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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Prebiotic Oligosaccharides in Infant Formula
Chung, Chang-Ho ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~6
Human milk is frequently the only food source for a newborn during the initial stage of life after birth. Milk provides not only the nutrients necessary for the infant's growth, but also ingredients that may enable the infant to thrive. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are considered to be these beneficial ingredients for the health of infant. It has been reported that around 5 to 10 g unbound oligosaccharides and around 20 to over 130 different HMO are present in 1L of human milk. The suggested health mechanisms of HMO's roles in host defense are 1) blocking bacterial adhesions, 2) binding to a toxin receptor on the extracellular domain, and 3) postbiotic effect resulting from the increase of probiotics such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. Among the prebiotic oligosaccharides, mixtures of long chain fuetooligosaccharides (10%) and galactooligosaccharides (90%) in infant formula are demonstrated to increase the number of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli to the levels seen in human milk fed infants.
The Mechanisms for Xylose Transport into Yeasts
Han, Ji-Hye ; Choi, Gi-Wook ; Chung, Bong-Woo ; Min, Ji-Ho ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 7~12
The biochemical study of sugar uptake in yeasts started five decades ago and led to the early production of abundant kinetic and mechanistic data. However, the first accurate overview of the underlying sugar transporter genes was obtained relatively late, due mainly to the genetic complexity of hexose uptake in the model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The genomic era generated in turn a massive amount of information, allowing the identification of a multitude of putative sugar transporter and sensor-encoding genes in yeast genomes, many of which are phylogenetically related. This review aims to briefly summarize our current knowledges on the biochemical and molecular features of the transporters of pentoses in yeasts, when possible establishing links between previous kinetic studies and genomic data currently available. Emphasis is given to recent developments concerning the identification of D-xylose transporter genes, which are thought to be key players in the optimization of S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysates.
Pathogenomic Signaling Networks and Antifungal Drug Development for Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans
Ko, Young-Joon ; Kwon, Yoo-Won ; Na, Han-Na ; Bahn, Yong-Sun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 13~18
Past decade systemic mycoses caused by opportunistic human fungal pathogens, including Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus, have been a growing problem for both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Particularly, Cryptococcus neoformans has recently emerged as a major fungal pathogen, which can cause fungal pneumonia and meningitis that are lethal if not timely medicated. However, treatment for cryptococcosis has been difficult due to a lack of proper anti-cryptococcal drugs with fungicidal activity and less toxicity. In this review we introduced novel therapeutic methods for treating cryptococcosis by exploring pathogenomic signa1ing networks of C. neoformans with genome-wide transcriptome approaches as well as diverse molecular/genetic tools.
Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from the Marine Organism(s) and Its Mode of Action
Hwang, Bo-Mi ; Lee, June-Young ; Lee, Dong-Gun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 19~23
Recently, marine organisms are emerging as a leading group for identifying and extracting novel bioactive substances. These substances are known to possess a potential regarding not only as a source of pharmaceutical products but also their beneficial effects on humans. Among the substances, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) specifically have attracted considerable interest for possible use in the development of new antibiotics. AMPs are characterized by relatively short cationic peptides containing the ability to adopt a structure in which cationic or hydrophobic amino acids are spatially scattered. Although a few reports address novel marine organisms-derived AMPs, their antimicrobial mechanism(s) are still remain unknown. In this review, we summarized the peptides previously investigated, such as Pleurocidin, Urechistachykinins, Piscidins and Arenicin-1. These peptides exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against human microbial pathogens without remarkable hemolytic effects against human erythrocytes, and their mode of actions are based on permeabilization of the plasma membrane of the pathogen. Therefore, the study of antimicrobial peptides derived from marine organisms may prove to be useful in the design of future therapeutic antimicrobial drugs.
Identification and Antioxidant Activity using Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometry of Antioxidant Producing Marine Actinomycetes Streptomyces sp. ACT-18
Kim, Man-Chul ; Kim, Ju-Sang ; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy ; Han, Yong-Jae ; Heo, Moon-Soo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 24~31
For the research of the natural marine antioxidant, an antioxidant-producing marine actinomycetes was isolated from sea water in Jeju coastal area. The strain was identified based on 16S rDNA sequencing, the morphology by a method of scanning electron microscopy, physiological and biochemical characteristics and cellular fatty acid analysis. The isolated strain ACT-18 was gram positive, aerobic, non-motile spores. Substrate mycelia are dark green and yellow gray aerial mycelia. The cell size of the strain was
. 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that were Gram-positive bacteria grouped on Streptomyces sp. Results of cellular fatty acid analysis showed that major cellular fatty acids were
cis 9 (11.96%),
anteiso (10.99%). The antioxidant activity of methanol extract from Streptomyce sp. ACT-18 was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and alkyl radical scavenging activity using an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer. DPPH radical scavenging activity of SBME (Streptomyces Broth Methanol Extract) A-18 was 46% at 0.1 mg/mL. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of SBME A-18 was 63% at 0.1 mg/mL. Alkyl radical scavenging activity of SBME A-18 was 39% at 0.1 mg/mL.
