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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Dec 1992
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Oct 1992
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Aug 1992
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Jun 1992
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Apr 1992
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Feb 1992
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Antibacterial Activity of Ulmus pumila L. Extract
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 1~5
Antibacterial activity of the water-soluble portion of Ulmus pzcmila L. extract against 10 bacterial species was studied by both cylinder plate dilution method and broth dilution test tube method. Inhibitory effect of the extract on the bacteria was also investigated by plotting bacterial survival at various concentration of the extract. The crude extract exhibited antibacterial activity against all of the tested bacterial species with exception of K pneurnoniae. The fractions of the extract prepared by CM Sephadex-C 50 ion exchange chromatography were also subjected to test the antibacterial activity, and the activity was studied after autoclaving for 20 minutes.
Studies on the Protoplast Fusion between Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus delbrueckii
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 6~13
- Protoplast fusion between lincomycin resistant Lactobacillus casei KCTC 1121 and rifarnpicin resistant Lactobacillus delbrueckii JK-414 was attempted to obtain the improved strains. Protoplasts of L. casei and L. delbrueckii were produced by mutanolysin digestion at
for 15 min. L. casei cells were converted to protoplasts by treating with 5
/ m l of mutanolysin in 20 mM HEPES buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.75 M sucrose at the middle logarithmic growth phase. In case of L. delbrueckii 1.0 M sucrose was used osmotic stabilizer. Regeneration of protoplast in both strains was efficiently accomplished on the regeneration medium containing 10% sucrose, 6 mM
, and 2.5% gelatin. Protoplast fusion between L. casei and L. delbrueckii was carried out in the presence of 40% of PEG 4,000. The frequency of protoplast fusion was found to be about
. Acid production of L. casei was better than that of L. delbrueckii. Among fusants, F23 and F35 exhibited excellent lactic acid production. F23 and F24 exhibited the improved proteolysis compared to that of the parent strains and they had twice as much as DNA content of the parents.
Isolation and Identification of Exo-xylanase Producing Microorganism
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 14~19
The xylanase producing microorganisms occurring on rotten woods were selectively isolated on the modified Czapek-Dox medium supplemented with 0.5% xylan as a sole carbon source. Among more than three-hundred isolates of xylanase producing microorganisms, only two bacterial isolates were turned out to be more potent xylanase producer than the reference strain of xylanase producer, Aureobaszdium pullulans NRRL Y-2311. The exo-xylanase producer, bacterial isolate No. 33 was identified as a strain of Pseudomonas sp. on the basis of morphological and biochemical characterizations as well as cellular fatty acid composition. Optima of pH and of temperature for enzyme reactions of xylanase were 5.5 and
respectively. The enzyme was stable in a range of pH 5.0~7.0 and below
. Among the number of carbohydrate substrates, xylose was turned out to be a potent inducer of Pseudomonas sp. No.33 exo-xylanase. Among the raw materials tested, rice straw was the best material for xylanase production by Pseudomonas sp. strain No. 33.
Immobilization of Endo- and Exoinulinase on Vinylsulfone Activated Agarose
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 20~24
In order to reuse inulinase effectively, a method for immobilizing both endo- and exoinulinase to vinylsulfone activated agarose via covalent bond was investigated. The immobilized enzyme preparation had, respectively, 400 U for exoinulinase activity and 80 U for endoinu- Iinase activity per gram gel. A thermal stability by immobilization had increased in the case of exoinulinase. Optimum pHs for two immobilized enzymes were 4.4 to 5.0. Synergistic effect which depends on mixed ratio of two immobilized enzymes was the best when the mixed ratio of endo/exo lay between 0.1 and 0.5, and its activity of the mixed enzyme increased 1.7 times as compared to that of each immobilized enzyme. Inulinase activities of both of the immobilized enzymes did not change during 20 times experimental runs in a batch reactor.
