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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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Streptomyces Cytochrome P450 and Electron Transport System
Sohng, Jae-Kyung ; Oh, Tae-Jin ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 227~234
Cytochrome P450 enzymes which require the supply of electrons from NAD(P)H have a great biotechnological impact as they catalyze valuable reactions on a vast variety of substrates. However, very limited biotechnological application has been reported so far due to their functional complexity, limited stability (instability) and, in most cases, low catalytic activity. In this present review, we introduce some possibilities for improving their defect by exploring electron transport system and substrate flexibility in field of Streptomyces cytochrome P450.
Strain Improvement Based on Ion Beam-Induced Mutagenesis
Jeong, Hae-Young ; Kim, Kye-Ryung ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 235~243
For decades, traditional mutation breeding technologies using spontaneous mutation, chemicals, or conventional radiation sources have contributed greatly to the improvement of crops and microorganisms of agricultural and industrial importance. However, new mutagens that can generate more diverse mutation spectra with minimal damage to the original organism are always in need. In this regard, ion beam irradiation, including proton-, helium-, and heavier-charged particle irradiation, is considered to be superior to traditional radiation mutagenesis. In particular, it has been suggested that ion beams predominantly produce strand breaks that often lead to mutations, which is not a situation frequently observed in mutagenesis induced by gamma-ray exposure. In this review, we briefly describe the general principles and history of particle accelerators, and then introduce their successful application in ion beam technology for the improvement of crops and microbes. In particular, a 100-MeV proton beam accelerator currently under construction by the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) is discussed. The PEFP accelerator will hopefully prompt the utilization of ion beam technology for strain improvement, as well as for use in nuclear physics, medical science, biology, space technology, radiation technology and basic sciences.
Current Status and Perspectives of Livestock Environment Improving Agents for the Characteristics and Control of Swine Manure Odor
Lee, Eun-Young ; Lim, Jung-Soo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 244~254
The trend toward intensification of livestock raising, confinement in barn has increased in recent days. The move toward concentrated animal feeding operations reduces per unit costs and permits farmers to better earnings in spite of fluctuation in hog prices. However, this also results in outbreaks of a lot of animal wastes and odorous compounds. Emissions of these malodorous compounds produced from concentrated animal feeding operations have become a concern for both public and regulatory agencies and are causing the complaints of residents in rural area. For competitive sustainable swine production industry, odor management plans systematically identify potential odor sources, determine control strategies to reduce these odors, and establish criteria for implementing these strategies. Since, the malodor originates from microbial activities involving a variety of microbes, understanding the characteristics of the microflora present in swine manure is essential for developing effective odor control techniques. This paper reviews the available information in the literature related to the types of bacteria in swine manure, the potential odorous compounds associated with different bacterial genera, and the corresponding techniques used to control odor based on microbiological principles.
Characterization of an Antimicrobial Substance-producing Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 2001
Yang, Uk-Hee ; Choi, Hye-Jung ; Ahn, Cheol-Soo ; Jeong, Yong-Kee ; Kim, Dong-Wan ; Joo, Woo-Hong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 255~262
Strain BCNU 2001 was isolated from soil samples collected from Tea-baek Mountain area. The biochemical characteristics and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of the isolate revealed that the strain belonged to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The supernatants had an antimicrobial effect on various kind of bacteria and fungi. Especially BCNU 2001 was able to greatly inhibit the growth of Micrococcus luteus, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Aspergillus niger, and its inhibition zone was measured as 18.5 mm against Micrococcus luteus, 19.0mm against Proteus mirabilis, 17.0mm against Proteus vulgaris, and 13.5 mm against Aspergillus niger, respectively. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts of BCNU 2001 exhibited significant activity against bacteria, and dichloromethane and ethylacetate extracts showed significant activity against fungi. Pseudomonas strain BCNU 2001 was also determined to have antimicrobial peptide against various microorganisms including Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and fungi. The obtained results may provide preliminary support for the usefulness of Pseudomonas strain BCNU 2001.
Bacterial Diversity and Distribution of Cultivable Bacteria Isolated from Dokdo Island
Sung, Hye-Ri ; Ghim, Sa-Youl ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 263~272
One hundred sixty three strains showing different colony morphological characteristics on different concentration of marine agar (MA) plates were isolated from ambient seawater near Dokdo island. Bacterial diversity and distributions were studied by phylogenetic analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. One hundred sixty three strains were partially sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. They were composed of 5 phyla, of which gamma-proteobacteria (58%), alpha-proteobacteria (20%), bacteriodetes (16%) were predominant. They were affiliated with 90 species. The 16S rRNA sequence similarity of the isolates was in 93.3 to 100 % range to reported sequence data. Thirty six isolates of among them were assumed to be novel species candidates based on similarity analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Overall, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes of the Dokdo coastal sea water showed a high diversity.