Development of Antimicrobial Dye for Natural Dyeing using Natural Substances
Yu, Young-Eun ; Park, Eun-Young ; Jung, Dae-Hwa ; Byun, Sung-Hui ; Kim, Sang-Chan ; Park, Sung-Min ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 32~39
This study was carried out to investigate the usefulness of the natural antimicrobial substances for natural dyeing. Antimicrobial activity of natural substances, extracted by water, ethanol, methanol and ethyl acetate, were shown over 20 mm by Rheum palmatum, Caesalpinia sappan, Prunus mume, Schizandra chinensis, Rhus javanica, and Coptis japonica. Especially, water and methanol extract of C. japonica were shown strong antimicrobial activity against all investigated strains. Minimum inhibition concentration of C. japonica water extract was investigated 110 mg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. Investigated natural substances were not only shown strong antimicrobial activity for natural dyeing but also might be used other industries.
High-level Secretory Expression of Recombinant
-Agarase from Zobellia galactanivorans in Pichia pastoris
Seok, Ji-Hwan ; Park, Hee-Gyun ; Lee, Sang-Hyeon ; Nam, Soo-Wan ; Jeon, Sung-Jong ; Kim, Jong-Hyun ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 40~45
The gene encoding
-agarase (agaB) which hydrolyzes
-1,4 linkages of agarose from Zobellia galactanivorans was cloned and fused to Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating factor alpha-1 secretion signal (
), in which the transcription of
-AgaB was under the control of AOX1 (alcohol oxidase 1, methanol inducible) promoter. The constructed plasmid pPIC-AgaB (9 kb) was integrated into HIS4 gene locus of Pichia pastoris genome. Successful integration was confirmed by performing colony PCR. The transformed cells showed red halos around its colonies in methanol agar plate by adding iodine solution, indicating the active expression of agaB in P.pastoris. By SDS-PAGE and zymographic analysis, the molecular weight of
-agarase was estimated to be a 53 kDa and about 15% N-linked glycosylation was occurred. The activity of extracellular
-agarase reached 1.34, 1.42 and 1.53 units/mL by inducing 0.1, 0.5, and 1% methanol, respectively, at baffled flask culture of P.pastoris GS115/pPIC-AgaB for 48 hr. Most of the enzyme activity was found in the extacellular fraction and the secretion efficiency showed 98%. Thermostability of recombinant
-agarase was also increased by glycosylation.
Fermentation Characteristics and Volatile Compounds in Yakju Made with Various brewing Conditions; Glutinous Rice and Pre-treatment
Kwon, Young-Hee ; Jo, Sung-Jin ; Kim, Jae-Ho ; Ahn, Byung-Hak ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 46~52
Yakju, a Korean traditional alcoholic beverage, is made from glutinous-rice flour or rice starch with nuruk. In this study, we investigated that fermentation characteristics in yakju was made with glutinous rice and pretreatment. The yeast and nuruk were used Y90-9 and SP1800 (a kind of improved nuruk), respectively. pH and brix degree of yakju, brewed with glutinous rice flour by heating, were higher than the others during fermentation process. Total acid contents were 0.2~0.3 and the highest alcohol degree (15.75%(v/v)) was fermented glutinous rice flour by heating. Reducing sugar contents were 3.5-3.9 mg/mL. Yakju, which brewed with glutinous rice flour, of amino acid degree, UV absorbance and color degree was higher than yakju which brewed with glutinous rice starch. Succinic acid was the highest organic acid among 6 organic acids and free sugar contents described as glucose > maltose > fructose. Twenty one components were identified including 3 alcohols, 17 esters and one aldehyde. Of these, ethyl palmitate, which was described as mild flavor, was the highest %area except ethyl alcohol. Overall, the fermentation performed using glutinous rice flour by heating and improved-nuruk showed the best results for yakju production.