The Properties of Acetolactate Synthase Isozyme Produced by Serratia marcescens ATCC 254 19
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 25~33
One acetolactate synthase isozyme which has Rf value of 0.83 on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was purified from Sewatia marcescens ATCC 25419 by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, Phenyl-Sepharose chromatography, Sephacryt S-400 gel filtration followed by native gel elution. The native molecular weight of the enzyme was determined to be 531,400 by gel filtration method, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separated the native enzyme into two polypeptides having molecular sizes of 55,000 and 38,900 respectively. In kinetic parameters,
value for pyruvate was 2.54 mM, and
was 21.75 nmoie/min/mg. The enzyme showed maximal activity around pH 8.0 and optimal temperature of the acetolactate formation was
. Feedback inhibition studies indicate that the purified enzyme is rather resistant to branched chain amino acids when compared with acetolactate synthase isozymes of plants or other enterobacteria.
Isolation of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bacillus polymyxa KS-1 and Some Properties of Exopolysaccharide
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 34~39
For the screening of new-functional and specific exopolysaccharide, a bacterium strain was isolated from soil through the two steps of screening. The isolated bacterium was identified as Bacillus polymyxa KS-1 according to the criteria of morphological, physiological, and chemical taxonomic analyses. The exopolysaccharide was composed of glucose:galactose: mannose and galactosamine in an approximate molar ratio of 1.00:0.36:1.02:1.10. The produced exopolysaccharide by Bacillus polymyxa KS-1 was found to be revealed new acidic polysaccharide which did not contain pentose, ketose, starch, and uronic acid.
Characterization of Acidic Nucleotidase from Aspergillus niger
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 40~45
Acidic nucleotidase from Asfiergilius nlger has been partially purified by Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration and DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange chromatography. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme reaction with 5'-AMP or 3'-AMP as a substrate were 4.5 and 55%, respectively. However, the optimum temperature became 70% when p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used as a substrate. The enzyme was stable at acidic pH. The enzyme activity was not affected by addition of various nucleotides, nucleosides and inorganic phosphates. Ferric, aluminium, vanadate and molybdate ions inhibited the enzyme activity dramatically. In kinetic studies,
), values for 3'-AMP, 5'-AMP and p-nitrophenyl phosphate were 1.39 mM, 1.5 mM and 5.77 mM, respectively. The substrate efficiency (
) shows 3'-AMP is the prefered substrate for the enzyme among tested substrates.
Hydrolysis of Lactose in Whey by the BetavD-Galactosidase
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 46~52
The optimum condition for the developement of a whey beverage from the concentrated whey was studied. Reverse osmosis system was used to obtain concentrated lactose from cheese whey. The hydrolysis degree of lactose by
-D-galactosidase was determined using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). The order of hydrolysis degree was 1:1, 2:l and 3:l concentrated lactose. It resulted from the concentrated salt which slightly inhibited
-D-galactosidase with constant enzyme dosage. The optimum condition for enzyme dosage was 2% in non-concentrated lactose, 3% in 2:l and 3% in 3:l concentrated lactose after 4 hours of reaction. When the 3:l concentrated lactose was used, more than 70% was hydrolyzed by 3% enzyme dosage. Furthermore the change of fermented whey by lactic acid bacteria was investigated. Based on the result of sensory test, the most favorable response was obtained at pH 4.2 and titratable acidity of 0.7% about 6 hours of fermentation at
with 2%: thermophilic starter.
Purification and Properties of Trehalase from Rhizoctonia solani
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 53~60
Nonregulatory trehalase has been purified from mycelia of Rhztoctonia solani. a pathogen of rice sheath blight. Purification procedures involved sonification, gel filtration and fast protein liquid chromatography. Purity was confirmed by isoelectric focusing with silver staining. The purified trehalase was estimated to have a molecular weight of 54,000 and pI point of 5.1. Maximal activity was observed at pH 5.4 and temperature
. The purified trehalase exhibited on apparent Km for trehalose of 3.11 mM and a Vmax of 105.3
. Validamycin, a commercial antibiotics of rice sheath blight, was a non-competitive inhibitor of Rhzzoctoniu solani trehalase.
