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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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Insecticidal Toxin and Research Trends of Photorhabdus, Entomopathogenic Bacteria
Jang, Eun-Kyung ; Shin, Jae-Ho ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 117~123
BT toxin is produced by a soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and has long been used as a biological insecticide without any competition. Recently, Photorhabdus, a symbiotic bacterium from entomopathogenic nematodes, family Heterorhabditae, has been researched and discussed as alternatives to B. thuringiensis. Photorhabdus, which lives in the gut of entomopathogenic nematodes, is a highly virulent pathogen of a wide range of insect larvae. When an insect is infected by the nematodes, the bacteria are released into the cadaver, and produce a number of insecticidal toxins. The biological role of the different Photorhabdus toxins in the infection process is still unclear. Photorhabdus toxin complex (Tc) is highly secreted gut-active toxin and has been characterized as a potent three-component (A, B and C) insecticidal protein complex. These components are necessary for full oral activity against insect larvae. The Photorhabdus PirAB binary toxins exhibit a potent injectable activity for Galleria mellonella larvae, and have oral toxicity against mosquitoes and caterpillar pest Plutella xylostella. Other toxin, 'makes caterpillars floppy' (Mcf) showed injectable activity on caterpillars. Recombinant Mcf triggers apoptosis in both insect hemocytes and the midgut epithelium and carries a BH3 domain. In this review, the relationship between the Photorhabdus and the nematode is discussed and recent important insecticidal toxins from Photorhabdus are described.
Current Status and Perspectives of Cell Culture-Based Vaccine Production
Jang, Jun-O ; Kim, Ik-Hwan ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 124~128
Vaccines, especially for viruses, have been produced from egg-based manufacturing process. The method is simple and easy to set up the manufacturing process. However, the method has many problems in quality control, limit of manufacturing capacity, and ethical issues. Over the last decade, an alternative method, which manufactures vaccines using cell culture-based system, has received great attention to overcome the problems in egg-based vaccine production. This article examines current status and perspectives of cell culture-based vaccine production.
Production of Bioactive Compounds from Fungi Grown on Ginseng-Steaming Effluent
Jang, Jeong-Hoon ; Kim, Jae-Ho ; Kim, Na-Mi ; Kim, Ha-Kun ; Lee, Jong-Soo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 129~135
We described production of bioactive compounds from fungi grown on Korean ginseng-steaming effluents (GSE) for develop high-value added nutraceuticals from Korean GSE. Hansenula anomala KCCM 11473, which grew well in Korean GSE had high RNA content, and its optimal autolysis conditions were established to produce 5'-ribonucleotides (13.9~28.5 mg/g of biomass) at
and pH 5.0 for 24 h. 5'-Phosphodiesterase and adenyl deaminase were not effective in increasing the yield of 5'-ribinucleatides, but the yield of IMP increased significantly only after the addition of 1.0% adenyl deaminase. Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the highest growth in the GSE medium. 267.1 mg of S. cerevisiae biomass was produced from 1 g of GSE solid and medicinal ginsenoside-
contents was determined with 0.033 mg. Mucor miehei KCTC 6011 produced approximately 120 mg of chitosan per g-dry mycelium in 84 h at
when grown in the GSE (pH 8.0) supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract and 0.002%
. Chitosan produced by M. miehei KCTC 6011 have deacetylated approximately 56% and its viscosity and molecular weight of the chitosan were 80 cps and
kDa, respectively. The chitosan at 1.5 mg/ml inhibited 73.9% of the mycelium growth of Rhizotonia solani in 60 h.
Detection of Novel Polyketide Synthase Genes in Sorangium cellulosum Isolated in Korea
Youn, Jin-Kwon ; Kim, Do-Hee ; Lee, Han-Bit ; Lee, Kye-Won ; Cho, Kyung-Yun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 136~143
DNA fragments encoding the ketosynthase (KS) domain of polyketide synthase (PKS) genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from 9 strains of Sorangium cellulosum isolated in Korea, cloned into a plasmid vector and sequenced. A total of 83 cloned DNA fragments were analyzed, and similar fragments were excluded, leaving 43 independent DNA fragments encoding the KS domains. The predicted amino acid sequences of 32 fragments were 70%-100% identical to the amino acid sequences of already known PKS genes, while the remaining 11 fragments were
67% or less identical to the known sequences, suggesting that these genes are novel PKS genes.
