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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Development of Transportation Bio-energy and Its Future
Chung, Jay-H. ; Kwon, Gi-Seok ; Jang, Han-Su ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 36, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~5
Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and the concerns about their soaring prices have spurred the search for alternative energy sources. While other alternative energies-like solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, and tidal-offer viable options for electricity generation, around 40% of total energy consumption requires liquid fuels like gasoline or diesel fuel. This is where bio-energy/biofuels is especially attractive, where they can serve as a practical alternative to oil. The production of liquid biofuels for transportation will depend upon a stable supply of large amount of inexpensive cellulosic biomass obtained on a sustainable basis. This paper reviewed development status of transportation bio-energy for vehicles, technical barriers to the production of cellulosic ethanol, and the global future of bio-diesel and ethanol production.
Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Expression of Gene Endoding Metalloprotease in Vibrio vulnificus
Jung, Jin-Woo ; Lim, Sang-Yong ; Joe, Min-Ho ; Yun, Hye-Jeong ; Hur, Jung-Mu ; Kim, Dong-Ho ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 36, issue 1, 2008, Pages 6~11
To check the microbiological safety with respect to increased virulence of surviving pathogens after irradiation, in this study, the transcriptional change of vvp gene encoding metalloprotease, which is one of the typical virulence factors of Vibrio mulnificus, was monitored by real-time PCR during the course of growth cycle after reinoculation of irradiated Vibrio. When V. vulnificus was exposed to a dose of 0.5 and 1 kGy, the lag period before growth resumption of sub-cultures became longer than non-irradiated counterpart as increase of irradiation dose. In the case of non-irradiated culture, the transcription of vvp was significantly activated at 15 h after inoculation, when bacterial growth reached the stationary phase, and the highest level of pretense activity (686 U/mL) was measured at the same time. Interestingly, vvp expression of irradiated Vibrio was turned up earlier than non-irradiated Vibrio during the mid log phase of growth, whereas these rapid induction of vvp expression from irradiated cells didn't result in an increase of metalloprotease production. When Vibrio was irradiated at 0.5 and 1 kGy, the protease activities peaked at 18 h after inoculation and the levels of activities were lower 1.2- and 1.4-fold, respectively, compared to the non-irradiated counterpart. Results from this study indicate that gamma radiation is not likely to activate the virulence ability of surviving Vibrio.
Real-Time PCR for Validation of Minute Virus of Mice Safety during the Manufacture of Mammalian Cell Culture-Derived Biopharmaceuticals
Lee, Dong-Hyuck ; Cho, Hang-Mee ; Kim, Hyun-Mi ; Lee, Jung-Suk ; Kim, In-Seop ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 36, issue 1, 2008, Pages 12~20
Validation of viral safety is essential in ensuring the safety of mammalian cell culture-derived biopharmaceuticals, because numerous adventitious viruses have been contaminated during the manufacture of the products. Mammalian cells are highly susceptible to minute virus of mice(MVM), and there are several reports of MVM contamination during the manufacture of biopharmaceuticals. In order to establish the validation system for the MVM safety, a real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative detection of MVM in cell lines, raw materials, manufacturing processes, and final products as well as MVM clearance validation. Specific primers for amplification of MVM DNA was selected, and MVM DNA was quantified by use of SYBR Green I. The sensitivity of the assay was calculated to be
. The real-time PCR method was proven to be reproducible and very specific to MVM. The established real-time PCR assay was successfully applied to the validation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell artificially infected with MVM. MVM DNA could be Quantified in CHO cell as well as culture supernatant. When the real-time PCR assay was applied to the validation of virus removal during a virus filtration process, the result was similar to that of virus infectivity assay. Therefore, it was concluded that this rapid, specific, sensitive, and robust assay could replace infectivity assay for detection and clearance validation of MVM.
