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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Identification of a Cellulase Producing Marine Bacillus sp. GC-1 and GC-4 Isolated from Coastal Seawater of Jeju Island
Chi, Won-Jae ; Park, Da-Yeon ; Temuujin, Uyangaa ; Lee, Jong-Yeol ; Chang, Yong-Keun ; Hong, Soon-Kwang ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 2, 2011, Pages 97~103
Two Gram positive bacterial strains, designated strain GC-1 and GC-4, were isolated from coastal seawater near Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea. The two strains were identified as members of the genus Bacillus, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and data for physiological characteristics analyses. A subtle difference in physiological and genotypical characteristics has led us to designate the strains GC-1 and GC-4. The strain GC-1 showed a 99.91% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequencing with B. tequiliensis and B. subtilis subsp. inaquosorum and the strain GC-4 showed a 100% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequencing with those of B. altitudinis, B. stratosphericus, and B. aerophilus. However, both strains exhibited different physiological and genotypical characteristics in many aspects from those of their phylogenetically closest neighbors listed above, which implies that genus Bacillus has diversified into various species during its evolutionary process.
Gene Transfer Optimization via E. coli-driven Conjugation in Nocardiopsis Strain Isolated via Genome Screening
Jeon, Ho-Geun ; Lee, Mi-Jin ; Kim, Hyun-Bum ; Han, Kyu-Boem ; Kim, Eung-Soo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 2, 2011, Pages 104~110
Actinomycetes, Gram positive soil bacteria, are valuable microorganisms which produce useful secondary metabolites including antibiotics, antiparasitic substances, anti-cancer drugs, and immunosuppressants. Although a major family of actinomycetes, known as streptomycetes, has been intensively investigated at the molecular level for several decades, a potentially valuable and only recently isolated non-streptomycetes rare actinomycetes (NSRA) family has been poorly characterized due to lack of proper genetic manipulation systems. Here we report that a PCR-based genome screening strategy was performed with approximately 180 independently isolated actinomycetes strains to isolate potentially valuable NSRA strains. Thanks to this simple PCR-based genome screening strategy we were able to identify only seven NSRA strains, followed by 16S rRNA sequencing for confirmation. Through further bioassays, one potentially valuable NSRA strain (tentatively named Nocardiopsis species MMBL010) was identified which possessed both antifungal and antibacterial activities, along with the presence of polyketide synthase and non-ribosomal peptide synthase genes. Moreover, Nocardiopsis species MMBL010, which was intrinsically recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, was successfully transformed via E. coli-driven conjugation. These results suggest that PCR-based genome screening, followed by the establishment of an E. coli-driven conjugation system, is an efficient strategy to maximize potentially valuable compounds and their biosynthetic genes from NSRA strains isolated from various environments.
The Use of Aureobasidin A Resistant Gene as the Dominant Selectable Marker for the Selection of Industrial Yeast Hybrid
Jeon, Han-Taek ; Park, Uhn-Mee ; Kim, Keun ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 2, 2011, Pages 111~118
For the strain improvement of the industrial polyploid yeast strain through hybridization and protoplast fusion, a dominant selection marker other than a recessive marker such as the auxotrophic marker was required for the selection of the resulting hybrids. In the present investigation, the aureobasidin A resistant gene was tested in relation to whether it can be used as the dominant selectable marker for the isolation of hybrids of the yeast Saccharomyces. The plasmid pAUR112, carrying the gene responsible for resistance to aureobasidin A, was introduced into the haploid yeast strain K114/YIp. From the rare-mating between polyploid C6 and haploid K114/YIp carrying pAUR112, many hybrids were obtained from the agar medium containing 0.5
/ml of aureobasidin A. The hybrids exhibited characteristics derived from both of the parental strains; and the cell sizes of the hybrids were larger than those of the parental strains. These results showed that the aureobasidin A resistant gene could be successfully used as the dominant selectable marker for the isolation of yeast hybrids resulting from rare-mating.