Isolation and Characteristics of Alginate-Degrading Methylobacterium sp. HJM27
Kim, Ok-Ju ; Lee, Dong-Geun ; Lee, Sung-Mok ; Lee, Suck-June ; Do, Hyung-Joo ; Park, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Andre ; Lee, Jae-Hwa ; Ha, Jong-Myung ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 144~150
This study was aimed to screen bacteria of high alginate-degrading activity, to select the nitrogen source and concentration of NaCl and sodium alginate for the production of alginate-degrading enzyme, and to determine reaction conditions of enzyme. A novel alginate-degrading bacterium was isolated from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) and named Methylobacterium sp. HJM27 by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The optimum culture conditions for the production of alginate-degrading enzyme were 1.0% sodium alginate, 0.5% peptone, 0.3% yeast extract, 1.5% NaCl,
and 48 hours incubation time. The raw enzyme showed the highest activity at
and pH 9, and produced 1.217 g - reducing sugar per liter in 0.8% (w/v) sodium alginate for 30 minutes. Methylobacterium sp. HJM27 and its alginate-degrading enzyme would be useful for the production of bioenergy and biofunctional oligosaccharides from seaweed.
Enzymatic Properties of Barley
-Amylase Chimeric Enzymes Produced by Staggered Extension Process
Kim, Tae-Jip ; Choi, Seung-Ho ; Jang, Myoung-Uoon ; Park, Jung-Mi ; Svensson, Birte ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 151~157
Barley malt produces two different
-amylase isozymes (AMY1 and AMY2), which share up to 80% of amino acid sequence identity with each other. However, their enzymatic properties differ remarkably. In this study, five chimeric enzymes between AMY1 and 2 were constructed by staggered extension process (StEP) technique, and their enzymatic properties were characterized. According to the results, chimeric AMY-D2, D8, and E12 showed the mixed or intermediate types of calcium-dependent activity between AMY1 and 2. Meanwhile, only AMY-E10 chimera could be significantly inhibited by barley
-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) protein. Chimera AMY-C6 showed the same calcium-dependency as AMY1, while AMY-E10 was closely similar to AMY2. As a result, it can be proposed that some amino acid residues in the region II, III, and IV of barley
-amylases can play very important roles in the interaction with BASI, and those in III, V, VI, and VII may partly affect on the calcium-dependent activity.
Purification and Characterization of the N-terminally Truncated DNA Polymerase from Thermus thermophilus HJ6
Jeon, Sung-Jong ; Seo, Min-Ho ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 158~162
The gene encoding N-terminally truncated Tod polymerase (
Tod polymerase) from Thermus thermophilus HJ6 was expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the lambda pR and pL tandem promoters on the expression vector pJLA503. The N-terminal domain (250 amino acids) of Tod polymerase was removed without significant effect on enzyme activity and stability, while no 5'
3' exonuclease activity was detected. The
Tod polymerase was verified to possess very efficient reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in the presence of
. The cDNA can also be amplified in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with this mutant enzyme. The
Tod polymerase was exhibited higher activity than the Taq polymerase in a one-step RT-PCR.
A Bacteriocin of 5-kDa in Size Secreted by Bacillus subtilis 168
Kwon, Gun-Hee ; Lee, Hwang-A ; Kim, Jeong-Hwan ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 163~167
Bacillus subtilis 168 secreted antimicrobial substance(s) into culture medium and culture supernatant inhibited growth of some Gram positive bacteria. B. cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were the most sensitive organisms. The antimicrobial activity was destroyed when culture supernatant was treated by protease and proteinase K, indicating the proteinous nature of the substance (bacteriocin). The molecular weight of the bacteriocin was estimated to be 5 kDa by Tricine SDS-PAGE. B. cereus ATCC 14579 cells were killed when exposed to the bacteriocin, indicating that the mode of inhibition was bacteriocidal. These results show that B. subtilis 168 could be useful as a starter for fermented foods such as cheonggukjang where B. cereus contamination is a major concern.
Virus Inactivation Processes for the Manufacture of Human Acellular Dermal Matrix
Bae, Jung-Eun ; Kim, Jin-Young ; Ahn, Jae-Hyoung ; Choi, Da-Mi ; Jeong, Hyo-Sun ; Lee, Dong-Hyuck ; Kim, In-Seop ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 168~176
Acellular dermal matrix (ADM), produced by decellularization from human cadaveric skin, has been used for various biomedical applications. A manufacturing process for ADM (
) using tri-n-butyl phospahate (TnBP) and deoxycholic acids as the decellularization solution has been developed. The manufacturing process for
has 70% ethanol treatment and ethylene oxide gas sterilization for inactivating infectious microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of the 70% ethanol treatment, decellularization process using 0.1% TnBP and 2% deoxycholic acids, and EO gas sterilization process in the inactivation of viruses. A variety of experimental model viruses for human pathogens, including the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), bovine herpes virus (BHV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV) were all selected for this study. Enveloped viruses such as HIV-1, BHV, and BVDV were effectively inactivated to undetectable levels by 70% ethanol treatment. However HAV and PPV showed high resistance to 70% ethanol treatment with the log reduction factors of 1.85 and 1.15, respectively. HIV-1, BHV, and BVDV were effectively inactivated to undetectable levels by decellularization process. All the viruses tested were completely inactivated to undetectable levels by EO gas treatment. The cumulative log reduction factors of HIV-1, BHV, BVDV, HAV, and PPV were
, respectively. These results indicate that the production process for
has a sufficient virus-reducing capacity to achieve a high margin of the virus safety.