Synthesis of an Aspartame Precursor Using Thermolysin in Organic Two-Phase System
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 61~67
The synthesis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester(ZAPM), a precursor of aspartame, from N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aspartic acid(Z-Asp) and L-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride(L-PM-HCl) was investigated in ethylacetate-MES buffer two-phase system using thermolysin. In organic two-phase system, the degree of spontaneous hydrolysis of L-PM. HCl was significantly reduced with increasing the volume ratio of organic to aqueous phase. Stability of thermolysin in organic two-phase system was found to be higher than that in MES buffer solution. More than 90% of initial enzyme activity was maintained after 10 days of incubation in case that the volume of organic phase was equal to that of buffer phase, while the half life of thermolysin was about 2 days in aqueous buffer solution. The results of partitioning of substrates and product in organic two-phase system showed that the difference in partition coefficients between substrates and product was maximum at pH 5.5. The optimal pH for 2-APM synthesis in organic two-phase system was found to be 5.5-5.8, which is consistent with the value expected from the partition experiments. As the concentration of substrates was increased the conversion yield of Z-APM was increased with concomitant reduction of L-PMqHC1 hydrolysis. In case that the concentration of L-PM-HCl and Z-Asp were 160 mM and 80 mM respectively, the conversion yield of Z-APM reached 90% after 28 hrs of reaction. The yield obtained at different volume ratio of organic phase compares well with the predicted equilibrium constant in biphasic system.
Properties of Active Sites of Chitinase from Aerornonas salmonicida YA7-625
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 68~72
To investigate the characteristics of active sites of the chitinase isolated from AWOrnonus sulmonicidu YA7-625, effects of various chemicals un the enzyme activity were analyzed.
' ions inhibited the activity of chitinase, while
ions at 1 mM stimulated enzyme activity. The chitinase was not inhibited by sulfhydryl ;gents, phenylglyoxal, and hydroxylamine, but was inhibited by iodine and N-bromosuccinimide. The
, values of chitinase were 4.04 a d 10.10, respectively. These results suggested that the chitinase from A~ronmzus salmonici& YA7-625 contains histidine, tyrosine. and tryptophan at the active center.
Production of L-Tryptophan by Enzymatic Processes
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 73~78
- Enzymatic synthesis of L-tryptophan(Trp) using E. coli tryptophanase has been investigated. In order to reduce the substrate inhibition by indole and to increase the product yield of L-tryptophan three different approaches have been made in this work. First, indole was intermittently fed to the reaction mixture in order to control the indole concentration at lower level. When 15 mM of indole was used as a total amount of substrate, conversion yield of 80% has been obtained with intermittent feeding while only 20% of indole was converted into L-tryptophan by conventional batch operation, The second method employed in this work was the use of cyclohexane-phosphate buffer organic two-phase system. In this system, indole was mainly partitioned into the organic-solvent phase and therefore substrate inhibition was expected to be reduced. L-Tryptophan production in organic two-phase system was, however, unexpectedly lower than that obtained in aqueous buffer solution. As a third method cyclodextrins have been added to the aqueous reaction mixture. It was found that the addition of
-cyclodextrin enhanced the tryptophan synthesis noticeably while
-cycfodextrin showed little effect on tryptophan production.
Effective Supply of Substrate for Hydrogen Production by Immobilized Cells of Rhodopseudornonas sphaeroides
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 79~84
The Photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides strain B6 was irnmobilized on agar gel. The optimum concentration of agar for hydrogen production was 2% (w/v). Maximum rates of hydrogen production by immobilized (300 ml of gel; 2.85 rng dry cells/ml) and free cells (1l culture; 0.87 mg dry cells/ml) were 47.5 and 48.0 ml/hr/culture, respectively. However, when both cultures were fed by 10 mmoles of lactate as limited electron donor at the later period of incubation, the activity of hydrogen production by free cells was significantly decreased but, immobilized cells continued hydrogen production with almost the same initial rate. Wc examined hydrogen production by immobilized cells of strain B6 under periodic illumination for 12 hr-intervals. When the culture was periodically fed by basal medium containing 9.3 rnmoles of DL-lactate and 1.86 mmoles of L-glutamate as consumed electron donor and nitrogen source, respectively, for every one liter of hydrogen produced, hydrogen was evolved continuously with the average rate of 510 ml/day/300 ml gel (2.9 rng dry cellslml) during the incubation time for 228 hr
Assessment of Ethanol Fermentation with Rice Bran by Yeasts
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 85~90
Rice bran was employed as a main medium component for ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces species. Among the several strains of .Saccharomyces yeasts. S. cerevisiae IF0 2346 was selected as the hest strain in view of the interest in the production of ethanol and amino acids. It was found that S. cerevisiae IF0 2346 showed
cells/d and 4.7% (v/v) ethanol production after 72 hr cultivation. Although total amount of free amino acids was decreased from 1.099 mg/l to 829 mg/l during the fermentation, glutamic acid. histidine, and isoleucine were increased considerably. With the supplement of 5% glucose to the ferrnentation medium, both ethanol and amino acid production were increased up to 134% and 264%, respectively. compared to the control case. Glutamic. acid, leucine, alanine. phenylalanint:, and valine were the major amino acids in the fermentation broth.