Isolation and Identification of Three Pseudomonas koreensis Strains with Anti-microbial Activities Producing Inducers of the Expression of Egr-1 Gene
Yoon, Sang-Hong ; Kim, Dong-Gwan ; Lee, Young-Han ; Shin, Soon-Young ; Kwon, Soon-Woo ; Lee, Chang-Muk ; Kang, Han-Chul ; Koo, Bon-Sung ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 2, 2011, Pages 119~125
The Egr-1 gene is known to be a transcription factor for activating the expression of many tumor-repressing genes. In this study, three strains activating the promoter of the Egr-1 gene were selected, through the use of Egr-1 luciferase reporter assay and western blotting, from amongst approximately 3,800 oligotrophic bacteria isolated from the cultivated soils of various regions within Korea. These strains were identified as Pseudomonas koreensis on the basis of phylogenetic tree analysis of their 16S ribosomal DNA sequences and biochemical characteristics analyses using a variety of commercial kits (API 20NE, ID 32GN, API ZYM kits). In addition, we discovered that these strains produced anti-bacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes.
Effects of Vitis coignetiae on the Quality and Antihypertension of Vitis hybrid Red Wine
Jang, Jeong-Hoon ; Yi, Sung-Hun ; Kim, Jae-Ho ; Lee, Dae-Hyoung ; Lee, Jong-Soo ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 2, 2011, Pages 126~132
The goal of this study was to develop a high value Korean red wine possessing antihypertension activity. The effects of some medicinal plants and grapes on the alcohol fermentation process and the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of Vitis hybrid red wine were investigated. Various Vitis hybrid red wines were vinified by the fermentation of a mixture of Vitis hybrid must and some medicinal plants and grapes at
for 10 days. Of these red wines, the Vitis hybrid-Vitis coignetiae red wine exhibited a high ethanol content of 12.0% and had a good level of acceptability. It also showed a high antihypertensive ACE inhibitory activity of 68.5%. After post-fermentation of 60 days, the ACE inhibitory activities of the Vitis hybrid-Vitis coignetiae red wine exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity of 80.7% (
: 28 mg/mL) and also had the best acceptability. The
solid phase extracts of the Vitis hybrid-Vitis coignetiae red wine, after 60 days post-fermentation, showed clear antihypertensive effects on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Our results reveal that the Vitis hybrid-Vitis coignetiae red wine has the potential to become a new functional red wine due to its good acceptability and high antihypertensive activity.
Distribution and Identification of Halophilic Bacteria in Solar Salts Produced during Entire Manufacturing Process
Na, Jong-Min ; Kang, Min-Seung ; Kim, Jin-Hyo ; Jin, Yong-Xie ; Je, Jeong-Hwan ; Kim, Jung-Bong ; Cho, Young-Sook ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Kim, So-Young ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 2, 2011, Pages 133~139
In this study, we determined the changes in microbial numbers in solar salts according to the manufacturing process and storage duration. The salt samples were harvested from salt farms in Shinan (area 2) and Yeonggwang (area 1). They were serially diluted ten-fold and then placed on 4 kinds of cultivable media (mannitol salt agar, eosin methylene blue, plate count agar, and trypticase soy agar). After incubation, we obtained 62 halophilic isolates from the salt samples. Coliform and general bacteria were not detected in all salt samples. By 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, we found 12 kinds of halophilic bacteria belonging to the genera Halobacillus, Halomonas, Bacillus, Idiomarina, Marinobacter, Pseudoalteromonas, Vibrio, Salinivibrio, Virgibacillus, Alteromonas, Staphylococcus and some un-known stains. In our study, we discovered two novel species that have a 16S rDNA sequence similarity below 97%.
The N-terminal Region of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Spike Protein is Important for the Receptor Binding
Lee, Dong-Kyu ; Cha, Se-Yeoun ; Lee, Chang-Hee ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 2, 2011, Pages 140~145
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection causes acute enteritis with lethal watery diarrhea resulting in a high mortality rate in piglets. As with the other members of group 1 coronaviruses, PEDV also utilizes the host aminopeptidase N (APN) as the major cellular receptor for entry into target cells. The coronavirus spike (S) protein is known to interact with the cellular surface for viral attachment and the S1 domain of all characterized coronaviruses contains a receptor-binding domain (RBD) that mediates a specific high-affinity interaction with their respective cellular receptors. Although the RBDs of several coronaviruses have been mapped, the location of the PEDV RBD has to date not been defined. As a first step toward the identification of the region of the S protein of the PEDV that is critical for recognition with the cellular receptor, we generated a series of S1-truncated variants and examined their abilities to bind to the porcine APN (pAPN) receptor. Our data indicate that the N-terminus of the S1 domain is required for pAPN association. The results from the present study may assist in our understanding of the molecular interactions between the PEDV S protein and the pAPN receptor.