Quality Characteristics and Physiological Functionality of Traditional Rice Wines in Chungnam Province of Korea
Lee, Mi-Young ; Sung, Si-Youl ; Kang, Heun-Kag ; Byun, Hong-Seob ; Jung, Sang-Mi ; Song, Jung-Hwa ; Lee, Jong-Soo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 177~182
The goal of this study was to characterize the quality and physiological functionality of some traditional rice wines in Chungnam province, Korea. Non-sterilized and commercial sterilized traditional rice wines from five traditional rice wine factories of Chungnam province were collected and investigated for nutritional components, noxious compounds and physiological functionality. Ethanol content ranged from 16.1~18.3% and pH ranged from 3.27~4.76, and they also contained 0.15% to 0.55% of total acid. All traditional rice wines contained 10.15~139.9 mg% of amino nitrogen and 2.5~25.7% of total sugar. Among organic acids, lactic acid was contained 7.4~29.6 mg%, and succinic acid and propionic acid was also contained 0.2~2.7 mg% and 0.7~8.3 mg%, respectively. Antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity were showed 37.0~86.0% in all rice wines, however, fibrinolytic activity, antioxidant activity, SOD-like activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity were low or not detected.
-Glucosidase Inhibitor from Nepalese Plant Extracts
Kim, Mi-Sun ; Ahn, Seon-Mi ; Jung, In-Chang ; Kwon, Gi-Seok ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 183~189
In the course of screening for anti-acidosis and anti-diabetes agent from natural products, the inhibitory activities of Nepales plant extracts against microbial
-glucosidase were evaluated. Among the 100 different kinds of ethanol extracts, Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don and Myrica nagi Thunb showed strong inhibition activities against
values of C. deodara (Roxb.) G. Don, M. nagi Thunb and acarose, a commercial available anti-diabetes agent, were 44.5, 47.5 and
, respectively. Considering the crude extract of C. deodara (Roxb.) G. Don, and M. nagi Thunb, these extracts have strong potentials as anti-acidosis or anti-diabates agent. In a while, Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) extract showed a good inhibition activity to
-glucosidase, even it was recently reported. The selected three extracts did not show any hemolysis activity against human red blood cell up to 1 mg/mL, and the inhibition activities were maintained by heat or acid treatment. Moreover, treatment of HCl (0.01N) for 1 h into C. operculatus (Roxb.) and M. nagi Thunb increased the inhibition activity from 50% to 70%. Our results suggest that C. deodara (Roxb.) G. Don, M. nagi Thunb, and C. operculatus (Roxb.) are potential as anti-acidosis and anti-diabetes agents.
Antimicrobial and Hemolytic Activity of Oriental Medicinal Herbs
Ryu, Hee-Young ; Ahn, Seon-Mi ; Shin, Yong-Kyu ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 190~197
To develop the safe and natural antimicrobial agents, the 68 ethanol extracts from the 61 different kinds of oriental herbal medicine were prepared and their antimicrobial activities were evaluated. The herbal medicine used were from China (46 kinds), South Korea (14 kinds), North Korea (5 kinds) and Vietnam (3 kinds), respectively, and the root (27 species) was popular part in this study. The average water content and extraction ratio for ethanol were 7.10% and 6.75%, respectively. Determination of antimicrobial activity by disc-diffusion assay at 0.5 mg/disc concentration showed that the extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai (china), Illicium verum, Junci medulla, Rhus javanica L., Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Syzygium aromaticum has strong antimicrobial activities against different food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Determination of MIC and MBC/MFC further showed that the extract of Syzygium aromaticum has MIC of 1.25 mg/mL and MBC/MFC of 1.25~5.00 mg/mL against Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. And, the extract of Junci medulla, Rhus javanica L. and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge showed strong antibacterial activities with MIC of 0.08~0.63 mg/mL and MBC/MFC of 0.08~2.50 mg/mL against the tested bacteria except E. coli and P. aeruginosa. In a while, the results of hemolytic activity of 68 different herbal extracts against human red blood cells showed that the extract of Angelica tenuissima Nakai has hemolytic activity at 0.5 mg/mL concentration. Therefore, Illicium verum, Junci medulla, Rhus javanica L., Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Syzygium aromaticum were finally selected for natural antimicrobial resources. Further research on active substances and the mode of action of the selected herbal medicine is necessary.
