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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
Selecting the target year
Biotechnology for the Mitigation of Methane Emission from Landfills
Cho, Kyung-Suk ; Ryu, Hee-Wook ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 293~305
Methane, as a greenhouse gas, is some 21~25 times more detrimental to the environmental than carbon dioxide. Landfills generally constitute the most important anthropogenic source, and methane emission from landfill was estimated as 35~73 Tg per year. Biological approaches using biocover (open system) and biofilter (closed system) can be a promising solution for older and/or smaller landfills where the methane production is too low for energy recovery or flaring and installation of a gas extraction system is inefficient. Methanotrophic bacteria, utilizing methane as a sole carbon and energy source, are responsible for the aerobic degradation (oxidation) of methane in the biological systems. Many bench-scale studies have demonstrated a high oxidation capacity in diverse filter bed materials such as soil, compost, earthworm cast and etc. Compost had been most often employed in the biological systems, and the methane oxidation rates in compost biocovers/boifilters ranged from 50 to
. Some preliminary field trials have showed the suitability of biocovers/biofilters for practical application and their satisfactory performance in mitigation methane emissions. Since the reduction of landfill methane emissions has been linked to carbon credits and trading schemes, the verified quantification of mitigated emissions through biocovers/biofilters is very important. Therefore, the assessment of in situ biocovers/biofilters performance should be standardized, and the reliable quantification methods of methane reduction is necessary.
Research Trend about the Development of White Biotech-Based Aromatic Compounds
Lee, Jin-Ho ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 306~315
Due to the depleting petroleum reserve, recurring energy crisis, and global warming, it is necessary to study the development of white biotech-based aromatic chemical feedstock from renewable biomass for replacing petroleum-based one. In particular, the production of aromatic intermediates and derivatives in biosynthetic pathway of aromatic amino acids from glucose might be replaced by the production of petrochemical-based aromatic chemical feedstock including benzene-derived aromatic compounds. In this review, I briefly described the production technology for hydroquinone, catechol, adipic acid, shikimic acid, gallic acid, pyrogallol, vanillin, p-hydroxycinnamic acid, p-hydroxystyrene, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, indigo, and indole 3-acetic acid using metabolic engineering, bioconversion, and chemical process. The problems and possible solutions regarding development of production technology for competitive white biotech-based aromatic compounds were also discussed.
Isolation of Chondromyces crocatus in Pure Culture
Lee, Cha-Yul ; Hyun, Hye-Sook ; Kim, Do-Hee ; Cho, Kung-Yun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 316~321
We have isolated Chondromyces crocatus KYC2823 in pure culture and five other strains in mixed culture with companion bacteria from Korean soil samples. The strain KYC2823, which was isolated from the soil sample collected in Cheongdo-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, showed typical characteristics of C. crocatus, including the shape of fruiting bodies and production of a peculiar odor. In addition, the 16S rDNA sequence was 99.8% identical to that of the strain Cm c5, the proposed neotype strain of C. crocatus. Cloning and sequence analysis of the polyketide biosynthetic genes from KYC2823 by performing PCR have revealed that this strain has biosynthetic gene clusters for ajudazols (inhibitors of electron transport systems) and chondramides (substances affecting the function of the actin cytoskeleton), and biosynthetic genes for other polyketide compounds that have not been cloned yet.
Isolation and Medium Development of the Actinomycetes, Streptomyces griseofuscus CNU-A91231, Inhibiting Phytopathogenic Fungi
Choi, Seung-Hyun ; Son, Min-Jung ; Kim, Sung-Han ; Choi, Suk-Yul ; Lee, Yoon-Hui ; Choi, Jae-Eul ; An, Gil-Hwan ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 322~332
Five hundred strains of actinomycetes were screened for inhibitory activity against the phytopathogenic fungi; Alternaria alternata, Botryotinia fuckeliana, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum gleosporioides, Corticium sasaki, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Fusarium oxysporium, Magnaporthe grisea, Phytophthora infestans, Phytium ultimum, and Thanatephorus cucumeris. The strain CNU-A91231 (Korea Agricultural Culture Collection #20938) showed a strong activity against the phytopathogenic fungi and it was identified as Streptomyces griseofuscus based on the sequence of 16s rDNA. Practical and simple media for the strain S. griseofuscus CNU-A91231 was developed at the conditions (
and pH 6 with aeration) for efficient bacterial growth. Alanine, glutamine, proline and ammonium ion were good nitrogen sources for the bacterium. Addition of the major salts including Na, Cl, Ca, P, K, and Mg into molasses did not increase the growth of S. griseofuscus. Addition of fertilizers containing amino acids significantly enhanced growth of the bacterium. The optimal medium was formulated as molasses + 1% of glutamate fermentation waste powder. All the conditions and components used in this study did not affect the antifungal activity of S. griseofuscus. The bacterium and the medium in this study can be used as a bio-antifungal agent for plant farming.