Evaluation of Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Antithrombin Activity of Domestic Fruit and Vegetable Juice
Lee, Man-Hyo ; Kim, Mi-Sun ; Shin, Hwa-Gyun ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 2, 2011, Pages 146~152
In the course of a study in relation to the production of taste, and functional enhancements in root crop chips, which were prepared by soaking dried yam slices in fruit juices, we investigated the physiological characteristics and biological activities of 8 different commercially available juices including; apple, omija (fruit of Maximowiczia typica), grape, wild grape, orange, tomato, red ginseng and black garlic juice. The average water contents, pH, brix and acidity of the juices used were
, respectively. The polyphenol content of black garlic and grape juice were 1.50 and 1.21 mg/ml, respectively, and those were higher than the average content (0.57 mg/mL) of the juices. Evaluation of anticoagulation activity showed that only omija juice has a strong thrombin inhibition, which is comparable to that of aspirin (1.5 mg/mL). Omija, grape and orange juice all exhibited antibacterial activity, but no antifungal activity. The 8 different juices, and in particular grape and black garlic juice, showed strong antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays, with wild grape juice demonstrating potent nitrite scavenging activity. These results suggest that omija, grape and black garlic juice can be used as soaking solutions to produce taste, and other functional enhancements, for root crop chips.
Evaluation of Biological Activity and Characterization of Taste and Function-Enhanced Yam Chips
Lee, Man-Hyo ; Kim, Mi-Sun ; Lee, Lyun-Gyeong ; Shin, Hwa-Gyun ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 2, 2011, Pages 153~160
In this study, we have developed taste and other functional enhancements of yam chips, from tasteless and flavorless yam slices, through the process of soaking freeze-dried yam in different commercially available juices, including apple, omija (fruit of Maximowiczia typica), grape, wild grape, orange, tomato, red ginseng, and black garlic juice. The analyses of color (brightness, redness and yellowness), pH, brix, acidity, total polyphenol, total flavonoids, total sugar and reducing sugar, DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity, reducing power and nitrite scavenging activity, of the different yam chips showed that the freeze-dried yam slices absorb various components of fruit juices, such as flavonoids, sugars, organic acids and flavors, during the soaking process. These changes resulted in increased taste (both sweet and sour tastes), flavor and antioxidant activity in the yam chips. The soaking time for yam slices in juice is considered to be a crucial factor for the taste and bioactivity of yam chips. In the case of grape juice-yam chips, which had the highest preference among the 8 different chips, the optimum soaking time was noted as 120 seconds. The optimization of the soaking process is necessary for various juices. These results suggest that taste, and other functional enhancements, in yam chips can be developed by juice-soaking and freeze-drying methods.
In-situ Bioremediation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons-Contaminated Soil by Pseudomonas Species
Kim, Jee-Young ; Lee, Sang-Seob ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 2, 2011, Pages 161~167
We previously showed that five strains belonging to Pseudomonas could remove TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) efficiently when they are applied to TPH-contaminated soil. We optimized the bioremediation condition using different hydrocarbons and nutrients conditions to improve the efficiency. We setup lab-scale column bioreactor to monitor TPH and diesel removal efficiency. When we applied five Pseudomonas sp. mixtures to 25,000
TPH-contaminated soil (diesel 10,000
, kerosene 10,000
, gasoline 5,000
) with the optimum condition, 76.3% of TPH removal efficiency was shown for 25 days. Meanwhile, in the application of five Pseudomonas sp. mixtures to 20,000
diesel-contaminated soil with the optimum condition, 99.2% of diesel removal efficiency was shown for 40 days. In the application to lab-scale bioreactor with five high efficiency bacteria, 88.5% of TPH removal efficiency was shown for 45 days. Based on the results from this study, we confirmed that this mixed Pseudomonas sp. consortium might improve the bioremediation of TPH in contaminated soil, the efficacy can be controlled by improving the nutrients. We also confirmed that the nutrients and oxygen for biodegradation of TPH could contribute on the management and control of applications of these strains for the study of bioremediation of TPH-contaminated soil.