Fermentation of Glucose, Xylose and Cellobiose by Pichia stipitis
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 91~95
The hydrolyzates of lignocellulosic biomass contain a mixture of glucose, xylose and cellobiose. The yeast which can produce ethanol efficiently from xylose and cellobiose was selected and its growth and ethanol formation behavior on each sugar and their mixture were investigated. Ethanol yields during batch culture of Pichia stipitis CBS 5776 were 0.4. 0.36 and 0.23 g/g substrate on glucose, xylose and cellobiose, respectively. Mixed sugar fermentation data indicate that glucose causes catabolite regulation on xylose and cellobiose utilization. However, xylose and cellobiose were utilized simultaneously. Ethanol yields on mixtures of sugars were generally additive for each of the substrates.
Isolation and Characteris tics of Polyvinyl Alcohol Degrading Bacteria
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 96~101
Two strains of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) utilizing bacteria were isolated from the waste water and soil. These strains, G5Y and PW, were able to utilize PVA symbiotically as a carbon source, but could not utilize PVA separately. In the mixed culture of these strains, 0.5 percent of PVA was almost completely degraded in 3 days. Effect of degree of PVA polymerization on the its utilization was examined, and there was no remarkable difference among three kind of PVA (PVA 500, 1500, a d 2000). These bacteria were able to utilize PV,4 in the desizing waste water of factory as well as enrichment PVA medium. These strains, C5Y and PW, were identified as Pseudomonas cepucia and Pseudomonus pseudomallei, respectively, based on morpholofical and biological characteristics.
Microfloral Changes of the Lactic Acid Bacteria during Kimchi Fermentation and Identification of the Isolates
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 102~109
The microfloral changes of lactic acid bacteria during Kimchi fermentation at 5, 20 and
were compared by using various selective media, and the lactic acid bacterial strains were isolated and identified. The patterns of microfloral changes in each lactic acid bacterial group, leuconostoc, lactobacilli, streptococci and pediococci, were similar at different fermentation temperature, and the changes were accelerated by increased temperature. Among them, leuconostoc and lactobacilli showed high population, and at low temperature the number of leuconostoc were higher than at high temperature. Leuconostoc and streptococci were increased in number from the beginning, but they rapidly decreased after the optimum ripening period. Pediococci increased their number after streptococci, but they were rapidly decreased later. Lactobacilli were highly distributed throughout the whole fermentation period. However, they were slightly declined as the acidity increased. Those strains of leuconostoc, streptococci, pediococci and lactobacilli were identified as Luuconostoc mesenteroida subsp. musenteroides, Streptococcus fuecalzs, S, faeciurn, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plarttarum, L. sake and L. brevis. Among lactobacilli, Id. sake and L. brmk, and L. plantarum were isolated mainly at the beginning and around the overripening period of fermentation, respectively.
Isolation of a Desmutagenic Substance Producing Microorganisms
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 20, issue 1, 1992, Pages 110~113
In the screening process of anti- or desmutagenic substance from the various microbial metabolites with the method of Ames and Rec-assay, a desmutagenic substance producing bacterial strain which inactivates the mitomycin C-induced mutagenicity was isolated and identified as Psudomonas sp. AM-10