Characterization of Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Pine Litter
Song, Yoon-Jae ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 333~339
Using a novel pine needle agar, fifteen bacterial species were isolated from pine litter. These bacteria were able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons derived from lignin and utilize the ortho-cleavage of the
-ketoadipate pathway to degrade protocatechuate or catechol. A different utilization array of aromatic hydrocarbons by these bacteria was also determined. This study provides the information on bacterial species living in pine litter and suggests that these bacteria have metabolic abilities to utilize aromatic hydrocarbons derived from lignin biodegradation.
Bacillus polyfermenticus CJ9, Isolated from Meju, Showing Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities
Jung, Ji-Hye ; Chang, Hae-Choon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 340~349
A CJ9 bacterial strain, which showed antifungal and antibacterial activities, was isolated from meju and identified as Bacillus polyfermenticus based on Gram staining, biochemical properties, as well as its 16S rRNA sequence. B. polyfermenticus CJ9 showed the antimicrobial activity against the various pathogenic molds, yeasts, and bacteria. The antibacterial activity was stable in the pH 5.0~9.0, but the activity was lost at
for 24 hr. The antifungal activity was stable in the pH range of 3.0~9.0 and reduced at
for 15 min, but antifungal activity was not completely destroyed. The antibacterial activity was completely inactivated by proteinase K, protease, trypsin, and
-chymotrypsin. The antifungal activity was also completely inactivated by protease and
-chymotrypsin, and reduced its activity by proteinase which indicated that the antifungal and antibacterial compounds have proteineous nature. The apparent molecular mass of the partially purified antifungal compound, as indicated by using the direct detection method in Tricine-SDS-PAGE, was approximately 1.4 kDa. The molecular mass of the antibacterial compound could not be determined because of its heat-liable characteristic.
Identification and Characterization of Alginate Lyase Producing Pseudomonas sp. N7151-6
Lee, Jae-Hyung ; Bae, Min-Ji ; Kim, Yang-Choon ; Nam, Soo-Wan ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 350~354
A Gram-negative, alginate lyase-producing bacterium was isolated from the Haeundae Coast, Korea. The isolated strain N7151-6 produced alginate lyase. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were found to be
and pH 8.0, respectively. This strain can be grown at the NaCl concentration of 0-7% (w/v). Analysis of 16S rDNA sequence and physiological profiling indicated that the strain N7151-6 belonged to Pseudomonas sp. The enzyme alginate lyase produced by Pseudomonas sp. N7151-6 was partially purified by ultrafiltration (MWCO= 30 kDa). The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of the purified enzyme were found to be 7.0 and
, respectively. The enzyme was stable at the pH range of 5.0-9.0 and temperature range of
. The total activity of alginate lyase produced was reached about 110 unit/L.