Enhanced Prodiginines Production in Streptomyces coelicolor M511 by Stress of Acidic pH Shock
Mo, Sang-Joon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 273~277
Undecylprodiginine and streptorubin B are red-pigmented antibiotics produced by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). In this study, we investigated the correlation between productivity of these red-pigmented antibiotics and stress of pH shock. Biosynthesis of these red-pigmented antibiotics is enhanced at acidic pH shock on solid R2YE medium. The optimal pH shock is pH 4 which led to 1.6 fold and two-fold increase in the production of undecylprodiginine and streptorubin B as compared with control, respectively. In addition, the extract of pH 4 shocked cells exhibited a remarkable activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. However, neutral and basic pH shock did not give raise to promote a production of these red-pigmented antibiotics as well as antifungal activity. Thus, although the acidic pH shock is simple and easy method, it should be extremely effective approach to enhance a productivity of these red-pigmented antibiotics and other secondary metabolites.
Antibacterial Activity and Component Analysis of Persicaria perfoliata Extracts
Kim, Sun-Young ; Won, Doo-Hyun ; Park, Soo-Nam ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 278~282
In this study, the antibacterial activity and component analysis of Persicaria perfoliata extracts were investigated. MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) values of ethyl acetate fraction from P. perfoliata on Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium acnes, and Staphylococcus aureus were 0.25%, equally. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was the highest in the S. aureus and P. acnes. Ethyl acetate fraction from P. perfoliata extracts showed 5 bands in TLC and 8 peaks in HPLC (320nm). In HPLC chromatogram of ethyl acetate fraction, first main peak 2 (24.99%) and peak 3 (22.65%) were identified as quercetin-3-o-glucuronide and isoquercitrin in the order of elution time. Also, in HPLC chromatogram of deglycosylated fraction, main peak 2 (76.93%) was identified as quercetin in the order of elution time. And these components are very effective as antioxidants. Thus, these results indicate that extract/fractions of P. perfoliata can be applicable to new functional cosmetics for antioxidant, antibacterial activity.
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Discorea alata L.
Kwon, Jeong-Eun ; Kwon, Jung-Bae ; Kwun, In-Sook ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 283~288
Yam (Dioscorea spp.) has been used as important edible and medicinal natural resource in worldwide and D. alata L. is most popular nourishment among the yam. In this study the composition, color, antioxidation and antimicrobial activity of D. alata Gyeongbuk No. 6 (GB-6), which was established in Gyeongbuk Agricultural Research & Extension Services, Andong, Korea, was compared to those of D. batatas Gyeongbuk No. 1 (GB-1), a major domestic cultivation species. Water content of GB-6 was
, which is slightly lower than that of GB-1 (
). The contents of crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber and ash of GB-6 were 0.95, 0.26, 0.85 and 0.70%, whereas those of GB-1 were 1.58, 0.15, 1.39 and 0.88%, respectively. Analysis of color using colormeter showed that the GB-6 is slight dark-yellow than GB-1, and total polyphenol content of GB-6 was 2-fold higher compared than that of GB-1. Sequential organic solvent fractions from methanol extract of GB-6 showed that the ethylacetate fraction has highest total polyphenol (
). Determination of antioxidation activity showed that the ethylacete fraction and water fraction has strong DPPH radical scavenging activity (
) and reducing power, respectively. In antimicrobial activity assay, the n-hexane and ethylacetate fraction showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, L.monocytogenes, S. epidermidis, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, and S. typhimurium. These results provide the possibility of domestic cultivated D. alata GB-6 as a healthy food.
Synergistic Effect of Methanol Extract of Salvia Miltiorrhiza and Antibiotics against Dental Caries Pathogens
Jang, Keoun-Ae ; Kim, Hye-Young ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 289~294
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (S. miltiorrhiza) is a traditional Korean medicine that is commonly used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as edema, arthritis, and hepatitis. The present study investigated the antimicrobial activity of methanol (MeOH) extract of S. miltiorrhiza roots against oral bacteria using broth the microdilution method and the checkerboard and time-kill methods evaluated the synergistic effects of treatment with antibiotics. The MeOH extract was demonstrated as a higher antibacterial activity (MICs, 8 to
; MBCs, 16 to
) against all tested oral bacteria. Additionally, the extract was observed to have a synergistic effect with ampicillin or gentamicin. A time-kill study evaluating the effects of the extract indicated that the extract treatment in combination with ampicillin or gentamicin showed rapid bactericidal activity. The results suggest that MeOH extract of S. miltiorrhiza could be employed as a natural antibacterial agent against dental caries.