Screening of Myxobacteria Inhibiting the Growth of Collectotrichum acutatum Causing Anthracnose on Pepper
Chung, Jin-Woo ; Lee, Cha-Yul ; Yun, Sung-Chul ; Cho, Kyung-Yun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 36, issue 1, 2008, Pages 21~27
As an effort to search new bacterial biocontrol agents against pepper anthracnose, we screened myxobacteria, which might inhibit the growth of Colletotrichum acutatum, the agent of that plant disease. When 93 myxobacterial strains including 59 Myxococcus spp. and 34 Corallococcus spp. were tested against C. acutatum ACYSJ001 on agar plates, 10 strains identified as the genus Myxococcus significantly obstructed the growth of C. acutatum, whereas the majority of strains belonging to the genus Corallococcus did not demonstrate any counteractive effect. Such results have indicated that the strains of the genus Myxococcus have a high potential to play roles of biocontrol agents for control of pepper anthracnose. These also have revealed that the strains of the genus Myxococcus could be used as excellent microbial resources for screening novel antifungal substances.
Overproduction of Bacterial Trypsin in Streptomyces - Optimization for Streptomyces griseus Trypsin Production by Recombinant Streptomyces
Kim, Jong-Hee ; Hong, Soon-Kwang ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 36, issue 1, 2008, Pages 28~33
The expression vector (pWHM3-TR1R2) for sprT gene encoding Streptomyces griseus trypsin (SGT) followed by two regulatory genes, sgtR1 and sgtR2, was introduced into Streptomyces lividans TK24 and Streptomyces griseus IFO 13350. Various media with different compositions were used to maximize the productivity of SGT in the recombinant trains. he SGT productivity was best when the transformant of S. lividans TK24 was cultivated in R2YE medium (0.74 unit/mL) at 5 days of cultivation. C5/L (0.66 unit/mL) medium also gave a good productivity, but Livid (0.08 unit/mL) and NDSK (0.06 unit/mL) yielded poor productivities. S. griseus IFO 13350/pWHM3-TR1R2 produced SGT by 1.518 unit/mL (C5/L), 1.284unit/mL (R2YE),0.932 unit/mL (NDSK), and 0.295 unit/mL (Livid) at 7 days of cultivation, which was much higher than those from S. lividans TK24/TR1R2. The SGT protein was purified from the culture broth of S. griseus IFO 13350/pWHM3-TR1R2 in C5/L to homogeneity via ammonium sulfate fractionation, and CM-sepharose and SP-sepharose column chromatographies. The specific activity of purified SGT was 69,252 unit/mg, and the final purification fold and recovery yield were 6.5 and 1.4%, respectively.
Real-Time RT-PCR for Quantitative Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus during Manufacture of Biologics
Cho, Hang-Mee ; Lee, Dong-Hyuck ; Kim, Hyun-Mi ; Kim, In-Seop ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 36, issue 1, 2008, Pages 34~42
Bovine blood, cell, tissue, and organ are used as raw materials for manufacturing biologics such as biopharmaceuticals, tissue engineered products, and cell therapy. Manufacturing processes for the biologics using bovine materials have the risk of viral contamination. Therefore viral validation is essential in ensuring the safety of the products. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is the most common bovine pathogen and has widely been known as a contaminant of biologics. In order to establish the validation system for the BVDV safety of biologics, a real-time RT-PCR method was developed for quantitative detection of BVDV contamination in raw materials, manufacturing processes, and final products. Specific primers for amplification of BVDV RNA was selected, and BVDV RNA was quantified by use of SYBR Green I. The sensitivity of the assay was calculated to be 1
. The rent-time RT-PCR method was validated to be reproducible and very specific to BVDV. The established real-time RT-PCR assay was successfully applied to the validation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell artificially infected with BVDV. BVDV RNA could be quantified in CHO cell as well as culture supernatant. Also the real-time RT-PCR assay could detect
of BVDV artificially contaminated in bovine collagen.