Cell Surface Display of Arylsulfatase Gene from Pseudoalteromonas carageenovora in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Cho, Eun-Soo ; Kim, Hyun-Jin ; Jung, So-A ; Kim, Jeong-Hwan ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Nam, Soo-Wan ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 355~360
In this study, the arylsulfatase gene (astA, 984 bp ORF) from Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora genome was expressed on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae by fusing with Aga2p linked to the membrane anchored protein, Aga1p. The constructed plasmid, pCTAST (7.1 kb), was introduced to S. cerevisiae EBY100 cell, and yeast transformants on YPDG plate showed the hydrolyzing activity for 4-methylumbelliferyl-sulfate and p-nitrophenyl-sulfate. When S. cerevisiae EBY100/pCTAST was grown on YPDG medium, the arylsulfatase activity of cell pellet reached about 1.2 unit/mL, whereas no extracellular arylsulfatase activity was detected. The DNA ladder in agarose prepared from agar by this recombinant arylsulfatase showed similar resolution and migration patterns with a commercial agarose. This results revealed that arylsulfatase expressed on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae could be applicable to the economic production of electrophoretic-grade agarose.
Trehalose Protects Activity of Anti-Yeast Substance Produced by Rahnella aquatilis Strain AY2000
Kang, Min-Jung ; Lee, Jong-Hwan ; Lee, Bok-Kyu ; Kim, Kwang-Hyeon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 361~364
Rahnella aquatilis strain AY2000 produces an anti-yeast substance (AYS), however activity of the AYS tends to be decreased by heat. To investigate whether trehalose can protect AYS activity against heat, comparative studies on the AYS with and without trehalose were performed. After heat treatment at high temperatures (
), the AYS with trehalose had higher activity than the AYS without trehalose had. In case of AYS with trehalose (0.3-0.9M), activity of the AYS could be determined at ranging from
on S. cerevisiae by MTT method. Consequently, activity of the AYS after heating was well maintained by trehalose.
Synthesis of Diglyceride Containing Caprylic acid by Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Esterification of Monoglyceride in a Solvent Free System
Lee, Jang-Woon ; Kang, Sung-Tae ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 365~370
For the production of diglyceride (DG) containing medium chain fatty acid, which could be utilized as a substrate to structured lipid production, monoglyceride (MG) and caprylic acid were reacted in the presence of lipase. The reaction system was well mixed homogeneously without using any organic solvent. Among the lipases investigated, Lipozyme RM IM and Novozym 435 were selected on the basis of equilibrium DG yields from the medium chain fatty acid and MG. And reaction conditions such as addition of molecular sieve, water content of immobilized lipase, reaction temperature, and mole ratio of MG/caprylic acid are optimized to increase DG production by using Lipozyme RM IM. DG content of reaction mixture showed 8% increase by adding molecular sieve to reaction mixture. Removal of water from the immobilized lipase could affect seriously equilibrium content of DG. More than 2.8%(w/w) removal of water from the support could make 44% of DG. Optimum temperature was found to
. Temperature shift from
resulted in increase of free fatty acid (FFA) content. The equilibrium DG yield was not seriously affected by on MG/caprylic acid molar ratio. However, at the stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 the highest DG yield was obtained. Increasing MG/caprylic acid ratio from 0.3 to 1.8 decreased FFA content from 34% to 13%, while MG content increased from 27% to 50%.
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant activity of the Fruit of Prunus avium L
Ahn, Seon-Mi ; Ryu, Hee-Young ; Kang, Dong-Kyoon ; Jung, In-Chang ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 371~376
The fruits of sweet cherry are highly appreciated by the consumer due to their precocity and quality, such as their sweetness, color and sourness. In this study, the hot-water extract and its sequential organic solvent fractions were prepared from domestic Napoleon sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The hot-water extract contained about 40% sugars, and the solvent fraction yields for hexane, ethylacetate (EA), butanol, and water residue were 0.01%, 3.45%, 16.30%, and 80.24%, respectively. Contents of total polyphenol and total flavonoid of the fractions were 1.24~5.24%, and 0~3.76%, respectively. Among the fractions, EA fraction showed the highest total polyphenol and total flavonoid concentrations. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the extract and fractions revealed that EA fraction and butanol fraction contained strong antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5~1.0 mg/mL. But the extract and fractions tested were not active to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In a while, only hexane fraction showed anti-Candida activity with 0.5~1.0 mg/mL of MIC. The fraction showed strong activity against different multi-antibiotics resistant strains such as C. albicans CCARM 14020. Antioxidative activity assay showed that EA fraction has a strong DPPH scavenging activity and a reducing power. The
of vitamin E and EA fraction were 15.5 and
, respectively. Our results suggest that the fruit of P. avium L. has high potentials with anti-Candida and antioxidative activity.
