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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 1998
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 1998
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 1998
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 1998
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 1998
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 1998
Selecting the target year
Production of Hydrogen from Glucose by Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 89~95
Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides K7 and E15-1 produced hydrogen from glucose rapidly for the first 24 hrs of culture under the anaerobic and photosynthetic conditions and then ceased the hydrogen production because of the accumulation of organic acids such as acetic acid and formic acid in the culture broth, decreasing the pH to 4.2-4.5. Only 43% and 73% of glucose in the culture were consumed even after 6 days of incubation by R. sphaeroides K7 and E15-1, respectively. The hydrogen production and glucose consumption, however, were substantially increased when the pH of the culture was adjusted to 6.8-7.0: Hydrogen production continues even after 10 days of culture and glucose was consumed completely after 2.5 and 4.5 days by R. sphaeroides K7 and E15-1, respectively, Furthermore, the bacteriochlorophyll contents in R. sphaeroides K7 and E15-1 were increased by 44 and 9 folds and the cell concentrations by 10 and 2.5 folds, respectively, after 7 days of culture. R. sphaeroides K7 and E15-1 also produced hydrogen from acetic, lactic, butyric and malic acids under the anaerobic and photosynthetic conditions even though the amounts of hydrogen produced were lower than that from glucose. The results of this experiment indicate that under the anaerobic and synthetic conditions R. sphaeroides K7 and E15-1 might use the NADH oxidation mediated by ferredoxin and hydrogenase to evolve hydrogen from glucose for the first 24 hrs and then the organic acids produced were used as electron donners for the production of hydrogen in the nitrogen-limited condition.
The Effect of External Carbon Sources on Batch Denitrification Process.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 96~101
Respiratory denitrification experiments were performed using different carbon sources (acetic acid, glucose, methanol, molasses). In the culture media with glucose and molasses, COD consumption and denitrification rates were higher than with acetic acid and methanol. However, up to 30-40% of reduced nitrate and nitrite were converted to ammonium in glucose and molasses media. In the culture media with acetic acid and methanol, ammonium was not accumulated. Some of the consumed COD seemed to be used by the acid formers for the acidification in glucose and molasses media. By initial pH control of with molasses media, higher denitrification rate (up to 99%) and faster response could be obtained.
Properties of Acid Tolerance of Acid-Resistant Mutant Leuconostoc mesenteroides Which Was Improved as Kimchi Starter.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 102~109
To investigate the increased acid tolerance of a acid-resistant mutant Leuconostoc mesenteroides M-100 improved as a kimchi starter, proton permeability, ATPase acitivity, glycolysis activity,
releasement, and membrane fatty acid composition were studied and comprised with its wild type Leuconostoc mesenteroides Mw. In the proton permeability experiment, the mininum values of the average half time (
) of pH equilibration through the cell membrane of the Mw and the M-100 were about 8.6 min and 9.2 min in 150 mM KCI solution, respectivily. In the 3% NaCl solution, the
values of the Mw and the M-100 were 6min and 8.6 min, respectivily. The values and pHs of maximal specific activities of ATPase originated from the Mw and the M-100 were 0.6U at pH 5.5 and 0.8U at pH 5.5, respectivily. The result of pH dependence of glycolysis showed that the M-100 had higher activities than that of Mw except at pH 5.0. The releases of magnesium from the Mw and the M-100 were observed about 36.5% and 13% at pH 4.0 after 2 hours, respectivily. The results of comparison of membrane fatty acid composition of the Mw with the M-100 showed that
were major different fatty acids between two strains and the content of
were 23.4%, 10.2% in the Mw and 15.1%, 12.2% in the M-100. These results indicated that acid tolerance of the M-100 was significantly improved in comparison with its wild type Mw.
Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the secY Homolog from Streptomyces lividans TK24
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 110~116
The secY gene of Streptomyces lividans TK24 was cloned by the PCR method with synthetic oligonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the conserved regions of Ll5-secY-adk operon from E. coli, B. subtilis, and M luteus. The deduced amino acid sequences of the SecY are highly homologous to those of other known SecY. It has 46%, 43%, 57%, 44%, 42%,56%, 90% similarity to Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus licheniformis Staphylococcus carnosus, Brevibacterium flavum, Streptomyces scabies, respectively and almost the same with Streptomyces coelicolor, The gene organization of Ll5- SecY-Adk is also similar to those of other bacteria. SecY and Adk are very likely translationally coupled that is overlapping stop codon of SecY and start codon of Adk with one base pair, which is common structure among high GC content strains of gram positive bacteria.
