographic densitometry, 3'-phosphorylated kanamycin B (3'-PKMB), product of APH (3') reaction, was separated from reaction mixtures by developing on the silica gel TLC plate with chloroform-methanol-ammonia water (3:4:3). The quantity of the 3'-PKMB was measured by densitometry after color development by ninhydrin method. Densitometric TLC assay for APH (3') was showed a good quantitative result and reproducibility. Sensitivity of this assay was 1.56 nmol of 3'-PKMB and could be analyzed many samples at same time. This method may be applicable for the analysis of inactivating enzymes of aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Beef Tallow
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 377~382
Reef tallow was hydrolyzed with lipase under the conditions of liquid state and solid state. Lipase OF 360 was used for that purpose, and the lipase had the maximum activity when the olive oil was used as a substrate at pH 6 and
. Beef tallow was dispersed by an agitator to perform a liquid enzymatic reaction. Water content, reaction temperature, and enzyme amount were varied as parameters affecting hydrolysis percentage. Ninety three percents of tallow were hydrolyzed at the following conditions: water content 80% w/w, temperature
, and enzyme amount 200 unitlg tallow. In order to conduct a solid phase enzymatic reaction, sonication was employed for pretreating tallow with the enzyme solution. Molten tallow was sonified with the enzyme solution, and solidified by lowering temperature. And then hydrolysis reaction proceeded at
. Sonication intensity and time were varied to control hydrolysis percentage. Optimum values of the intensity and the time were found to exist since the hydrolysis percentage did not increase further according to the increases of the intensity and the time.
Isolation of Alkalopsychrotrophic Protease-Producing Pseudomonas sp. RP-222 and Properties of Its Crude Enzyme
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 383~389
In order to produce alkaline protease, psychrotrophic bacterium which have high enzyme activity at low temperature, was isolated by using enrichment culture from various samples and identified as genus alkalopsychrotropic Pseudomonas sp. RP-222. The optimal culture conditions for enzyme production were pH- 10.0, temperature-
and culture time-4 days. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme activity were pH 10.5 and
, respectively and the enzyme was relatively stable at pH 7.0~13.0 and below
. The enzyme was inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, indicating that the enzyme was a serine metalloenzyme, but considerably stable in the presence of surface active agents. Activity of the enzyme was increased by the addition of 0.05% Na-
Studies on the Immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Ethanol Production
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 390~397
Ethanol production by calcium alginate-immobilized baker's yeast (Saccharor/tyces cereviszae) was studied in the batch fermentation using glucose medium as a feed. Immobilied cells were stable between
whereas free cells were stable between
The beads were showed constant ethanol productivity during 720 hours (30 days) over. Fermentation characteristics of immobilized baker's yeast were examined changing the initial glucose concentration of broth in fermentation. Initial glucose concentrations employed were 50, 100, 150 and 200 g/l, respectively. In 15% gucose medium, maximum specific growth rate, maximum ethanol yield and ethanol concentration were observed as 0.092
, 0.45, 67.5 g/l, respectively.
Continuous Ethanol Production Using immobilized Baker's Yeast
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 398~404
- Ethanol production by calcium alginate-immobilized baker's yeast was studied in the continuous shaked-flask reactor (CSFR) using glucose medium as a feed. Immobilized cells were stable at 30~
and pH 4~8. Fermentation characteristics of immobilized baker's yeast were examined changing the initial glucose concentration employed were 50, 100 and 150 g/l, respectively. It was investigated that the influent glucose concentration and the dilution rate have an influence on the ethanol fermentation characteristics at steady state in continuous culture of immobilized baker's yeast. The optimum conditions for high ethanol productivity and low residual glucose output in ethanol prodution were shown to be 0.2 h ' for the dilution rate and 150 g/l for the influent glucose concentration. The maximum ethanol productivity, ethanol yield, specific growth rate and glucose conversion rate were around 7.12 g/
, 0.23, 0.366 g/
and 78.43, respectively.
The Properties of Glucose Isomerase Produced by Streptomyces luteogriseus TH34
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 405~412
The enzymes were immobilized by treating the microbial cells in 0.05% chitosan and 0.28% glutaraldehyde solution. The activity of immobilized cell was about 535 IGIC/g. Glucose isomerase was purified by 6.5 times after homogenization using 60%
fractionation, DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-150 gel filtration. The molecular weight of enzyme was about 140,000 when it was measured by HPLC and the purified enzyme had only one band by electrophoresis. It showed good enzyme activity at pH 7.5 and
. The optimum conditions for enzyme reactions were shifted to pH 7.0 and
when the enzyme was immobilized. The enzyme reaction was activated by the addition of 5~10 mM magnesium ion and the thermostability was improved by the addition of 0.25 mM cobalt ion. The enzyme activity was competitively inhibited by sugar alcohols.
Lactic Fermentation of Soymilk by Mixed Culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Saccharomyces uvarum
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 413~418
When L, bulgurzcus KFCC 35462 and S. uvarum KFCC 32021 were mixed cultured in soymilk, gorwth of L. bulgaricus was stimulated with growth of S. uvarunz little affected. Cultured in soymilk singly, L. bulgaricus produced only 0.07%) of acids. S. uvarum, cultured singly, produced 0.40% of ethanol and 0.18% of acids. Mixed culture of both produced 0.27% of acids and 0.42% of ethanol. Thus. S. uvarurrz was not much affected in growth and ethanol fermentation by L. bulgariccus, while L, bulgarzcus was stimulated by Sacch. uvarunz in growth but not in acid fermentation.
Continuous Ethanol Fermentation Using Membrane Cell Recycle Fermentor
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 19, issue 4, 1991, Pages 419~427
Ethanol fermentation of glucose by a strain of Saccharomyces cereuisiae was studied in membrane recycle bioreactor, where the fermentation vessel was coupled with cross flow hollow fiber membrane. The cell recycle system controlled backflushing with fresh medium was proven to be effective in alleviating membrane fouling and allowing long term operation of high-cell continuous fermentation. Using 100 g/l initial glucose concentration, the maximum productivity of about 9 5 g/
has been achieved at dilution rate 2.5
and bleed stream ratio 0.05 with the corresponding ethanol concentration of 35g/l and glucose conversion of 100%. Increasing the glucose concentration to 200 g/
resulted in an increase in ethanol concentration to 48 g/l and productivity to 120 g1l.h. Substrate conversion, however, was only 69%. This productivity was the highest value in the study, and about 38 fold more than that of batch culture and 17 fold more that of single stage continuous culture without cell recycling. No further increase in the productivity was obtained when the glucose concentration was increased reased to 300g/l.