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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
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Analysis of a Putative DNA Polymerase I gene in Brevibacterium ammoniagenes.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 105~110
The sequence of 3,221 nucleotides immediately adjacent to rpsA gene encoding 30S ribosomal protein S1 of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes was determined. A putative open reading frame (ORF) of 2,670 nucleotides for a polypeptide of 889 amino acid residues and a TAG stop codon was found, which is located at a distance of 723 nucleotides upstream from rpsA gene with same translational direction. The deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF was found to be highly homologous to the DNA polymerase I of Streptomyces griseus (75.48％), Rhodococcus sp. ATCC 15963 (56.69％), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (55.46％) and Mycobacterium leprae (53.99％). It was suggested that the predicted product of the ORF is a DNA polymerase I with three functional domains. Two domains of 5 → 3 exonuclease and DNA polymerase are highly conserved with other DNA polymerase I, but 3 → 5 exonuclease domain is less conserved.
Isolation and characteristics of yellow-pigment producing mutants of Monascus anka.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 111~115
To produce yellow pigment selectively, mutants were induced from Monascus anka Nakazawa et Sato IFO 4478 (KCCM 11832 strain), and their characteristics were evaluated. Five kinds of auxotrophic mutants which required amino acids for growth and pigmentation, were isolated through a series of mutagenic treatments. Especially, asparagine auxotroph Y7 produced high ratio of yellow pigment. This mutant showed all the morphological characteristics of Monascuceae but the shape of colony and the diameter of conidia. Mutant Y7 was propagated by sexual reproduction more often than asexual reproduction, which could be effective in production of pigments. Yellow pigment produced extracellularly by the mutant Y7 was more soluble in polar solvents such as ethanol and water than in nonpolar solvents. Its productivity of yellow pigment was 2.2 times higher in the mutant Y7 than in parents. In addition, its yellow pigment showed characteristics of maximum absorption at 373 nm. Moreover, the hue of pigment produced by the mutant Y7 was bright yellow, and it was stable through the subculture over 10 generations.
Identification of the Cell-envelope Proteinase of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kimchi.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 116~122
The partial 165 rDNA sequences of 6 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from Kimchi were determined. Two strains were Leuconostoc mesenteroides and the rest were incorrectly classified and turned out to be Lactobacillus. As the case of dairy lactic acid bacteria, the strains isolated from Kimchi also had cell-envelope proteinase (CEP) activity. As the result of partial CEP gene amplification with CEP-specific primers, the expected 1.2-kb amplificate was obtained not from Leu. mesenteroides but from Lactobacillus strains. The deduced amino acid sequence of PCR product amplified from the genomic DNA of Lactobacillus pentosus KFR1821 showed 95％ and 92％ homology with those of PrtPs from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, respectively. The PCR amplificate was used as a probe and the result of Southern hybridization illuminated the location of CEP gene in chromosomal DNA of Lb. pentosus KFR1821.
Isolation and Enzyme Production of a Xylanase-producing Strain, Bacillus sp. AMX-4.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 123~128
A bacterium producing the extracellular xylanase was isolated from soil and has been identified as a Bacillus sp. strain. The isolate, named Bacillus sp. AMX-4, was shown to be similar to B. subtilis strain on the basis of its chemical compositions. The xylanase of culture supernatant was most active at 50℃ and pH 6.0. The additional carbon sources including monosaccharides, disaccharides, wheat bran, and rice straw increased the enzyme productivity. Especially, the maximum xylanase productivity was reached 29.2 units/ml in LB medium supplemented with 1.5％ (w/v) xylose, which was 16-folds more than that in LB medium. As the results of investigating the effects of xylose on cell growth and xylanase productivity of Bacillus sp. AMX-4, increase of xylanase production was owing to the induction of xylanase biosynthesis. It was also found that the enzyme production was in association with the growth of Bacillus sp. AMX-4.
Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inhibiting Gastro-intestinal Pathogenic Bacteria of Domestic Animal.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 129~134
To isolate probiotic lactic acid bacteria having superior inhibitory activities against animal gastro-intestinal pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella gallinarum, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, 130 strains were initially isolated from the small intestines of Korean native chickens and 7 lactic acid bacteria were finally selected. By using API CHL kit and 16S rRNA sequencing method, the selected lactic acid bacteria were found to be belonged to genus Lactobacillus except BD14 identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus. Especially, Lactobacillus pentosus K34 showed the highest resistancy to both of HCl and bile salt, as well as the highest inhibitory activities against S. gallinarum, S. aureus and E. coli. All the selected strains were sensitive to various antibiotics such as neomycin, erythromycin, cephalosporin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, oxytetracycline, but resistant to ciprofloxacin. All the selected strains except BL strain were resistant to colistin and streptomycin, and BD14, BD16, K34 strains were resistant to gentamicin.
