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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
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Bioremediation of Oil-Contaminated Soil Using Rhizobacteria and Plants
Kim Ji-Young ; Cho Kyung-Suk ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 185~195
Phytoremediation is an economical and environmentally friendly bioremediation technique using plants which can increase the microbial population in soil. Unlike other pollutants such as heavy metals, poly-chlorinated biphenyl, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and so on, petroleum hydrocarbons are relatively easily degradable by soil microbes. For successful phytoremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, it is important to select plants with high removal efficiency through microbial degradation. In this study, we clarified the roles of plants and rhizobacteria and identified their species effective on phytore-mediation by reviewing the papers previously reported. Plants and rhizobacteria can degrade and remove the petroleum hydrocarbons directly and indirectly by stimulating each other's degradation activity. The preferred plant species are alfalfa, ryegrass, tall fescue, poplar, corn, etc. The microorganisms with a potential to degrade hydrocarbons mostly belong to Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., and Alcaligenes spp. It has been reported that the elimination efficiency of hydrocarbons by soil microorganisms can be improved when plants were simultaneously applied. For more efficient restoration, it's necessary to understand the plant-rhizobacteria interaction and to select the suitable plant and microorganism species.
Isolation and Characterization of Exopolysaccharide Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria from Kimchi
Kim Uyo-Ju ; Chang Hae-Choon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 196~203
Three slime-forming lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Kimchi and shown to produce viscous exopolysaccharides (EPS) in sucrose media. The isolated strains, GJ2, C3 and C11, were identified as Leuconostoc kimchii, Leuconostoc citreum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, respectively, by examining their metabolic characteristics and determining their 16S rDNA sequences. Leu. kimchii GJ2, Leu. citreum C3 and Leu. mesenteroides C11 exhibited high viability (maintained initial viable cell count of
CFU/ml) in 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) for 2 h, in artificial gastric juice for 2 h and in 0.3% oxgall for 24 h. When tested, Leu. kimchii GJ2, in particular, displayed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms. Leu. kimchii GJ2, Leu. citreum C3 and Leu. mesenteroides C11 produced 21.49 g/l, 16.46 g/l and 22.98 g/l EPS, respectively, in sucrose (5%) medium. The amount of purified EPS extracted from Leu. kimchii GJ2, Leu. citreum C3 and Leu. mesenteroides C11 was 14.61 g/l, 7.73 g/l and 4.77 g/l, respectively. Although the EPS produced by Leu. kimchii GJ2, Leu. citreum C3 and Leu. mesenteroides C11 differed in viscosity, TLC and HPLC analysis revealed that each contained only one type of monosaccharide, glucose. The average molecular mass of EPS produced by Leu. kimchii GJ2 was 306,606 Da.
Characterization of Nitrile-hydrolyzing Enzymes Produced from Rhodococcus erythropolis
Park Hyo-Jung ; Park Ha-Joo ; Uhm Ki-Nam ; Kim Hyung-Kwoun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 204~210
Ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate is a useful intermediate for the synthesis of Atorvastatin, a chiral drug to hypercholesterolemia. In this research, two 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyro-nitrile-degrading strains were isolated from soil sample. They were identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis strains by 16S rRNA analysis. The nitrile-degrading enzyme(s) were suggested to be nitrile hydratase and amidase rather than nitrilase from the result of thin layer chromatography analysis. The corresponding genes were obtained by PCR cloning method. The predicted protein sequences had identities more than 96% with nitrile hydratase
, nitrile hydratase
, and amidase of R. erythropolis. The 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyronitrile-hydrolyzing activities in both strains were increased dramatically by
which was known as good inducer for nitrile hydratase. Both intact cells and cell-free extract could hydrolyze the nitrile compound. So, the intact cell and the enzymes could be used as potential biocatalyst for the production of 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyric acid.