Phage Particle Proteins and Genomic Characterization of the Lactobacillus plantarum Bacteriophage SC 921.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 117~121
Bacteriophage SC 921 of Lactobacillus plantarum, isolated from kimchi, showed high lytic effects at 0.2 M.O.I. level. The phage particle contained 4 major proteins (48, 34, 32, 29 kDa). Intact DNA of phage SC 921 is a double stranded linear molecule, and the genomic size is approximately 66.5 kilobase pairs (kbp). Restriction analysis of the genome showed that Sma I gave single site cut and Xba I gave 2 site cuts, while Cla I, Kpn I, and EcoR I formed 4, 5, and 6 cuts, respectively. Hind III digested phage DNA to many fragments. A restriction map of genomic DNA was constructed using the restriction endonuclease Kpn I, Sma I, and Xba I. Bacteriophage SC 921 was compared with B2 phage which had been reported to infect Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014(KCCM l1322). Bacteriophage SC 921 differs from B2 phage at least in thr size of its genome and phage particle proteins.
Improvement in Antagonistic Ablility of Antagonistic Bacterium Bacillus sp. SH14 by Transfer of the Urease Gene.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 122~129
It were reported that antifungal mechanism of Enterobacter cloacae is a volatile ammonia that produced by the strain in soil, and the production of ammonia is related to the bacterial urease activity. A powerful bacterium SH14 against soil-borne pathogen Fusarium solani, which cause root rot of many important crops, was selected from a ginseng pathogen suppressive soil. The strain SH14 was identified as Bacillus subtilis by cultural, biochemical, morphological method, and
test. From several in vitro tests, the antifungal substance that is produced from B. subtilis SH14 was revealed as heat-stable and low-molecular weight antibiotic substance. In order to construct the multifunctional biocontrol agent, the urease gene of Bacillus pasteurii which can produce pathogenes-suppressive ammonia transferred into antifungal bacterium. First, a partial BamH I digestion fragment of plasmid pBU11 containing the alkalophilic B. pasteurii l1859 urease gene was inserted into the BamH I site of pEB203 and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. The recombinant plasmid was designated as pGU366. The plasmid pGU366 containing urease gene was introduced into the B. subtilis SH14 with PEG-induced protoplast transformation (PIP) method. The urease gene was very stably expressed in the transformant of B. subtilis SH14. Also, the optimal conditions for transformation were established and the highest transformation frequency was obtained by treatment of lysozyme for 90 min, and then addition of 1.5
/ml DNA and 40% PEG4000. From the in vitro antifungal test against F. solani, antifungal activity of B. subtilis SH14(pGu366) containing urease gene was much higher than that of the host strain. Genetical development of B. subtilis SH14 by transfer of urease gene can be responsible for enhanced biocontrol efficacy with its antibiotic action.
Optimal Conditions for the Production of Immunostimulating Polysaccharides from the Suspension Culture of Angelica gigas Cells.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 130~136
An Immunostimulating polysaccharide was produced from the suspension culture of Angelica gigas H4, plant cells. In order to enhance the polysaccharide production by the A. gigas cell culture, medium composition and physical conditions were optimized. Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) medium was selected as an optimal basal medium for the growth of A. gigas. The maximum cell and polysaccharide concentration obtained in SH medium were 15.8 g DCW/l and 0.85 g polysaccharide/l, respectively, at
under dark condition. For the enhanced polysaccharide production, a polysaccharide production medium (PPM) was established by modifying Gamborg B5 medium with optimized carbon sources, growth regulators, organic and inorganic elements. Optimal initial pH and temperature were 6.0-6.6 and
, respectively, and the dark condition was better than the light condition. The maximum polysaccharide concentration of 1.5 g/l could be obtained through the optimization of the medium composition and physical conditions.