Chitinase Production and Isolation of Serratia plymuthica AL-1 Antagonistic to White Rot Fungi from Allium fistulosum Roots.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 135~141
This study was carried out to isolate antagonistic bacterium against Sclerotium cepivorum causing Allium fistulosum white rot. Total of 146 strains were isolated from A. fistulosum roots. The isolates were screened for antagonism to S. cepivorum and the isolated strain No. AL-1 was selected among these bacteria. It was identified as Serratia plymuthica based on morphological and physiological characteristics according to the Bergey's mannual of systematic bacteriology and 16S rDNA sequences methods. Serratia plymuthica AL-1 showed broad spectrum of antifungal activities against plant pathogenic fungi Alternaria altrata, Colletotrichum gleosporioids, Phoma sp., Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Stemphylium solani, Fusarium oxysporium niveum but not inhibited Didymella bryoniae. When S. plymuthica AL-1 cultivated in the TSB medium containing 1％ colloidal chitin, the high molecular fraction (>10 kDa) have chitinase activity (3.2 units/ml) and the low molecular fraction (<10 kDa) have not chitinase activity. Oppositely, after heat treatment (80℃ for 30 min) of the cultivation supernatant, the high molecular fractions have not antifungal activity but the low molecular fractions have antifungal activity.
Purification and Characterization of Cholesterol Oxidase Produced by Streptomyces polychromogenes IFO 13072.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 142~150
Streptomyces polychromogenes IFO 13072 was used as a strain producing cholesterol oxidase(EC 22.214.171.124). The conditions of cholesterol oxidase production were investigated. The optimum composition of medium for production of the enzyme was 1% dextrin, 0.5% casamino acid, 0.1%
(pH 7.3). The enzyme was purified specifically by cholesterol affinity column chromatography with a yield of 23.2%. The purified enzyme showed a single polypeptide on SDS-PAGE and the molecular weight was estimated about 52,000 daltons. The optimum pH and temperature of the cholesterol oxidase were pH 7.0 and
, respectively. The enzyme was stable in the range of pH 6.0~7.0 and
. The cholesterol oxidase activity was strongly inhibited by metal ions such as
and inhibitors such as dithiothreitol, mercaptoethanol and isonicotinic acid. The Michaelis constant(Km) for the cholesterol was found to be 25 mM by Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis.
Isolation and Identification of Thermostable \beta-glycosidase-producing Microorganism from Hot Spring of Volcanic Area at Atagawa in Japan.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 151~156
This study was performed to obtain the thermostable
-glycosidase producing bacteria from hot spring of volcanic area at Atagawa in Japan. KNOUC 202 was selected because it showed thermostable
-glycosidase activity in sodium phosphate buffer(pH 6.8) at
for 4h, and it was identified. The strain was aerobic, asporogenic bacilli, immobile, gram negative, catalase positive, oxidase positive, and pigment-producing. Optimum growth was at
, pH 7.0~7.2, and it could grow in the presence of 3% NaCl. The main fatty acids in cell were iso-15:0 and iso-l7:0. 16S rRNA sequence of KNOUC 202 showed 99.9% similarity with that of Thermus thermophilus ATCC 27634(HB8). Based on morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics, cellular fatty acids profile and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, KNOUC 202 was identified as Thermus thermophilus.
Isolation and Properties of Cytotoxic Polyene Antibiotics Produced by Myxococcus stipitatus JW117.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 157~161
Drug resistance is one of the most significant impediments to successful chemotherapy of cancer. Multidrug-resistance (MDR) is characterized by decreased cellular sensitivity to anticancer agents due to the overexpression of P-glycoprotein. By employing adriamycin-resistance CL02 cancer cells, we undertook the screening for agents which were effective to multidrug-resistant cancer cells. As a result, a myxobacterial strain JW117 was selected for study since the solvent extract of cell mass of the strain was found to exhibit significant activity against the CL02 cancer cells. Cytotoxicity-guided chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of phenalamides
. The producing organism was identified as Myxococcus stipitatus by taxonomic comparison with type strains of Myxococcus sp. as well as its morphological and physiological characteristics. Phenalamides
were as active against drug-resistant cancer cells CL02 and CP70 as against the corresponding sensitive cells with
values ranging from 0.23~0.57
Isolation and in vivo Activities of Antifungal Compounds from Myxococcus sp. JW154 (Myxobacteria).
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 162~166
Two bithiazole-type antibiotics were isolated from the culture broth of a Myxococcus species which isolated from the marine sediment off the coast of Cheju Island, Korea. The structures of these metabolites were determined as KR025 and melithiazole F, previously reported bithiazoles, using combined spectroscopic methods. Both compounds showed an antifungal activity. In in vivo tests, these compounds exhibited potent controlling activities against tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, and barley powdery mildew with control values more than 80% at a concentraton of 20
Production of a Biosurfactant Mannosylerythritol Lipid by Resting Cell of Candida sp. SY16.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 167~171
The resting cells of Candida sp. SY16 produced a large amount of mannosylerythritol lipid as a biosurfactant when incubated in the distilled water containing only the carbon source. The resting cells exhibited the highest production at 20 g cells per liter on the soybean oil of 75 g/1 as a sole substrate and pH 4∼5 in the shaking culture. Under the optimal conditions, the biosurfactant was extracellularly produced to 58 g/1 after 120 h in jar fermentor, and the yield became higher than that obtained by using the glowing cells of the strain in batch fermentation.