Functional Expression of Proteomics-guided AfsR2-dependent Genes in Avermectin-producing Streptomyces avermitilis
Kim Myung-Gun ; Park Hyun-Joo ; Im Jong-Hyuk ; Kim Eung-Soo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 211~215
AfsR2 is a global regulatory protein involved in the stimulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in various Streptomyces species including avermectin-producing S. avermitilis. Among several AfsR2-dependent genes identified from the comparative proteomics, the polyribonucleotide nucleotidyltransferase (PNP) and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) genes were previously proposed to regulate the actinorhodin production in S. lividans upon afsR2 over-expression positively and negatively, respectively. To show the biological significance of the PNP and GPD genes in the S. avermitilis strains, these two genes were functionally expressed in both the wild-type and the avermectin-overproducing mutant strains. The PNP gene expression stimulated secondary metabolite production in the wild-type S. avermitilis ATCC31267, but not in the avermectin-overproducing S. avermitilis ATCC31780. Interestingly, the GDP gene expression stimulated secondary metabolite production by 4-fold in the wild-type S. avermitilis ATCC31267 and by 2.5-fold in the avermectin-overproducing S. avermitilis ATCC31780, respectively. These results suggest that the biological significance of the afsR2-dependent PNP and GPD gene expressions on antibiotic biosynthetic regulation could be significantly different depending on Streptomyces species.
Enzyme Production Related to Alcohol Metabolism from Thermophilic Fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus
Ko Hee-Sun ; Kim Hyun-Soo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 216~220
Thermophillic fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus showed excellent growth and produced high amount of alcohol oxidase and catalase in a pectin medium. Besides, the strain produced enzymes which related with pectin or alcohol decomposition. We detected extracellular pectin esterase (EC 22.214.171.124) activity and, both intracellular and extracellular pectinase (EC 126.96.36.199) activity, as pectinolytic enzymes produced by T. aurantiacus. The production of methanol decomposition enzymes, such as alcohol oxidase (AOD, EC 188.8.131.52), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 184.108.40.206), formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FADH, EC 220.127.116.11) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 18.104.22.168) follows by pectin esterase reaction which is converted to methanol. We concluded that T. aurantiacus has pectinolytic and alcohol - oxidative enzymological mechanism which produced carbon dioxide as a final material, started from pectin.
Enhancement of Bacteriocin Production by Bacillus subtilis cx1 in the Presence of Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633
Chang Mi ; Chang Hae-Choon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 221~227
BSCX1 was an antimicrobial peptide produced by Bacillus subtilis cx1. Attempts were made to determine the location of inducing factor in the bacteriocin-sensitive cell affecting bacteriocin BSCX1 production. Mixed culture of the bacteriocin producer strain B. subtilis cx1 and its sensitive strain B. subtilis ATCC6633, increased production of bacteriocin BSCX1. The result suggested the presence of a bacteriocin inducing factor in the sensitive strain. The inducing factor was localized in the cell debris and intracellular fraction of B. subtilis ATCC6633. Bacteriocin BSCX1 inducing factor was found to be highly stable in the pH range 2.5-9.5, but inactivated within 3h over
, and treatment with proteinase K destroyed its inducing activity, this result suggested that the inducing factor should be a proteinaceous nature.
Optimal Production and Characterization of Laccase from Fomitella fraxinea Mycelia
Park Kyung-Mi ; Park Sang-Shin ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 228~234
The culture conditions were investigated to maximize the production of laccase from Fomitella fraxinea mycelia. Among the tested media, mushroom complete medium (MCM) showed the highest production of the enzyme. The optimum culture medium was 2% dextrose, 0.4%
, and 0.05% KCl as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and inorganic salt sources respectively. SDS-PAGE followed by laccase activity staining using 2,6-djmethoxyphenol as the substrate was performed to identify the laccase activity under culture conditions studied. Zymogram analysis of the culture supernatant showed a laccase band with a molecular mass of 50 kDa. The enzyme production from F. fraxinea was reached to the highest level after the cultivation for 10 days at
and initial pH 8. The enzyme activity of the culture supernatant was most active at
and pH 5.