Anti-diabetic Activity of Polysaccharide from Salicornia herbacea
Kim, Seon-Hee ; Ryu, Deok-Seon ; Lee, Mi-Young ; Kim, Ki-Hoon ; Kim, Yong-Ho ; Lee, Dong-Seok ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 36, issue 1, 2008, Pages 43~48
The present study investigated the effect of physiologically active polysaccharide (SP1) isolated from Salicornia herbacea on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into four groups which were normal control group (NC), diabetic control group (DC), diabetic CSP group (DCSP), and diabetic SP1 group (DSP1). Animals were administrated with 2% experimental drinks for 6 weeks. The levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in the serum were measured before and after intake of test compounds. The levels of glucose and triglyceride in the DSP1 were significantly lower than those in the DC by 25% and 20%, respectively. The levels of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in the DSP1 were similar to those in the DC. These results suggest that SP1 substantially exhibit anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertriglyceridemic activity in diabetic rats. Therefore SP1 is believed to show remarkable anti-diabetic effect on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Secretory Overexpression and Characterization of Human Procarboxypeptidase B from Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Kim, Mi-Jung ; Kim, Mi-Jin ; Lee, Jae-Hyung ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Seo, Jin-So ; Nam, Soo-Wan ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 36, issue 1, 2008, Pages 49~54
The gene encoding human pancreatic pro-carboxypeptidase B (CPB) was cloned and fused to Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating factor alpha-1 secretion signal
, in which the transcription of
-pro-CPB was under the control of GAL10 promoter. The constructed plasmid
-hproCPB(7.72 kb) was transformed into S. cerevisiae 2805. The recombinant human pro-CPB (hproCPB) was successfully expressed in S. cerevisiae after induction of galactose, and could be secreted into the culture medium. By analyses of SDS-PAGE and western blotting, the molecular weight of the purified hproCPB was estimated to be a 45.9kDa. The activity of extracellular hCPB after removal of pro-region by trypsin treatment reached about 10.16 unit/ml at batch culture of S. cerevisiae
-hproCPB for 60 h. Also, the Km value of partially purified recombinant hCPB is about 0.43 mM.
Isolation of Anthocyanin from Black Rice (Heugjinjubyeo) and Screening of its Antioxidant Activities
Park, Young-Sam ; Kim, Sun-Joong ; Chang, Hyo-Ihl ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 36, issue 1, 2008, Pages 55~60
Colored rices are a hulled grains having red or purple pigments in bran. Especially black rice (Heugjinjubyeo) is considered to be a healthy food in Asia. Black rice is of great interesting because of the possible biological activity with their anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are water-soluble plant pigments and representatives of flavonoids. The anthocyanins in black rice include cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-glucoside, malvidin 3-O-glucoside, pelagonidin 3-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. In this study, anthocyanins in a black rice were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively with HPLC and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The anthocyanins contained approximately 95% of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and 5% of peonidin-3-O-glucoside. Antioxidant activities of the anthocyanin extract were investigated by using various in vitro methods. The 100g/ml concentration of the anthocyanin extracted exhibited 88.83% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid, 55.20% DPPH free radical scavenging activity, 54.96% superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, and 72.67% hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. And it also showed high ferrous ion reducing capability. These results suggest that the anthocyanin extracted from black rice may be utilized as a possible antioxdiant agent against ROS.
Optimization of PS-7 Production Process by Azotobacter indicus var. myxogenes L3 Using the Control of Carbon Source Composition
Ra, Chae-Hun ; Kim, Ki-Myong ; Hoe, Pil-Woo ; Lee, Sung-Jae ; Kim, Sung-Koo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 36, issue 1, 2008, Pages 61~66
The proteins in whey are separated and used as food additives. The remains (mainly lactose) are spray-dried to produce sweet whey powder, which is widely used as an additive for animal feed. Sweet whey powder is also used as a carbon source for the production of valuable products such as polysaccharides. Glucose, fructose, galactose, and sucrose as asupplemental carbon source were evaluated for the production of PS-7 from Azotobacter indicus var. myxogenes L3 grown on whey based MSM media. Productions of PS-7 with 2% (w/v) fructose and sucrose were 2.05 and 2.31g/L, respectively. The highest production of PS-7 was 2.82g/L when 2% (w/v) glucose was used as the carbon source. Galactose showed low production of PS-7 among the carbon sources tested. The effects of various carbon sources addition to whey based MSM medium showed that glucose could be the best candidate for the enhancement of PS-7 production using whey based MSM medium. To evaluate the effect of glucose addition to whey based media on PS-7 production, fermentations with whey and glucose mixture (whey 1, 2, 3%; whey 1% + glucose 1%, whey 1% + glucose 2% and glucose 2%, w/v) were carried out. Significant enhancement of PS-7 production with addition of 1% (w/v) and 2% (w/v) glucose in 1% (w/v) whey media was observed. The PS-7 concentration of 2% glucose added whey lactose based medium was higher than that of 1% glucose addition, however, the product yield
was higher in 1% glucose added whey lactose based MSM medium. Therefore, the optimal condition for the PS-7 production from the Azotobacter indicus var.myxogenes L3, was 1% glucose addition to 1% whey lactose MSM medium.