Isolation and Structural Determination of Anti-Helicobacter pylori Compound from Fungus 60686.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 137~142
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which causes chronic gastritis and is associated with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma. In the process of screening of antibacterial activities against H. pylori from soil microorganisms, fungus No. 60686 was isolated. After fermentation of No.60686, the antibacterial compound was isolated, purified and followed by extraction of mycelium with organic solvents, acetone and ethyl acetate, through silica gel chromatography, LH-20 gel chromatography and HPLC. As a result of the structural analyses of the compound by IR,
C-NMR, FAB/Mass spectrophotometer, the compound having the antimicrobial activity was identified as chaetoglobosin A (
), a cytochalasan derivative. The antimicrobial activity of chaetoglobosin A was tested against Gram-positive and negative bacteria by paper disk method. Among the test strains of 9 Gram-positive bacteria and 18 Gram-negative bacteria containing 4 H. pylori strains, the growth of 4 H. pylori strains and 3 S. aureus strains (SG 511, 285 and 503) was only inhibited by chaetoglobosin A. Also it was shown that its growth inhibition against H. pylori strains was stronger than that against S. aureus strains at the treatment of the same concentration. Therefore it was concluded that chaetoglobosin A has a specific growth inhibition against H. pylori of the tested bacteria.
Modification of Starch using Dextransucrase and Characterization of the Modified Starch.
;;;;;John E. Robyt;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 143~150
Many enzymes catalyze a primary reaction and/or secondary reaction. Dextransucrase usually synthesize dextran from sucrose as a primary reaction. The secondary reaction of dextransucrase is the transfer of glucose from sucrose to carbohydrate accepters. We have reacted dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-742CB with sucrose and starches; granule or gelatinized starches, and Small or Potato starches. The yield of modified starch was ranged from 46% to 72%(s.d.<
5%) of theoretical depends on various reaction conditions. Modified products were more resistant against the hydrolysis of
-amylase, isoamylase, pullulanase and endo-dextranase than those of native starch. Based on the reactions from enzyme hydrolysis and methylation followed by acid hydrolysis modification of granule starch was more efficient than the modification of gelatinized starch. After modification of granule starch with dextransucrase, there produced a soluble modified starch. After modification the starch granules were fractionated to small size. The positions of glucose substitution of the modified products were determined by methylation followed by acid hydrolysis and analyzed by TLC. The products were modified by the addition of glucose to the position of C3, C4 and C6 free hydroxyl group of glucose residues in the starch.
Strain Improvement of Leuconostoc paramesenteroides as a Acid-Resistant Mutant and Effect on Kimchi Fermentation as a Starter.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 151~160
The Leuconostoc paramesenteroides dominated at refrigeration temperature range was isolated from kimchi, and improved its growth properties by mutation for competitive growth against Lactobacillus plantarum at lower pH. It was found that the minimal pH for the wild type Leuconostoc paramesenteroides Pw growth was pH 4.5 adjusted with HCI and pH 5.0 adjusted with organic-mixture (lactic acid:acetic acid=1:2), respectively. The mutant P-100 could grow in pH 4.0, 4.5, respectively, in MRS broth. Two strains Pw and P-100 were added into kimchi as starter and compared the quality characteristics of kimchi. The total acceptability of Pw and P-100 inoculated kimchi were evaluated better than that of control kimchi (no starter added) by sensory test and extended the optimal pH range of kimchi up to about 2.2, 2.5 times, respectively. In kimchi added P-100, the succinic acid was more abundant than others and the total number of Lactobacillus plantarum was down about 2.5 times in contrast to control kimchi.
Characteristics of Autographa californica Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus in Spodoptera exigua Cell Line.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 161~166
To study the usefulness of Se301 cells, which is originated from Spodoptera exigua and has susceptibility to the Autographa californica NPV (AcNPV), as a host for the AcNPV-based expression vector system, we compared the characteristics of AcNPV in Se301 and Sf-21 cells. The symptom by viral infection was similar in both of cells, but the ratio of polyhedra released from the cell was higher in Se301 cells than in Sf-21 cells. The overall PIB productivity of AcNPV was similar in both cells but the size of polyhedra was larger in Se301 cells. While the polyhedrin expression efficiency was about 2.4 times higher in Se301 cells than in Sf-21 cells, the viral growth was higher in Sf-21 cells. These results suggested that Se301 cell is very useful in the AcNPV-based expression system as a host.