Evaluation of Viral Inactivation Efficacy of a Continuous Flow Ultraviolet-C Reactor (UVivatec)
Bae, Jung-Eun ; Jeong, Eun-Kyo ; Lee, Jae-Il ; Lee, Jeong-Im ; Kim, In-Seop ; Kim, Jong-Su ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 377~382
Viral safety is an important prerequisite for clinical preparations of all biopharmaceuticals derived from plasma, cell lines, or tissues of human or animal origin. To ensure the safety, implementation of multiple viral clearance (inactivation and/or removal) steps has been highly recommended for manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals. Of the possible viral clearance strategies, Ultraviolet-C (UVC) irradiation has been known as an effective viral inactivating method. However it has been dismissed by biopharmaceutical industry as a result of the potential for protein damage and the difficulty in delivering uniform doses. Recently a continuous flow UVC reactor (UVivatec) was developed to provide highly efficient mixing and maximize virus exposure to the UV light. In order to investigate the effectiveness of UVivatec to inactivate viruses without causing significant protein damage, the feasibility of the UVC irradiation process was studied with a commercial therapeutic protein. Recovery yield in the optimized condition of
irradiation was more than 98%. The efficacy and robustness of the UVC reactor was evaluated with regard to the inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), bovine herpes virus (BHV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), bovine parvovirus (BPV), minute virus of mice (MVM), reovirus type 3 (REO), and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV). Non enveloped viruses (HAV, PPV, BPV, MVM, and REO) were completely inactivated to undetectable levels by
irradiation. Enveloped viruses such as HIV, BVDV, and BPIV were completely inactivated to undetectable levels. However BHV was incompletely inactivated with slight residual infectivity remaining even after
irradiation. The log reduction factors achieved by UVC irradiation were
for HAV, 5.29 for BHV,
for REO, and
for BPIV. These results indicate that UVC irradiation using UVivatec was very effective and robust in inactivating all the viruses tested.
Characterization and Xylanase Productivity of Streptomyces sp. YB914
Yoon, Ki-Hong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 383~388
A strain YB914 was isolated from soil as a producer of the extracellular xylanase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of oat spelt xylan. The strain YB914 was identified as Streptomyces sp. on the basis of its morphological, cultural and biochemical properties. The xylanase of culture filtrate was the most active at
and pH 5.5, and retained 80% of its maximum activity at the range of pH 4.5~7.0. In order to optimize the culture medium for xylanase production, ingredients of G.S.S medium were replaced by several carbohydrates. The carbohydrates such as oat spelt xylan, corn cob xylan, wheat bran and lactose increased the xylanase productivity of Streptomyces sp. YB914. However, xylanase production was greatly repressed by galactose or arabinose. The maximum xylanase productivity was reached to 48 U/mL in the modified medium containing 1% oat spelt xylan and 1.5% lactose.
Development of pSJE6c, an Expression Vector for Kimchi Lactic Acid Bacteria, and Heterologous Gene Expression Using the Vector
Lee, Kang-Wook ; Park, Ji-Yeong ; Lee, Ji-Yeon ; Lee, Hwang-A ; Baek, Chang-Un ; Jo, Hyeon-Deok ; Kim, Joo-Yeon ; Kwon, Gun-Hee ; Chun, Ji_Yeon ; Kim, Jeong-Hwan ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 389~398
Development of expression vectors is important for the basic and applied researches on kimchi LAB (lactic acid bacteria). An expression vector, pSJE6c was constructed by inserting P6C promoter sequence from Lactococcus lactis into pSJE, a shuttle vector for E. coli and Leuconostoc species. To test the efficiency of pSJE6c, aga (
-galactosidase) and lacZ (
-galactosidase) genes were expressed in Lactobacillus brevis 2.14. Compared to the pSJE, expression levels of both genes were increased, indicating P6C promoter was better than indigenous promoters. Enzyme activities of L. brevis cells harboring pSJE6caga (pSJE6c with aga) or pSJE6Z (pSJE6c with lacZ) were 1.5-2 fold higher than those with pSJEaga (pSJE with aga) or pSJEZ (pSJE with lacZ). More RNA transcripts were detected in cells harboring pSJE6c based recombinant plasmid. The results indicated that heterologous gene expressions in kimchi LAB could be improved significantly by use of efficient expression vectors.