The High Production of Cellulolytic Enzymes using Cellulosic Wastes by a Fungus, strain FJ1.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 172~176
A filamentous microorganism, strain FJ1, was isolated from completely rotten wood for the production of cellulolytic enzymes. For the production of the enzymes, cellulolsic wastes were used as carbon sources of strain FJ1 and rice straw showed higher enzyme activities than sawdust and pulp. The activities of CMCase, xylanase,
-glucosidase, and avicelase were 2.95, 5.89, 0.45, and 0.12 unit/ml by use of rice straw, respectively. To enhance production of the enzymes, the mixture substrate of rice straw and cellulosic materials were investigated as carbon sources. The highest activities of CMCase,
-glucosidase, and avicelase were found in the mixture of rice straw (0.5%, w/v) and avicel (0.5%, w/v), and the highest xylanase was obtained at the mixture ratio of 0.71%(w/v) and 0.29%(w/v). Addition of 0.1%(w/v) peptone showed enhanced production of the cellulolytic enzymes in which the activities of CMCase, xylanase,
-glucosidase, and avicelase were 19.23, 27.18, 1.28, and 0.53 unit/ml, respectively. The production of the enzymes using rice straw was efficiently induced in the presence of avicel and pulp containing cellulose. In particular, a medium composed of rice straw (0.5%, w/v) and pulp (0.5%, w/v) yielded larger cellulolytic enzymes: CMCase 24.3 unit/ml, xylanase 38.7 unit/ml,
-glucosidase 1.5 unit/ml, and avicelase 0.6 unit/ml. The filamentous microorganism, strain FJ1 utilized various cellulosic wastes as carbon sources and will be expected as a favorable candidate for biological saccharification of cellulosic wastes.
Antimicrobial Activity of Medicinal Herbs against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella gallinarum.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 177~183
The extracts from approximately 40 different Korean traditional medicines were prepared to investigate the antimicrobial activities against poultry disease-related bacteria. Among tested, the extracts of Schizandra chinensis (SC), Melia azedarach (MA), Caesalpinia sappan (CS) and Rhus javanica (RJ) exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against Salmonella gallinarum, whereas the extracts of Elsholtzia ciliata (EC), Myristica fragrans (MF), Alpinia katsumadai (AK), Poncirus trifoliata (PT), Prunella vulgaris (PV), CS and RJ exhibited antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of MA, CS and RJ extracts against S. gallinarum were 1.2 mg/ml, whereas MIC of RJ extract for S. aureus was 0.6 ㎎/ml, which was the lowest among tested. The antimicrobial activities of SC and RJ extracts against S. gallinarum were reduced, but those of AK and CS extracts against S. aureus were not affected by heating treatment. The antimicrobial activities of SC extract against S. gallinarum and those of EC, PT and RJ extracts against S. aureus were stable by acid treatment but unstable by alkaline treatment. those of CS extract was not effected by either acid or alkaline treatment. The growth of all bacteria was significantly inhibited within 24 hours by the addition of at least 100 ppm and 300 ppm of RJ and CS extracts, respectively, compared with the control group. In conclusion, these findings suggest that RJ and CS extracts may play important roles for antimicrobial activities against poultry disease-related bacteria.
Characteristics of the Bacteriocin from Lactobacillus sp. Oh-B3.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 184~188
A bacteriocin producing microorganism, which inhibits the growth of Lactobacillus sake, was screened and isolated from Kimchi. This microorganism was identified and named as Lactobacillus sp. Oh-B3, The maximum amount of bacteriocin was produced when the isolated microorganism was cultured in MRS media(pH 8.0) for 24 hours at 25℃. The bacteriocin from the isolated microorganism was purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and ultrafiltration. The bacteriocin was stable on the wide pH range of 2.0-9.0, and showed antimicrobial activity on some of gram positive bacteria, not on gram negative. The antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin was mostly removed by treatment of proteolytic enzymes. But, the bacteriocin was very stable on the heat treatment, and more than 50％ of activity was remained at autoclaving. The action mode of the bacteriocin showed bacteriocidal pattern, being same as that of general bacteriocins.
Development of Advanced Wastewater Treatment System using Phototrophic Purple Non-sulfur Bacteria.
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 30, issue 2, 2002, Pages 189~197
Twenty nine strains of photosynthetic purple nonsulfur bacteria were isolated from Kyonggi area in Korea. The isolated strains were identified as Rhodopseudomonas blastica, Rhodocyclus gelatinosus, Rhodocyclus tenuis, and Rhodopseudomonas rutila. The enhanced nutrients removal system for wastewater using phototrophic purple non-sulfur bacteria was developed. Experiments were performed into two Phases and the results were compared: the synthetic wastewater was tested for the removal efficiency of nutrients and organics during Phase 1 and the real wastewater during Phase2. Results showed that 97∼99％ of organics were removed during Phase 1 and 96∼99％ during Phase 2. Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) were also removed efficiently: 85∼91％ removal of T-N and 78∼92％ removal of T-P were achieved for Phase 1, and 76∼89％ removal of T-N and 73∼88％ removal of T-P for Phase 2.