Changes of Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activities of Red Wines during Fermentation and Post-fermentation
No, Jae-Duck ; Lee, Dae-Hyoung ; Hwang, Young-Soo ; Lee, Sang-Han ; Lee, Jong-Soo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 36, issue 1, 2008, Pages 67~71
The goal of this study was to vinify four varieties of grapes, namely Vitis labrusca L (Gerbong), Vitis labrusca B (Campbell Early), Vitis labrusca (Muscat Bailey A) and Vitis hybrid (Sheridan), and to investigate the changes in the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of the red wines during fermentation and post-fermentation. The ethanol content of the four red wines varied only slightly from 11.4%-12.8%, indicating that no significant change occurred during the fermentation and post-fermentation. The total anthocyanin and phenol contents as bioactive compounds were the highest level in the Vitis labrusca B red wine. The antioxidant activity was also the highest of 88.9% after 10 days fermentation in the Vitis labrusca B red wine and showed from only 36.6% to 61.7% in the other red wines, though the range decreased to 33.1%-64.1% during post-fermentation for 120 days at
. Our results show that the vitis labrusca B red wine has the potential to become a functional red wine because of its high antioxidant activity.
The Effect of Genistein on Melanin Synthesis and In vivo Whitening
Yang, Eun-Soon ; Hwang, Jae-Sung ; Choi, Hyun-Chung ; Hong, Ran-Hi ; Kang, Sang-Mo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 36, issue 1, 2008, Pages 72~81
The effect of genistein on melanin synthesis was studied using in vitro and in vivo model. Genistein inhibited melanin synthesis in cultured melan-a cells dose dependently. Tyrosinase activity was decreased by genistein treatment in melan-a cells, but genistein did not inhibit tyrosinase directly. Genistein did not affect the expression of tyrosinase in melan-a cells. Genistein inhibited the activity of
-glucosidase in virtro and the glycosylation of tyrosinase in melan-a cells. The resulting unsaturated glycosylation of tyrosinase makes it unstable and disturb correct transportation. To further clarify the effect of genistein on the melanogenesis, we established UVB-induced hyperpigmentation on the shaved backs of brown guinea pigs. The animals were exposed to UVB radiation once a week for three consecutive weeks. Genistein (1 and 2%) or vehicle alone as a control were then topically applied to the hyperpigmented areas daily. Genistein showed significant lightening effect on the UVB-induced hyperpigmentation in five weeks. Depigmenting effect was prominent in 2% genistein treatment with Fontana-Masson staining. In conclusion, genistein may be a useful agent for skin whitening.
Antibacterial Activity of HTI Isolated from Oriental Medicine, Hyungbangjihwang-tang
Sung, Woo-Sang ; Seu, Young-Bae ; Lee, Dong-Gun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 36, issue 1, 2008, Pages 82~85
Hyungbangjihwang-Tang (HT), an Oriental herbal formula, has been known to play a role which helps to recover vigor of human in the Orient. In this study, antibacterial substance (HTI) was purified from the ethyl-acetate extracts of HT by using
column chromatography and HPLC, and the antibacterial effects of HTI were investigated. By using the CLSI broth micro-dilution assay, the activity of HTI was evaluated against human pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including the clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The results demonstrated that HTI showed broad spectrum antibacterial activities against all bacterial strains tested. In conclusion, HTI is an interesting new molecule for its potential in anti-infective drug discovery and for future studies on activity-structure relationship through analysis of its chemical structure.