The Effect of
-PGA on NC/Nga Mice, a Mouse Model for Mite Antigen-induced Atopic Dermatitis
Jang, Soon-Nam ; Kim, Kum-Lan ; Yun, Mi-Young ; Kang, Sang-Mo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 53~63
As one of the mucous components of Cheonggukjang, traditional fermented soybean paste,
-PGA is a natural substance with diverse functions. In this paper, an in-vivo experiment has been performed using NC/Nga mice in order to find out the efficacy of
-PGA in human atopic dermatitis. The NC/Nga mice with BMAC-induced atopic dermatitis were administered
-PGA (PGA-HM) with 300 kDa and low-molecular
-PGA (PGA-LM), respectively. As a result, a significant decrease in clinical skin severity score was detected in the group that was administered PGA-LM. In terms of serum IgE levels, a significant decline was observed in PGA-LM, compared to the control group. The serum IgG1 levels also decreased more in PGA-LM than in the control group. However, no significant difference was observed in both groups. To witness the induction of
Treg cells, mRNA was sampled from the back of PGA-HM- and PGA-LM-administered NC/Nga mice with atopic dermatitis. In terms of the production amount of foxp3 mRNA, which was measured in real-time PCR, the group that was administered PGA-LM was twice as high as the control group. According to a biopsy on the skin on the backs of the mice, the experimental group was also far lower than the control group in terms of epidermis thickness, mast cell infiltration and the number of
cells. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the atopic dermatitis symptoms decreased more in the PGA-LM-administered NC/Nga mice than the PGA-HM-administered group by facilitating
Treg cells and suppressing the activity of eosinophils and production of IgE and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Translation Inhibition Activity and Antifungal Activity of Korean Propolis
Goh, Ah-Ra ; Choi, Kap-Seong ; Choi, Sang-Ki ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 64~69
It has been known that propolis possesses anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties. Although antifungal activity of Propolis has already been demonstrated, very few studies has been conducted for action mechanism and its spectrum on fungi. We found that ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) inhibited in vitro translation. Since we also observed the growth inhibition of pathogenic fungi and anti-oxidative properties preliminarily, we try to see where those properties come from. Therefore we extracted the EEP further with chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. When their fractions were examined for the growth inhibition of Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae, Cryptococcos neoformans, chloroform fraction exhibited the highest anti-fungal as well as anti-oxidative properties. Similarly the chloroform fraction showed highest translation-inhibiting activities among the various Propolis fractions. These data indicate that those properties might come from similar compounds.
Large-Circular Single-stranded Sense and Antisense DNA for Identification of Cancer-Related Genes
Bae, Yun-Ui ; Moon, Ik-Jae ; Seu, Young-Bae ; Doh, Kyung-Oh ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 70~76
The single-stranded large circular (LC)-sense DNA were utilized as probes for DNA chip experiments. The microarray experiment using LC-sense DNA probes found differentially expressed genes in A549 cells as compared to WI38VA13 cells, and microarray data were well-correlated with data acquired from quantitative real-time RT-PCR. A 5K LC-sense DNA microarray was prepared, and the repeated experiments and dye swap test showed consistent expression patterns. Subsequent functional analysis using LC-antisense library of overexpressed genes identified several genes involved in A549 cell growth. These experiments demonstrated proper feature of LC-sense molecules as probe DNA for microarray and the potential utility of the combination of LC-sense microarray and antisense libraries for an effective functional validation of genes.
Antimicrobial Activity of Fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge against Multidrug Resistant Pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida sp.
Ryu, Hee-Young ; Ahn, Seon-Mi ; Kim, Jong-Sik ; Jung, In-Chang ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 77~83
The fructus of Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge (CBF) has been used as medicinal and food source in worldwide. In this study, antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract and its sequential organic solvent fractions of CBF against different pathogenic bacteria and fungi, including multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida sp., were investigated. The methanol extract of CBF was active against various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and the ethylacetate and butanol fractions of CBF showed strong antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and various multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimal inhibitory concentration of 1.0~7.5 mg/mL. Also the fractions showed anti-Candida activity against C. albicans, C. kruseis and C. geochares. The methanol extract of CBF and its solvent fractions, except n-hexane fraction, did not show any hemolytic activity against human red blood cell up to
, respectively. The hemolysis in n-hexane fraction at
was less than 9.9%. Our results suggest that the CBF could be developed as a potent antibacterial agent, especially for multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Purification and Characterization of Antibacterial Compound Produced by Bacillus subtilis MJP1
Yim, Eun-Jung ; Yang, Eun-Ju ; Chang, Hae-Choon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 84~92
Antibacterial compound from Bacillus subtilis MJP1 was purified using C18 Sep-Pak cartridge, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. The purified antibacterial compound showed antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. The purified antibacterial compound was found to be stable at
for 5 min and in the pH range of 3.0~9.0, but it was unstable at pH 10.0. It was inactivated by proteinase K and pronase E, and heat treatment at
for 15 min, but it was stable with lipase and
-amylase treatment, which indicated its proteineous nature. Ultra performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis were used to identify the purified antibacterial compound and confirmed the existence of two peptides (3356.54 Da, 3400.5244 Da).