Identification of Alkalophilic Bacillus sp. S-1013 Producing Non-Cariogenicity Sugar Fuc(
)NeuAc and Optimization of Culture Condition for Its Production
Ryu Il-Hwan ; Kim Sun-Sook ; Lee Kap-Sang ; Lee Eun-Sook ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 235~243
The study was performed to identification of producing microbe Non-Cariogenicity Sugar (NCS; Fuc(
)NeuAc) with anti-caries activity, and to optimization of production condition. A typical strain which produced the NCS was identified alkalophilic Bacillus sp. S-1013 through the results of morphological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics and 16S rDNA sequencing. The optimal medium composition for the maximal production of the NCS from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. S-1013 was as follow: soluble starch 30 g, dextrin 15 g, yeast extract 5 g, peptone 10 g,
2 g in a liter of distilled water. Optimal temperature and pH were 25 and 11.0, respectively. The highest production of NCS was shown 60 hrs cultivation using the optimal medium, and then NCS productivity and dry cell weight of culture broth increased 4.24 and 2.67 time than initial medium, respectively.
Feasibility of Cheonghju Brewing with Wild Type Yeast Strains from Nuruks
Kim Hye-Ryun ; Baek Seung-Hee ; Seo Min-Jae ; Ahn Byung-Hak ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 244~249
In order to select the best strains to have the feasibility of Cheonghju brewing, 10 wild type yeast strains from 300 different types of Nuruk were investigated on their ethanol resistance, resistance to glucose and flocculation. The amounts of alcohol, organic acids, and volatile compounds, Brix, pH were also examined for the alcoholic beverages made with the 10 selected strains. Almost all strains showed alcohol production activities in the medium containing 18%(v/v) ethanol and 29%(w/v) glucose. The strains 90-2 showed a higher flocculation activity than other strains. Strains 54-3, 90-2 and 91-5 produced more alcohol than control strain (7.42%(w/w)) when fermented with wild type yeast strains. In addition, alcoholic beverages containing low acetic acid also showed low levels of total acidity. GC/MS analysis of the product showed 4 alcohols, 11 esters and 1 acid as volatile compounds. Selected strains were tentatively identified as Phichia sydowiorum (91-5), Zygosaccharomyces cidri (192-2 and 271-4), and as Saccharomyces cerevisiae (18-2, 54-3, 90-2, 91-2, 98-2, 99-5 and 272-7) by BIIOLOG method.
Optimal Conditions for Production of Water-soluble Monascus Natural Pigments by Monascus purpureus MK2
Jeon Chun-Pyo ; Lee Jung-Bok ; Choi Sung-Yeon ; Lee Oh-Seuk ; Choi Chung-Sig ; Kwon Gi-Seok ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 250~256
The optimum cultural conditions for production of Monascus natural pigment by Monascus purpureus MK2 were investigated in submerged culture. This strain was showed the maximum production of monascus natural pigment in the optimal medium of 3.0% wheat flour, 0.15%
, at pH 7.0. The maximum production of this pigment was achieved at
for 7 day cultivation under 130 rpm shaking. At optimal condition, Monascus purpureus MK2 produced 29.10, 36.84 and 48.92 units of yellow, orange and red pigment, respectively.