Selection and Mechanisms of Indigenous Antagonistic Microorganisms against Sheath Rot and Dry Rot Disease of Garlic
Jeong, Hee-Young ; Lim, Jong-Hui ; Kim, Byung-Keuk ; Lee, Jung-Jong ; Kim, Sang-Dal ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 295~301
Sheath rot and dry rot disease caused by Pseudomonas marginalis and Fusarium oxysporum were serious problems in garlic farmland. In this study, total of 160 indigenous antagonistic bacteria were isolated from 16 farmlands in Yeongcheon, Korea. Among these, 15 strains were able to inhibited P. marginalis and F. oxysporum. The 16s rDNA genes of the selected 15 strains were amplified and sequenced. The strains has strong antagonistic ability against garlic pathogens was achieved Bacillus subtilis YC82, B. vallismortis YC84, B. amyloliquefaciens YC240. The selected 3 strains tested for investigation of antifungal mechanisms further analyses; 3 strains of these validated for production of siderophore,
-glucanase and chitinase using CAS (chrome azurol S) blue agar, CMC-congo red agar and DNS method. The 3 strains were able to utilized insoluble phosphate as dertermined by vanado-molybdate method. The 3 strains verified for production of auxin and gibberellic acid using Salkowski test and holdbrook test. Also, 3 strains showed stimulation germination, stem growth promoting activity on the in vivo test. The 3 strains were able to effectively suppress P. marginalis and F. oxysporum causing sheath rot and dry rot diseases on the in vivo pot test.
Characterization of a Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Mycobacterium hominis sp. AKC-10 Isolated from the Wetland
Hong, Sun-Hwa ; Shin, Ki-Chul ; Lee, Eun-Young ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 302~307
Nitrogen is an element need to grow plants growth. Plants take up nitrogen in the form of nitrate or ammonium. Most of plants absorb nitrogen source as fertilizers. But from 50 to 70% of fertilizers applied were washed away. This study was conducted to isolate free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria from reed and to examine its beneficial traits for developing sustainable biofertilizers. Enriched consortium obtained from a reed in Ansan was developed for the fixing of nitrogen. Nitrogen fixing bacteria isolated from an enriched culture in Congo Red Medium was analyzed by 16s rDNA sequencing. AKC-10 was isolated and shown to have excellent nitrogen fixing ability. The optimum conditions of nitrogen fixing ability were
and pH 7 (
nmole/hr mg-protein). It was identified as Microbacterium hominis [(AKC-10 (similarity : 99%)]. This strain was had to IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) productivity and ACC(1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) deaminase activity. Therefore, Microbacterium hominis AKC-10 stimulated plant development in the soil, enhancing the efficiency of remediation.
Emission Characterization of Ammonia Produced from Swine Nightsoil
Lee, Eun-Young ; Lee, So-Jin ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 308~314
This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics and concentrations of ammonia produced from the livestock swine nightsoil treated with or without the livestock - environment improving agents. Odor generating device made of acryl was made by volume of 96 L to sample the ammonia odor. When swine night soil was placed in the device, concentration of ammonia averaged out at about 23.4 ppmv and ranged from 16 ppmv to 40 ppmv. Removal efficiencies of them showed 50% to 90% as compared to initial level before spraying, when the spray type agents were used immediately after they purchased. The persistence of the efficiency was retained for first two days. Among the agents, the natural deodorant showed the best efficiency of 87 to 99%. To evaluate the effects of 5 kinds of dietary probiotic powders, the experiments were conducted and based dietary treatments without antibiotics on growing piglets. In experiments, 60 piglets (
) were subjected to a 35-day feeding trial in which the effects of the dietary probiotic powder on the ammonia emission were compared. The ammonia gas emission was measured for every week. Ammonia emission from the swine nightsoil obtained from piglets supplemented with the probiotics power was lower than that of the nightsoil obtained from pigs in the control treatment (without probiotics). In ammonia removal efficiencies of the experimental groups, some products showed from 71% to 99% removal efficiencies throughout the entire period as compared to the control group. On the other hand, initial reduction of ammonia in some product was effective temporarily. After then, it did not show any reduction efficiency of ammonia.
Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils against Malassezia furfur
Lee, Jeong-Hyun ; Lee, Jae-Sug ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 315~321
Malassezia furfur is an important causal factor for seborrheic dermatitis. Nowadays, the drugs available to treat this fungal infection are few. Several studies have documented the biological activity of essential oils. However, its antifungal properties are not completely understood, especially its anti-Malassezia activity. The aim of this study were to evaluate the effect of the plant essential oils on the growth of M. furfur using disk diffusion method and analyze by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) most active essential oils. In first screening, the 17 plant essential oils have possesses inhibitory activity against M. furfur at 2 mg/mL. Among the plant essential oils, oil of Citrus auranifoli was most active against M. furfur and its activity showed dose dependency. This anti-malassezial activity was high than that of itraconazole at 2 mg/mL. Oil of Citrus auranifolia also was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as limonene,
-terpinene and terpinolene. It can be concluded that essential oils of Citrus auranifolia may have interesting applications to control fungal-derived diseases.
Analysis of Bacterial Diversity in Fermented Skate Using Culture-dependent and Culture-independent Approaches
Lee, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Tae-Hyung ; Kim, Ha-Kun ; Lee, Jung-Kee ; Kwak, Hahn-Shik ; Lee, Jong-Soo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 322~328
Fermented skate is a traditional Korean food popular in Southwestern area of Korea. It has a characteristic flavor and alkaline pH. In this study we tried to determine the microbial flora in fermented skate using two different approaches. In culture-independent method, we amplified V2 region of 16S rRNA gene by PCR and cloned them into pUC18 plasmid to construct 16S rDNA fragment library. BLAST searches for the sequences obtained from this library revealed that uncultured bacterium clone 054E11.b was the most dominant flora in this fermented fish. In culture-dependent method, we diluted suspension of skate and spreaded on MRS, PCA, and MacConkey plates. We identified colonies grown on those plates by using PCR amplification of V2 region of 16S rRNA and DNA sequencing. BLAST searches of those DNA sequences resulted in totally different species with the observations from the 16S rDNA library analysis. Discrepancies of results obtained from both approaches suggest that the agar plates used in culture-dependent method may be different from the real condition of fermented skate. Therefore, results from culture-independent approach using 16S rDNA fragment library analysis may reflect real microbial flora in fermented skate.
Rhizoremediation of Petroleum and Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil using Rhizobacteria and Zea mays
Hong, Sun-Hwa ; Koo, So-Yeon ; Kim, Sung-Hyun ; Ryu, Hee-Wook ; Lee, In-Sook ; Cho, Kyung-Suk ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 329~334
In this study, the rhizoremediation of petroleum and heavy metal-contaminated soil was characterized employing Zea mays and two plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria, Gordonia sp. S2RP-17 and Serratia sp. SY5 which have petroleum-degrading activity and heavy metal-resistance, respectively. After 51 days, the average dry weights of Zea mays' root without and with the inoculation of rhizobacteria were
, respectively. Compared with initial TPH concentration in soil (
), the residual TPH concentrations were
in soil planted with Zea mays, and
in soil planted with Zea mays and inoculated with rhizobacteria. These results indicated that the inoculation of S2RP-17 and SY5 could promote TPH removability in soil as well as the growth of Zea mays' root. There was little positive effect of the rhizobacteria inoculation on the removability of heavy metal such as Cu, Cd and Pb in soil planted with Zea mays.
Isolation and Characterization of a Diesel-Degrading Bacterium, Gordonia sp. SD8
Hong, Sun-Hwa ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Cho, Kyung-Suk ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 38, issue 3, 2010, Pages 335~339
A diesel-degrading bacterium, Gordonia sp. SD8, was isolated from soil contaminated with petroleum, and its diesel degradation was characterized in a soil as well as a liquid culture system. SD8 could grow in the mineral salt medium supplemented with diesel as a sole carbon and energy source. The maximum specific growth rate (
) and diesel degradation rate (
) of SD8 showed at 20,000 mg-TPH
, and then this bacterium could degrade high strength of diesel of 40,000 mg-TPH
. The residual diesel concentration in the inoculated soil with SD8 was 3,724 mg-TPH kg-dry
after 17 days, whereas the diesel concentration in the non-inoculated soil was
. These results indicate that Gordonia sp. SD8 can serve as a promising microbial resource for the bioremediaion of contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons including diesel.