The Effect of Nebulized Frankincense Essential Oil in an OVA-Induced Allergic Asthma Mouse Model
Lee, Hye-Youn ; Kim, Kum-Ran ; Kang, Sang-Mo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 93~104
In this study, we investigated the effects of frankincense essential oil (BSEO) on the immune cell change in the lung, BALF and PBMC using a mouse model of asthma. BALB/c mice after intraperitoneal OVA sensitization (day 1) were challenged intratracheally with OVA on day 14. Then, the asthma was induced by repeated OVA inhalation challenged. The asthma induced mice group inhaled 0.3% BSEO for 30 minutes per trial, three times a week, for 8 weeks using the nebulizer. After 12 weeks from the experiment, the mice was killed and the lung, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) were obtained. Next, the change of immune cells inside the separated tissues was observed to identity the effects of BSEO on the allergic asthma mice. In conclusion, the hypersensitive reaction of airway to the bronchoconstrictor in the allergic asthma induced mice was effectively suppressed in Frankincense group, in Bermagot, Eucalyptus, Chamomile, Marjoram and Frankincense groups, the natural aromatic essential oil groups. Furthermore, it was also confirmed that the weight of lung, total number of alveolus cells and the number of BALF, MNL and DLN increased after inducing allergic asthma were reduced. BSEO suppressed the percentage of
cells in the lung tissue of allergic asthma mice. Moreover, BSEO also reduced the percentage of
cells in BALF. In addition, the percentage of
cells in PBMC was reduced. The results of this study indicate that BSEO would be effective to treat allergic asthma by the immune control suppressing the activity of immune cells in each tissue.
Antibacterial Activities of Caesalpinia sappan L. Extract and Structural Analysis of Its Related Brazilin
Kwon, Hyun-Jung ; Kim, Yong-Hyun ; Nam, Kung-Woo ; Kim, Sun-Ki ; Bang, In-Soek ; Han, Man-Deuk ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 105~111
Caesalpinia sappan L. has long been commonly used in oriental folk medicines to treat diseases. To investigate the antibacterial effects from C. sappan L. heart wood, the MeOH soluble extract was successively fractionated by using hexane,
, EtOAc, BuOH, MeOH, and
. Among of these extracts, the EtOAc fraction which partitioned to 3.94% of the highest yields was to be the most active against all human pathogenic bacteria in this experiment. In addition, the antibacterial activities of the EtOAc fraction were more effective against Gram (+) bacteria compared to those against Gram (-) bacteria, which showed difference of the antibacterial activities against Gram (-) bacteria. To confirm the identity of the active substances, the EtOAc fraction was further separated by silica gel adsorption column, high performance liquid chromatography, and 98.48% purity of brazilin (1.67 mg)/EtOAc (10 mg) fraction was obtained from 300 g of C. sappan L. heart wood. The isolated active substance was a single compound of yellow crystalline, and was identified as brazilin (
) by MS, and
-NMR. These results suggest that the brazilin in the EtOAc fraction from MeOH extract of C. sappan L. has a potential as a natural therapeutic agent against human pathogenic Gram (+) bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus.
Antibaterial Activity of Persicaria hydropiper Extracts and Its Application for Cosmetic Material
Kim, Jung-Eun ; Kim, Eun-Hee ; Park, Soo-Nam ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 1, 2010, Pages 112~115
In this study, the antibacterial activity and the moisturizing effect of cream contaning Persicaria hydropiper L. extract were investigated by clinical trial. MIC values of ethyl acetate fraction from Persicaria hydropiper on P.acnes, S.aureus, P.ovale were 0.13~0.25%. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was higher than or equal to the methyl paraben and quercetin. The cream containing the ethyl acetate fraction of Persicaria hydropiper L. extracts was formulated for skin hydration effect. Also, the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the water contents in skin were measured. The cream containing Persicaria hydropiper L. extract was applied to the right lower arm. After 180 min, TEWL of parts was decreased as
(experimental cream) and
(placebo cream) respectively. And the water contents in skin were increased by 2~4% than the placebo cream. These results indicate that extract/fractions of Persicaria hydropiper L. can function as high potential as bactericide against the skin pathogenic bacteria and the increase of skin hydration of the cream containing extract could be applicable to new functional cosmetics for antiaging.