Preparation of Functional Cosmetics Containing
-carotene Derived from Recombinant Escherichia coli and Evaluation of Anti-wrinkle Efficacy by Clinical Testing
Kim, You-Geun ; Lee, Young-Hoon ; Kang, Moon-Kook ; Lee, Byung-Hak ; Yun, Jun-Ki ; Kim, Sung-Bae ; Kim, Chang-Joon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 399~404
This paper described the formulation of functional cosmetics and evaluation of anti-wrinkle efficacy in clinical test. Cosmetics were formulated with highly purified
-carotene obtained from the culture broth of recombinant E.coli cells. Edible oil for solubilizing
-carotene, vitamine E for long-term storage, detergent/stabilizer (2.0%) for the complete formation of oil/water emulsion, dimethicone (0.35%) for good skin care, and sorbitol for skin moisturizer were also added as ingredients. Physical or chemical degradation of formulated products stored at
was not observed for 60-day testing period. In clinical test, 68% of applicants observed wrinkle decrease after 8-week treatment. This result indicates that newly formulated cosmetics have strong potential for improving wrinkle skin care.
Expression of a Bacillus subtilis Mannanase Gene in Corynebacterium lactofementum
Yoon, Ki-Hong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 405~407
A Bacillus subtilis mannanase gene was subcloned into an Escherichia coli- Corynebacterium lactofermentum shuttle vector pHE83, and the resultant plasmid pHE83M was transferred into an endogenous plasmid-free strain of C. lactofermentum. Mannanase produced by the recombinant C. lactofermentum (pHE83M) was secreted extracellulary at the level of 86%, and the remaining activity of mannanase was detected in the cell-free extract. The maximum mannanase productivity of the recombinant strain reached 8.1 unit/mL in the culture filtrate of LB medium. According to the zymogram of mannanase on SDS-PAGE, it was found that the mannanase produced by the recombinant C. lactofermentum could be maintained stably with a migration identical to the mannanase produced by the parental strain, B. subtilis WL-3.
Screening and Isolation of Ammonia Removal Microorganism for the Improvement of Livestock Environment
Lee, So-Jin ; Lee, Eun-Young ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 408~412
A study on the screening and isolation of microorganism was performed for the removal of main malodor, such as ammonia, produced from the livestock farm. The main malodor components in livestock farm are ammonia, volatile fatty acids, sulfur compounds and trimethylamine. Damages to man and livestock were originated from malodors mainly due to ammonia, and thus ammonia reduction experiments were performed. Sludge of sewage treatment plant was inoculated in the sesame dregs culture, from which ammonia gas was produced. An aerobically grown, pure cultured isolated from the 10th enrichment culture was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and identified as Alcaligenes sp. NS-1. This strain NS-1 precultured in the sesame dregs was found to remove ammonia gas with an efficiency of approximately 99-100% at an average concentration of 40 ppmv of ammonia gas. When the strain NS-1 sprayed to pig excrements, the removal efficiency at an average concentration of 100 ppmv of ammonia was approximately 60% after 16 hr.
Manufacturing of Korean Traditional Rice Wine by using Gardenia jasminoides
Cho, Soo-Muk ; Kim, Jae-Ho ; Park, Hong-Ju ; Chun, Hye-Kyung ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 413~415
To develop a new traditional rice wine by using Gardenia jasminoides, various fermentation methods such as without cooking, with cooking and with starter seed methods were studied. The condition of alcohol fermentation was investigated by addition of 1% Gardenia jasminoides into mash. Among the fermented methods, the fermentation with starter seed was the best as the alcohol was 19%. The acceptability of the Gardenia jasminoides rice wine with different methods were compared. The starter seed method which was prepared by adding 1% Gardenia jasminoides into mash showed the best acceptability in the sensory evaluation test and color test.