Antifungal Activity of Methylene Chloride Fraction of Pimpinella brachycarpa Against Aspergillus niger
Ahn, Seon-Mi ; Choi, Tae-Ho ; Kwun, In-Sook ; Sohn, Ho-Yong ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 2, 2011, Pages 168~174
In order to develop safe and economic novel antifungal agents, we prepared 73 methanol extracts from medicinal and edible herbs and examined their 365 solvent fractions using n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethylacetate, butanol and water residue based on the sequential organic solvent fraction method. When using the various fractions in the screening step for antifungal activity, we discovered ethylacetate fraction of Morus alba L., methylene chloride fraction of Pimpinella brachycarpa (MCPB), and n-hexane fraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which all have activities in methanol extracts, as potential sources of antifungal agents. Amongst these, the antifungal activity of P. brachycarpa has not to date been reported on. In addition, the mycelial growth inhibition and spore germination inhibition activities of MCPB against A. niger were confirmed by disc-diffusion assay in a 10 day culture. The MIC and MFC of MCPB were determined as 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively. The MCPB has no hemolytic activity against human RBC at 0.5 mg/ml and glycoside-flavonoids are theorized to be active constituents. These results suggest that MCPB has a prominent antifungal activity and that the application of sequential organic solvent fractions, instead of simple natural product extracts, is useful in the screening process of novel bioactive substances.
Isolation of Leuconostoc and Weissella Species Inhibiting the Growth of Lactobacillus sakei from Kimchi
Lee, Kwang-Hee ; Lee, Jong-Hoon ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 2, 2011, Pages 175~181
Kimchi is a group of traditional fermented vegetable foods in Korea and known to be the product of a natural mixed-fermentation process carried out principally by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). According to microbial results based on conventional identification, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum were considered to be responsible for the good taste and over-ripening of kimchi, respectively. However, with the application of phylogenetic identification, based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene similarities, a variety of Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus species not detected in the previous studies have been isolated, together with a species in the genus Weissella. Additionally, Lactobacillus sakei has been accepted as the most populous LAB in over-ripened kimchi. In this study, Leuconostoc and Weissella species inhibiting the growth of Lb. sakei were isolated from kimchi for future applications to do with kimchi fermentation. From 25 kimchi samples, 378 strains in the genera Leuconostoc and Weissella were isolated and 68 strains identified as Lc. mesenteroides, Lc. citreum, Lc. lactis, W. cibaria, W. confusa, and W. paramesenteroides exhibited growth inhibition against Lb. sakei. Most of the strains also had antagonistic activities against Lb. brevis, Lb. curvatus, Lb. paraplantarum, Lb. pentosus, and Lb. plantarum. Their antagonistic activities against Lb. sakei were more remarkable at lower temperatures of incubation.
Characterization of Growth Inhibition and Isolation of a Copper-Resistant Rhizobacterium, Alcaligenes sp. KC-1
Hong, Sun-Hwa ; Shin, Ki-Chul ; Lee, Eun-Young ;
Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, volume 39, issue 2, 2011, Pages 182~187
In this study, A bacterium with an ability to resist toxic heavy metals was isolated from reeds in wetland. The isolated strain was identified to Alcaligenes sp. KC-1 by 16S rDNA sequencing. Heavy metals such as Pb,
, Cd, Zn and Cu were supplied to media. The ecotoxic treat of the heavy metals on the growth of strain KC-1 was performed when the isolated strain Alcaligenes sp. KC-1 cultured with Cu ranging from 0 mM to 20 mM. It showed the resistance of
(7.34 mM) and cell growth (
: 0.83 after 42 hours) when it was cultured in Cu.