Correlation between Redox Potential and State Variables in Batch Cultures for Ornithine Production.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 167~172
In batch cultures of Brevibacterium ketoglutamicum for the L-ornithine production in which the pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were regulated constant, the profiles of redox potential were observed in parallel with the profiles of state variables such as cell, glucose, and ornithine concentrations. It was found that the redox potential had a close relationship with cell concentration and was also affected by ornithine concentration. The effects of ornithine and glucose on redox potential were examined in a separate series of experiments. Based on the experimental results, a correlation of redox potential to glucose, cell and ornithine concentrations has been proposed. The proposed correlation can be used for on-line estimation of ornithine concentration from on-line data of redox potential, glucose concentration, and cell concentration.
The Influence of Ammonium-Nitrogen on Anaerobic Microorganisms in Swine Wastewater by Batch-Fermentation.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 173~178
This study presents the influence of ammonium-nitrogen on microorganisms in swine wastewater. For the anaerobic batch fermentation, two different methods were used. One is the dilution of wastewater with water. The other method is the elimination of ammonium-nitrogen from the wastewater. By addition of MgO into wastewater, non-soluble crystall was formed under alkaline condition as MgNH
(MAP). The master culture was adapted in swine wastewater for more than 3 months, in water-dilution method, the dilution of wastewater with 25% water gave us the best result in efficiency of COD removal. Two hundred hours later MAP-treated wastewater showed the efficiency of the COD removal more than 80%. Under same condition obtained none MAP-treated wastewater about 50%. MAP treatment carried out the very effective anaerobic digestion with swine wastewater. The important result in this study is that the low ratio of C:N influenced on anaerobic microorganisms more than high concentration of ammonium nitrogen in swine wastewater. The struvite for the crystallforming has no toxic effect on methanogenic bacteria.
Enzymatic Synthesis of New Oligosaccharides Using Glucansucrases.
;;;;;John F. Robyt;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 179~186
Dextransucrase hyper-producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512FMCM and dextransucrase constitutive mutants B-742CB and B-1355C catalyzed the transfer of glucose from sucrose to other carbohydrates which were present or were added to the reaction digests. When the acceptor was a maltose, gentiobiose, lactose or raffinose, there was produced a series of oligosaccharide acceptor products or single product based on the kinds of enzymes and reaction conditions. To obtain the quantitative information about the yield and the distribution of acceptor products and dextran two experimental parameters were studied: a) the ratio of acceptor to sucrose and b) the amount of enzyme at constant carbohydrate concentration (100 mM). As the amount of enzyme increased, the synthesis of acceptor products (of maltose or gentiobiose) increased, and the formation of dextran decreased. As the ratio of acceptor to sucrose increased, the amount of dextran and the number of acceptor-products decreased and the amount of acceptor-products increased. When maltose or gentiobiose was an acceptor, the glucose from sucrose was transferred to the C-6 hydroxyl group of the nonreducing-end glucose residue of accepters to give a homologous series of isomaltosyl dextrins. In case of lactose or raffinose, there was produced only one acceptor product from B-512FMCM dextransucrase reaction. In the lactose acceptor reaction, the glucose from sucrose was transferred to the C-2 hydroxyl of the reducing end glucose residue of lactose. To get a series of oligosaccharides from lactose or raffinose acceptor reaction we used B-742CB dextransucrase or B-1355C alternansucrase with 500 mM sucrose in reaction digest.
Synthesis of Glycoside by Transglycosylation of Amyloglucosidase from Starch.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 26, issue 2, 1998, Pages 187~194
Glycosides were synthesized using transglycosylation reaction of amylase in water system. Starch as a glycosyl donor and benzylalcohol as an acceptor were selected as substrates of transglycosylation reaction. Among tested 9 commercial amylase, amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus sp. had high activity for transglycosylation from starch. The glycoside synthesized in water phase by amyloglucosidase was identified as benzylalcohol-
-glucoside (BG) of which one molecule of benzylalcohol was bound to 1-OH of glucose. The transglycosylation reaction by amyloglucosidase were carried out in reaction system containing 50 mg starch, 50 mg benzylalcohol, and 10 units enzyme in pH 5.0 at 45
. The synthesized BG was hydrolyzed by
-glucosidase to produce glucose and benzylalcohol.