Antibacterial Effects and Cellular Responses of Imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exposed to Green Tea Polyphenols
Song, You-Jin ; Cho, Yun-Seok ; Oh, Kye-Heon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 198~206
The aim of this work was to investigate the synergically bactericidal effects and cellular responses of tea polyphenols (TPP) and imipenem on imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Imipenem-resistant Ps. aeruginosa was isolated from patient in hospital. The bactericidal effects of TPP and imipenem were evaluated on the basis of its minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The combined use of TPP and imipenem resulted in 16-fold and 8-fold reductions in the MICs of imipenem for the imipenem-susceptible and imipenem-resistant Ps. aeruginosa, respectively. The bactericidal effects of the imipenem and TPP against the Ps. aeruginosa was evaluated using the time-kill assay. The synergetic effects of the combinations of TPP and imipenem against Ps. aeruginosa were confirmed. Western blot using anti-DnaK and anti-GroEL monoclonal antibodies was performed to investigate the expression of stress shock proteins (SSPs) in imipenem-susceptible and imipenem-resistant strains exposed to TPP. The amount of SSPs were induced as the exposure time increased and decreased. The molecular weights of DnaK and GroEL were 70 kDa and 60 kDa, respectively. SDS-PAGE with silver staining revealed that the amount of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) increased or decreased in the strain treated to different concentrations and exposing periods of TPP. Scanning electron microscopic analysis demonstrated the presence of umblicated and wrinkled surfaces for cells treated with TPP or imipenem.
Bacterial Diversity in the Initial Fermentation Stage of Korean and Chinese Kimchi
Lee, Myeong-Jae ; Cho, Kyeung-Hee ; Han, Eung-Soo ; Lee, Jong-Hoon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 207~215
The purpose of this research is to draw the bacterial community difference between Korean and Chinese kimchi for future use in the confirmation of kimchi origin. Initial fermentation stage kimchi samples (above pH 5) were used for the analysis of bacterial diversity. From 26 Korean kimchi samples, 1,017 strains in the 45 genera and from 22 Chinese kimchi samples, 842 strains in the 54 genera were isolated with use of marine medium, nutrient medium, succinate minimal medium (SMM), leuconostocs selective medium (LUSM) agars. In the order of isolated numbers, Bacillus, Weissella, Leuconostoc, Pseudomonas, and Lactobacillus genera and Bacillus, Weissella, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, and Enterobacter genera were predominated in Korean and Chines kimchi, respectively. Among the isolated lactic acid bacteria, Weissella spp. were isolated most dominantly owing to the biased growth of Weissella spp. on LUSM agar. Species in the genera Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus were the next frequently isolated LAB from Korean and Chinese kimchi, respectively. Weissella confusa was isolated only from Korean kimchi and W. soli and Serratia proteamculans were isolated only from Chinese kimchi. They have a possibility to be used as target bacteria to differentiate Korean kimchi from Chinese kimchi.
Application of Bacteria Isolated from Dok-do for Improving Compressive Strength and Crack Remediation of Cement-sand Mortar
Park, Sung-Jin ; Lee, Na-Young ; Kim, Wha-Jung ; Ghim, Sa-Youl ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 216~221
This study shows an application of microbiologically induced carbonate precipitate for strength improvement and crack remediation of cement-sand mortar. Seven calcium carbonate-forming bacteria (CFB) were isolated from Dok-do and partially identified by DNA sequence analysis of the 16s rRNA gene. Crystal aggregates were apparent around the bacterial colonies grown on an agar medium. These strains showed strain specific
precipitation on urea-
medium. Among 7 isolates, Arthrobacter nicotinovorans KNUC601, Microbacterium resistens KNUC602, Agrobacterium tumefaciens KNUC603, Exiguobacterium acetylicum KNUC604, and Bacillus thuringiensis KNUC606 showed a repairing of artificial forced cracks in cement-sand mortar. Compressive strength of cement-sand mortar consolidated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KNUC605 was increased around 14.07% compared with that of negative control.
Isolation and Identification of Lactobacillus plantarum CIB 001 with Bile Salt Deconjugation Activity from Kimchi
Cha, Sang-Do ; Kim, Tae-Woon ; Lee, Dong-Hee ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 2, 2010, Pages 222~226
This study was carried out to isolate and characterize the Lactobacillus plantarum with bile salt deconjugation activity that was isolated from Kimchi. Some isolates were selected and identified as L. plantarum by 16S rRNA gene sequence and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of whole cell protein patterns. They were assayed to determine their capacities to express bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. Among the identified strains, L. plantarum CIB 001 showed the highest level of BSH activity. Then, resistance to gastric acidity and bile condition were analyzed for further characterization. This strain was able to maintain viability for 1h at pH 2.0 and to survive in a MRS (deMan, Rogosa, and Sharpe) broth with 1.0% of bile acids. L. plantarum CIB 001 would potentially be useful in the food industry as probiotics.