Characteristics of Microbial Distribution of Nitrifiers and Nitrogen Removal in Membrane Bioreactor by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization
Lim Kyoung-Jo ; Kim Sun-Hee ; Kim Dong-Jin ; Cha Gi-Cheol ; Yoo Ik-Keun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 257~264
An aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating ammonium wastewater was studied in respect of nitrification characteristics and distribution of nitrification bacteria over a period of 350 days. MBR was fed with ammonium concentration of 500-1000 mg
at a nitrogen load of
. Overall ammonium oxidation rate increased with dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, temperature, and sludge retention time (SRT). Under a higher concentration of free ammonia (
) due to the decrease of ammonium oxidation rate, the nitrite ratio (
) in the effluent increased. The sudden collapse of nitrification efficiency accompanied by sludge foaming and the increase of sludge volume index (SVI) was observed unexpectedly during the operation. At the later stage of operation, additional carbon source was fed to the MBR and resulted in twice higher value of SVI and the decrease of ammonium oxidation rate. In fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, genus Nitrosomonas which is specifically hybridized with probe NSM156 was initially the dominant ammonia oxidizing bacteria and the amount of Nitrosospira gradually increased. Nitrospira was the dominant nitrite oxidizing bacteria during whole operational period. Significant amount of Nitrobacter was also detected which might due to the high concentration of nitrite maintained in the reactor.
Screening of Anti-acne Activity of Natural Products against Propionibacterium acnes
Sohn Ho-Yong ; Kim Young-Suk ; Kum Eun-Joo ; Kwon Yun-Sook ; Son Kun-Ho ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 265~272
Acne is a chronic inflammatory follicular disorder of the skin, occurring in specialized pilosebaceous units on the face, and Propionibacterium acnes, a strict anaerobic pathogen, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne. To develop a reliable and effective anti-acne agent, we have evaluated antibacterial activity of 500 plant extracts, prepared from 335 plants, against P. acnes. Based on the results of disc-paper method, 25 plant extracts, including the extracts of Chloranthus japonicus (aerial part), Sophora flavescens (radix), Evodia officinalis (fructus), Ginko biloba (semem), Morus alba (root bark), Aralia continentalis (whole) and Reynoutria elliptica (radix), were selected as possible sources of anti-acne agent. Among them, the extract of S. flavescens (radix) was finally selected and kuraridin and kurarinone were identified as major active compounds of S. flavescens. These results suggested that medicinal and wild plants could be the potential source of anti-acne agent.
Immunogenicity of Recombinant Outer Membrane Protein H from Pasteurella multocida
Lee Jeong-Min ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 273~277
To investigate the antigenicity and protective immunity of outer membrane protein H (OmpH) in Pasteurella multocida D:4, the recombinant OmpH protein was produced in Escherichia coli. The truncated and Trx-fused form of recombinant OmpH (53 kDa) was purified, and used as an antigen in the immunization and challenge experiment. The immunized mice with the recombinant OmpH produced a high-titer antibody, and had protective immunity against P. multocida as same level as the mice immunized with formalin-killed whole cell.
Domain Function and Relevant Enzyme Activity of Cycloinulooligosaccharide Fructanotransferase from Paenibacillus polymyxa
You Dong-Ju ; Park Jung-Ha ; You Kyung-Ok ; Nam Soo-Wan ; Kim Kwang-Hyeon ; Kim Byung-Woo ; Kwon Hyun-Ju ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 34, issue 3, 2006, Pages 278~287
Cycloinulooligosaccharide fructanotransferase (CFTase) converts inulin into cycloinulooligosaccharides (cyclofructan, CF) of
-linked D-fructofuranose as well as hydrolysis of cyclofructan. Sequences analysis indicated that CFTase was divided into five distinct regions containing three repeated sequences (R1, R3, and R4) at the N-terminus and C-terminus. Each domain function was investigated by comparison of wild type CFTase enzyme (CFT148) and deletion mutant proteins (CFT108: R1 and R3 deletion; CFT130: R4 deletion; and CFT88: R1, R3, and R4 deletion) of CFTase. The CFT108 mutant had both CFTase and CF hydrolyzing activity as CFT148 did. CFTase activities and CF hydrolysing activities were disappeared in CFT130 and CFT88 mutants. These results indicated that the C-terminal R4 region of P. polymyxa CFTase is necessary for cyclization and hydrolyzing activity.